Presentation on theme: "Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Genetic Testing Susan W. Caro, RNC, MSN, APNG Director, Family Cancer Risk Service Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center."— Presentation transcript:
Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Genetic Testing Susan W. Caro, RNC, MSN, APNG Director, Family Cancer Risk Service Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center
Objectives: 1. Appreciate the complex and emerging information about the impact of genetics on breast cancer risk. 2. Identify resources available for assessing genetic risk. 3. Articulate when risk counseling and assessment is recommended. 4. Know the TN resources for genetic risk assessment.
In 1990, the National Institutes of Health and the Dept. of Energy launched the Human Genome Project, an international effort to map, sequence, and characterize the human genome. Working draft completed in June 2000, published in Science and Nature in February 2001.
Why? Hereditary cancer syndromes are being more clearly defined with increasingly clear recommendations for management. Clinical genetics tests for hereditary cancer syndromes are available and in some markets are being marketed directly to the consumer. Recognizing hereditary cancer syndromes provides the opportunity to identify those at significantly increased risk and offer options to identify cancers earlier or prevent cancer in these individuals. Potential for medico-legal implications of not recognizing hereditary cancer syndromes. Lynch HT, Paulson JD, Severen M, et al. Failure to Diagnose Hereditary Colorectal Cancer and Its Medicolegal Implications. Dis. Colon Rectum January 1999;42:31-35.
Hereditary Cancer Burden in Tennessee? Breast Cancer 3,720 new diagnoses 920 deaths Colorectal Cancer 3,290 new diagnoses 1130 deaths If ~10% hereditary cancer – 372 new cases of hereditary breast cancer (392 CRC) this year. Could some of these have been foreseen, even prevented? *Excludes carcinoma in situ (CIS, non-invasive cancer) of any site except urinary bladder. Does not include basal and squamous cell skin cancers (of which there are 1.3 million per year). American Cancer Society, 2008
Prevention (medical) In medicine, prevention is any activity which reduces the burden of mortality or morbidity from disease. This takes place at primary, secondary and tertiary prevention levels. Primary prevention avoids the development of a disease. Most population-based health promotion activities are primary preventive measures. Secondary prevention activities are aimed at early disease detection, thereby increasing opportunities for interventions to prevent progression of the disease and emergence of symptoms. Tertiary prevention reduces the negative impact of an already established disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications. Wikipedia
All cancer is genetic, not all cancer is hereditary.
Breast Cancer Genes Found BRCA1 (for BReast CAncer gene 1) was described in 1990 on chromosome 17, isolated in 1994 BRCA2 was isolated on chromosome 13 in late 1994 BRCA3?
American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines for Genetic Testing Personal or family history features suggestive of hereditary cancer risk Test can be adequately interpreted Test result will aid in diagnosis or influence medical management of the patient and/or family J Clin Oncol 2003;21:
Cancer Syndromes Hereditary Breast Cancer Syndromes –BRCA1, BRCA2, Cowden, CHEK2, Li-Fraumeni Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Syndromes –HNPCC –FAP Endocrine Syndromes – VHL, MEN1, MEN2, FMTC Other – Li Fraumeni, Peutz-Jeghers DNA Banking
Ask – out loud Ask the question: Do you have a family history of cancer? Clarify - maternal AND paternal family history Ask the question again more specifically: Does anyone in your family have a history of breast, ovarian, colon cancer, colon polyps, or other cancers? Ask the question again at follow up visits, as family histories change over time. FCRS
Listen when your patients voice a concern: In many health care encounters today, we are focused on the problem at hand and it is difficult to go beyond this. Not suggesting that every health care provider have an expert knowledge of the complex issues surrounding all of the hereditary cancer syndromes - rather that continual exposure to this information will prompt recognition and referral for more thorough evaluation of the family. A significant number of our patients seek consultation independently. Their health care providers do not always recognize the significance of family history.
Refer Refer for comprehensive risk assessment and consideration of genetic testing. Genetic testing is only one aspect of this. There is a great deal to be learned from gathering and documenting the family history and the educational component of the counseling process. Many patients are concerned as a result of things they have read or been told about insurance discrimination. This is addressed in the counseling session (before any decision for genetic testing is made).
