Steps to Scientific Method Observe / Ask Question Research – Experts – Reliable print sources (Journals,.gov /.edu websites, reference books) - Why are blogs, social media,.com, and.org sites not often great sites to use? Are there times when they are good sources?
Steps Continued Hypothesis – based on research and prior knowledge; not developed randomly Experimental Design – Independent Variable Experimenter changes (manipulates) X – axis Only one can be tested – Dependent Variable Result; what is trying to be discovered Y – axis measurable – Control Group “normal” condition Comparison group – Constant – things that are kept the same to increase accuracy and precision – DRYMIX
SideBar – Accuracy and Precision Accuracy – Closest to a known value – “the correct” measurement – Poor accuracy, but good precision is often due to equipment irregularities – Equipment needs to be calibrated for accuracy Precision – The closeness of two objects to each other – Repeatability – Good data is accurate and precise
Back to Steps Develop Experiment – Materials – Procedure – Time Collect Data ( Qualitative and Quantitative) Analyze Data (Charts, Graphs, Descriptions) Draw Conclusion – Must be corresponded to hypothesis – Recognizes possible errors – Suggests ways to improve experiment – Relate to prior knowledge / research Repeat Experiment
Example of Contants & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one. Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself.
Answers Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Group Constants