Family Cancer Risk Consultation Should include: Education about cancer risk in families Cancer/genetic risk assessment Discussion of possible risks and benefits of genetic testing Psychological support, guidance about medical options, and referral for medical or surgical means of early detection or prevention of cancer Offit, 1998, p. 3
Comprehensive Risk Assessment / Consultation Assess patient s view of their risk, experience with cancer in the family Review what is known and not known about cancer risk Medical history, current surveillance activity Review family history and draw pedigree Document cancers in history (medical record and pathology review) Provide risk assessment - Risks associated with hereditary cancer syndromes under consideration, risks if no recognizable syndrome Education - Cancers, risks factors, surveillance, basic genetics, cancer genetics Testing? Benefits, limitations, risks, costs, insurance, process Recommendations for surveillance or possible preventive measures, discuss implications to others in family. Interpretation of test results, including psychological, social, and family implications of test results
Management Options / Counseling Review options for increased screening or measures to decrease risk Discuss efficacy (or lack of efficacy/ or lack of data to support efficacy) of surveillance, prophylactic / risk reducing, or chemopreventive measures Increasing understanding of utility and consequences of surveillance and intervention options – a moving target.
ASCO How Much Breast and Ovarian Cancer Is Hereditary? Sporadic Family clusters Hereditary Ovarian Cancer Breast Cancer 5%–10%5%–10% 15%20%
Breast and ovarian cancers Breast Cancer Families Breast and Ovarian Cancer Families King, Rowell, Love, 1993; Ford, Easton, Stratton, et al, 1998 Contribution of BRCA1/2 to hereditary breast /ovarian cancer families:
BRCA Mutations and Ashkenazi Jews 185delAG mutation noted in 1% of 850 samples of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals unselected for family history of cancer (studied stored samples from Tay-Sachs research) Carrier rate 3 X that expected in general population May account for 16% of breast and 39% of ovarian cancer in AJ women <50 2 other founder mutations
Male Breast Cancer and BRCA2 Studies of BRCA2 in population- and clinic-based series of male breast cancer patients from the United States and Europe have found carrier frequencies of BRCA2 mutations of 4% - 40% The percentage of male breast cancer cases that are associated with a BRCA2 mutation varies depending on the population. Figures from various studies (some small): 4% in U.S.; 21% in Sweden; 40% in Iceland. One study showed that among men with breast cancer and a first-degree relative (e.g., mother or sister) with breast cancer approximately 11% were carriers of a BRCA2 mutation. For male BRCA2 alteration carriers: Estimated cumulative risk of male breast cancer is ~6% by age 70 Age of onset not as early as female breast cancer in BRCA2 carriers BRCA1 may account for more cases of male breast cancer than initially estimated. (Couch et al. 1996, Thorlacius et al. 1996, Friedman et al. 1997, Csokay et al. 1999)
Cumulative Risk of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers From Rebbeck,T; J Clin Oncol 18:100s-103s 2000
Risks of Breast Cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation Breast cancer risk by age (women) BRCA1BRCA2Ashkenazi women w/ BRCA1/2 General population US 4019%12% 5050%28%33%2% 6064%48% 7085%84%56%7% Easton DF, Ford D, Bishop T, and the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium, Am J Hum Gen 56: Easton DF, et al., and the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium, JNCI 91: Ford D, Easton DF, Stratton M, Narod S, et al., 1998, Am J Hum Genetics 62: Struewing JP, Harge P, Wacholder W, et al. NEJM, (20): Ford D, Easton DG, Bishop T, Narod S, Lancet 343:
Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers BRCA1BRCA2BRCA1 or BRCA2 Women w/ prior hx breast cancer Risk of new breast ca dx by age 70 60%52% 3%/year <1% per year
The hope is that increased surveillance and/or interventions may identify cancers early or reduce the risk of cancers. Risk assessment may also identify those not at increased risk. Recognition: the first step in management of familial cancer risk
Cancer Clusters Cancer can happen in a family just by chance Cancer can cluster in families because of shared environmental exposures (diet, lifestyle, environment, work related exposures) Cancers may be due to inheritance of a single genetic alteration that poses very high risk of cancer Cancers may be due to inheritance of less penetrant genetic alterations
Sporadic/Familial/Hereditary Sporadic cancers Age appropriate Common cancers Familial Cancer Occurring in or affecting more members of a family than would be expected by chance Generally, two or more family members with the same type of cancer, age appropriate Hereditary Cancer -Multiple affected family members -Several cases of the same type of cancer or cancers known to be part of an hereditary cancer syndrome (e.g. breast & ovarian, colon & endometrial, sarcoma & breast). -Younger than expected ages of onset - such as breast < 40, colon < 50 -Rare cancers in the family such as males with breast cancer -Individuals with multiple primary cancers or multifocal or bilateral cancers -Family history consistent with generation to generation transmission
Tools for risk assessment: Breast cancer risk assessment models - Claus, Gail, BRCAPRO, Frank/Myriad models Models for other cancers from the literature Computer/Internet resources Gene tests, OMIM, NCI website Ongoing education
Models used to calculate breast cancer risks Claus Model - Age specific risk estimates for breast cancer, considers maternal and paternal history, age at onset, first and second degree relatives (excludes some relatives). Gail Model - Estimates the chance that a woman of specific age would develop breast cancer, includes age at menarche, childbirth, # of prior biopsies, and first degree relatives. Excludes paternal relatives, non-first degree relatives. Adapted to consider atypical hyperplasias. Tyrer-Cusick Model – (2004) Uses personal risk factors for breast cancer, and likelihood of BRCA gene mutation and a low penetrance gene to assess breast cancer risk. Claus EB, Risch N, Thompson WD, 1990;1991;1994; Gail MH, Brinton LA, Byar EP, et al, 1989; Tyrer J, Duffy SW, Cuzick J. Stat Med 2004; 23: FCRS
Models used to calculate likelihood of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: BRCAPRO - computer model, uses pedigree to calculate risk based on several different models. Frank or Myriad Model/Tables - use family history and personal history to estimate risk of mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. BOADICEA (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm) – University of Cambridge computer model to assess risk of BRCA1/2 mutation. Euhus D, Berry D, Parmigiani G, Iverson E, 1998; Frank TS, Manley SA, Olopade OI, et al, 1997, Antoniou AC, Hardy R, Walker L, Evans DG, Shenton A, Eeles R, Shanley S, Pichert G, Izatt L, Rose S, Douglas F, Eccles D, Morrison PJ, Scott J, Zimmern RL, Easton DF, Pharoah PD. J Med Genet Jul;45(7): Epub 2008 Apr 15.
Characteristics of those families appropriate for consideration for BRCA1 or BRCA2 testing (including patient s personal history) several breast cancers or breast and ovarian cancer two or more ovarian cancers in one family presence of bilateral cancers of the breast or ovary cancers diagnosed at younger than expected ages multiple affected relatives, demonstrating an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance presence of individuals diagnosed with more than one cancer, e.g. breast and ovarian breast and/or ovarian cancer and Ashkenazi (Eastern European) Jewish heritage male breast cancer
Cindys Story Cindy 34 yo + BRCA2 mutation Renee 65 yo Ov dx 46 Br dx 52 John 66 yo Caroline 2 yo John Jr. 6 yo Rick Colon dx 31 D. 33 James 5 yo Katherine 3 yo Jason 31 yo Jane 28 yo Bessie D.91 Br Dx 91 Kate 61 yo X 3 No CA Alice D. 50 ? stomach Janice 61 yo ? Susan 30 yo FCRS
Cindys Risk Assessment Gail Model Race - Caucasian Age - 34 Age Menarche - 13 Age 1st live birth - 28 # Mother, Sister, Daughter with Breast Cancer - 1 # previous biopsy year risk = 0.5% lifetime risk = 19.2% Claus Model Using Table of One First Degree Relative Predicted cumulative probability of breast cancer by age: 39 =.8% 49 = 2.3% 59 = 4.9% 69 = 8.2% 79 = 11% Benichou J, Gail M, Mulvihill J JCO 14: Claus EB, Risch N, Thompson WD, CANCER 73: FCRS
Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Syndrome 2 L br ca 42 R br ca 55 Oophorectomy (BSO) 53 + BRCA2 3 5 FCRS No cancer No cancer +BRCA2 Bil mastectomy Bil Salingo- oophorectomy 36 5 d. 94 ht dz Br ca 44 Ov ca 52 d. 79 d. Br ca 42
- Risk Perception - Everyones is Unique Individuals view of high risk, common, rare, unlikely is colored by their experience and psychological make-up. Half-full vs. half-empty Experience with statistics (I will be the <1% who develops ….) Personal experience with cancer or cancer scares, caring for others with cancer (especially if repeatedly or recently) Relationships and age influence reaction - parents cancer and child or adolescent vs. adult, siblings with cancer, friends with cancer. Page DL, Caro SW, Dupont SD, 1998.
Testing Process Counsel/Education Gather pedigree and documentation Test affected individual for mutation If family + for mutation, then can test unaffected individuals If + mutation in family, - mutation in individual, individual risk is close to population risk If no identified mutation in family, risk is estimated based on history and empiric data
Outcome of process Clarify risks of cancer Identify individuals who may not be aware of increased risk Identify individuals who may not be at increased risk Identify those appropriate for increased cancer surveillance, or measures to decrease risk (prophylactic surgery, chemoprevention), or those appropriate for research on surveillance or chemoprevention
Options for Women at Risk Increased Surveillance Risk-reducing Surgery Medical Intervention FCRS
Increased Surveillance Breast Cancer Clinical examination every 6 months Mammogram yearly beginning age MRI (ACS 2007) Monthly BSE Prompt evaluation of abnormal findings Ovarian Cancer Ca-125 Pelvic color-doppler ultrasound every months Pelvic examination every 6-12 months
ACS Recommendations for Breast MRI Screening as an Adjunct to Mammography 2007 Recommend Annual MRI Screening (Based on Evidence*) BRCA mutation First-degree relative of BRCA carrier, but untested Lifetime risk 20–25% or greater, as defined by BRCAPRO or other models that are largely dependent on family history Recommend Annual MRI Screening (Based on Expert Consensus Opinion ) Radiation to chest between age 10 and 30 years Li-Fraumeni syndrome and first-degree relatives Cowden and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes and first-degree relatives Insufficient Evidence to Recommend for or Against MRI Screening Lifetime risk 15–20%, as defined by BRCAPRO or other models that are largely dependent on family history Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) or atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) Heterogeneously or extremely dense breast on mammography Women with a personal history of breast cancer, including ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) Recommend Against MRI Screening (Based on Expert Consensus Opinion) Women at <15% lifetime risk * Evidence from nonrandomized screening trials and observational studies. Based on evidence of lifetime risk for breast cancer. Payment should not be a barrier. Screening decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis, as there may be particular factors to support MRI. More data on these groups is expected to be published soon. CA Cancer J Clin 2007; 57:75-89
Risk-Reducing Surgery Mastectomy Total mastectomy vs.. subcutaneous mastectomy? Not 100% effective, true risk reduction unclear, >90%. Hugely personal decisions. Oophorectomy Unfortunately not 100% effective in eliminating ovarian cancer risk, as intraabdominal carcinomatosis has occurred (2-4%) Questions - hysterectomy? HRT?, do we screen after BSO Bilateral oophorectomy reduced risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. (RR=0.53). HRT did not negate reduction in risk. Rebbeck TR, Levin AM, Eisen A, et al. JNCI 91(17):1475, Stuewing JP, Watson P, Easton DF, et al JNCI Monographs :330; Eisen A, Rebbeck TR, Wood WC,Weber BL. JCO 18(9)1980; May Hartmann LC, Daniel JS, Woods JE, et al. NEJM 340(2):77-84, Jan 14, 1999;
Medical Interventions Breast Cancer Risk reducing medications should be discussed based on current understanding. Ovarian Cancer Oral contraceptives have been shown to decrease the risk of ovarian cancer in the general population. In women with mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 that risk reduction was also documented, with 60% reduction (RR=0.4) with use of 6 years or more. Narod SA, Risch H, Moslehi R, et al. NEJM 1998, Aug 13;339(7): Fisher B, Costantino JP, Wickerman DL, et al. JNCI, 1998; 90(18):
Misconceptions about genetic testing: 1.Testing is not covered by insurance. In most instances insurance covers the cost of testing like any other medical expense. 2.Testing is complicated. True and false – choosing the appropriate test is not always simple, there are significant opportunities for misinterpretation. Seek consultation with a health care provider (nurse practitioner, genetic counselor, MD) specializing in hereditary cancer. 3.Testing will cause you to lose your insurance. Concerns exist about genetic discrimination, but after nearly 15 years of clinical testing, no significant problems have been seen. Members of group health insurance plans have protection under Federal Law (HIPPA, 1996). GINA signed into law May 2008, extends protections from discrimination based on genetic information to those with private health insurance
Walking with the Ghosts of My Grandmothers a painting by Hollis Sigler on the cover of the journal Science October, 1994
Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Syndrome Autosomal dominant inheritance Germline mutations in CDH1/E-Cadherin Gene (described in hereditary gastric families in 1998) Initially found in Maori families, since described in families from many ethnic groups. Penetrance thought to be 70%, Also increased risk of colon cancer and breast cancer
An autosomal dominantly inherited hamartoma syndrome with an incidence of at least 1/200,000 (probably an underestimate) (hamartomas are benign, disorganized growths) characterized by multiple hamartomas that can occur in any organ of the body pathognomonic cutaneous feature is the trichilemmoma, a benign tumor derived from outer-root sheath epithelium of a hair follicle Carries a high risk of breast, thyroid, and endometrial cancers Variable expression Highly penetrant: Usually presents by the late teens to the late 20s 90% of individuals with CS have symptoms by age 20 By the 3rd decade, 99% of affected individuals would have developed mucocutaneous lesions Age-dependent penetrance: only 10% exhibit symptoms by age 10 Cowden syndrome
Associated with inherited alterations in the gene, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten), also sometimes called MMAC1 (mutated in multiple advanced cancer) which was isolated in 1997 PTEN is located on chromosome 10q23 Function of PTEN: Tumor suppressor Controls pathway for regulation of cell proliferation and cell survival Alterations in PTEN also associated with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba (BRR) syndrome and a small percentage of cases of juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS). Cowden syndrome
Cowden Syndrome Cancer Risks Associated with Cowden Syndrome: Female Breast Cancer 25%-50% lifetime risk (vs ~11% in general pop.) Average age of diagnosis may be around age Thyroid Carcinoma3%-10% lifetime risk (vs 1% in general population) Non-medullary Usually follicular, but can be papillary Endometrial Cancer 5-10% Other cancers may be associated with Cowden syndrome : GenitourinaryMucocutaneous Male BreastGastrointestinal Central Nervous System medulloblastomas are more common Other, e.g. liposarcoma
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Initially described by Frederick Li and Joseph Fraumeni (1969) as syndrome associated with sarcomas and other diverse tumors. Associated cancer include soft-tissue sarcoma, osteosarcoma, early-onset breast cancer, brain tumors, adrenocortical carcinoma, and leukemias, primarily acute leukemia. (Was also called SBLA for Sarcoma, Breast/Brain, Leukemia, and Adrenal) Inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Other reports have associated other cancers - including melanoma, cancers of the stomach, pancreas, colon, and esophagus, and gonadal germ cell tumors. Gene mutations TP53 (1990) on 17p13, possibly others
DNA BANKING If genetic testing is not possible or not informative, DNA banking is a relatively inexpensive and simple procedure that can save a sample of the affected person s DNA for future testing.
Resources to find cancer genetics professionals in your area: services/http://www.cancer.gov/search/genetics_ services/ genetests.org
Selected Hereditary Cancer Syndromes Hereditary Breast/ovarian cancerBRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 Other? Breast, ovarian prostate, pancreatic r (BRCA2), ? Colon and other cancers Site specific breast cancerBRCA1, BRCA2 Breast Site specific ovarian cancerBRCA1, BRCA2 Ovarian Li-Fraumeni SyndromeTP53, CHEK2 Breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma, leukemia, brain tumors CowdenPTEN Breast, thyroid, benign lesions of skin, breast, thyroid; renal cell carcinoma Peutz-Jegher SyndromeSTK11 Breast cancer, benign ovarian tumors, testicular tumors, pancreatic cancer, polyps (ureter, bladder, GI tract, renal pelvis, characteristic skin lesions (melanin spots, lips, buccal mucosa Familial adenomatous polyposisAPC, MYH Polyposis, colorectal cancer, thyroid gastric cancer, periampullary carcinoma, hepatoblastoma Variant of FAP - Attenuated FAPAPC <100 colorectal polyps, later age onset CRC, gastric, duodenal adenomas or cancer Variant of FAP - Gardners SyndromeAPC Osteomas of skull and mandible, CHRPE, dental anomalies, lymphangiomas, lipomas, desmoids HNPCC (Lynch Syndrome)MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS1, PMS2, Colorectal cancer (often right sided and multifocal), endometrial ca, ovarian ca, small bowel, stomach, pancreas, ureter, renal pelvis Turcots SyndromeAPC, MMR genes Colorectal adenomas, CRC, primary brain tumors (mudulloblastoma APC, glioblastoma MMR) OMIM, Elsas LJ, Trepanier A. Cancer Genetics in Primary Care. Postgraduate Medicine 107(4): , April 2000., Offit K. Clinical Cancer Genetics, Wiley-Liss, 1998, New York.
Selected Hereditary Cancer Syndromes (contd) MENMEN1, RET Multiple endocrine cancers RetinoblastomaRB1 Retinoblastoma, often bilateral and < 1 year of age, also associated increased risk of sarcoma, melanoma, brain tumors Von Hippel-LindauVHL Renal cell carcinoma, retinal angioma, cerebellar hemangioblastoma, pheochromocytoma, pancreatic cysts, islet cell tumor Prostate cancerHPC1, BRCA1, p53 Earlier age onset prostate cancer, maybe part of other syndromes Pancreatic cancerBRCA2, MADH4, TP53, CDKN2A, ARMET, +++ Other syndromes, HNPCC, HBOC, Li-Fraumeni, VHL, melanoma, hereditary pancreatitis, site specific pancreatic ca MelanomaP16, CDK4, others Melanoma, dysplastic nevi, pancreatic ca OMIM, Elsas LJ, Trepanier A. Cancer Genetics in Primary Care. Postgraduate Medicine 107(4): , April 2000., Offit K. Clinical Cancer Genetics, Wiley-Liss, 1998, New York
Stigmata of Selected Syndromes Associated with Susceptibility to Cancer Cowden SyndromeBreast cancerFacial papules, oral cobblestone papules, macrocephaly Down SyndromeAcute leukemiaCharacteristic facies, round head, congenital heart disease Fancomi AnemiaAcute leukemiaUpper extremity malformations, increased skin pigmentation FAP (Gardners subtype)Colon cancerRetinal pigmentation, sebaceous cysts, osteomas, impacted teeth, exostoses,, desmoids, florid polyposis Muir-Torre syndromeColon cancer, skin tumorsSebaceous adenomata, keratocanthomata, basal cell carinomas, Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2b Medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, Enlarged and nodular lips, Marfanoid habitus Peutz-Jegher syndromeBreast, colon cancersDark spots on lips, perioral areas, buccal mucosa and extremeties Turcot syndromeColon cancer, brain tumorsPolyps, café-au-lait spots, sebaceous cysts on skin WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and mental retardation) Wilms tumorAniridia, genitourinary malformations Syndrome Major Cancer Risks Selected physical findings Offit, K. Clinical Cancer Genetics, Risk Counseling & Management, Wiley-Liss, New York, 1998.
RED FLAGS – Think about hereditary susceptibility when you see: Breast Cancer at age less than 50 Ashkenazi Jewish heritage and breast or ovarian More than one ovarian cancer in a family, or breast and ovarian cancer Men with breast cancer More than one pancreatic cancer in a family Colorectal cancer less than 50 years of age Polyposis Pheochromocytoma Medullary thyroid cancer