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Human Development Physical Development and Biological Aging.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Development Physical Development and Biological Aging."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Development Physical Development and Biological Aging

2 Physical Growth: Height and Weight Infants double their weight by four months and triple it by their first birthday Early childhood: girls are slightly smaller/lighter than boys Middle/late childhood: children grow 2-3 inches per year and double their strength capacities

3 The Role of the Environment Urban, middle SES first born children were taller than rural, low SES, later born children Nutrition influences height and weight differences

4 Unusually Short Children Congenital factors Growth hormone deficiency Physical problems developed in childhood Maternal smoking during pregnancy Emotional difficulty

5 Puberty Rapid physical maturation Hormonal/bodily changes Role of genes and environments

6 Pubertal Growth Spurt Fig. 3.3

7 Changing Trends in Puberty Onset of puberty beginning earlier United States: menarche at 15 in 1840s, now 12½ Caucasian girls at average age of 10 African American girls at average age 8 to 9 **How does this impact development?

8 Body Image in Puberty Throughout puberty… Girls’ dissatisfaction increases — body fat increases Boys’ satisfaction increases — muscle mass increases What factors influence body image?

9 Early vs. Late Maturing Boys Early maturing boys perceive themselves more positively and have more successful peer relationships than late maturing boys

10 Early Maturing Girls Early maturing girls: At risk for smoking, drinking, depression, eating disorders Tend to have older friends Earlier dating/sex Lower educational/occupational attainment Higher incidence of mental disorders

11 Early Adulthood Subtle physical changes Many reach peak of muscle tone and strength in late teens and twenties Peak in joint functions in twenties Decline in the thirties

12 Middle Adulthood Lose height, gain weight Blood pressure/cholesterol increases Fertility declines: Women: menopause Men: reduced sperm count (fertility is not lost)

13 Late Adulthood Increased risk for physical problems Weight tends to drop after age 60

14 The Brain Recent research: Both heredity and environment shape the brain The role of experience and brain plasticity

15 The Brain’s Four Lobes Fig. 3.7

16 Functions of Lobes of the Cortex Frontal lobes Occipital lobes Temporal lobes Involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality or purpose Function in vision Active role in hearing, language processing, and memory Parietal lobes Roles in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control

17 The Neuron Fig. 3.8

18 Experience and the Brain Mice in deprived vs. enriched environments: differences in brain weight, neural connections and activity Children reared in deprived environments have depressed brain activity (i.e. Romanian orphans) Can be reversed; brain plasticity/resilience

19 Experience and the Brain Exposure to trauma: PTSD: reduced size of the hippocampus Depression: Parts of the brain atrophy over time Addiction: Changes in neurotransmitters

20 Pruning Changes to the dendrites and synapses Connections are formed and terminated

21 Dendritic Spreading Fig. 3.11

22 The Brain in Adolescence The adolescent brain is still growing Emotional processing differences between adolescents (10-18 years) and adults (20-40 years) Adolescents: Gut responses Adults: rational, reasoned responses Differences in the parts of the brain used to process emotional information

23 The Brain in Adolescence Adolescent emotions — Areas of the brain involved in emotional regulation are still growing/changing Poor self-control; seek rewards and pleasure Seek novelty; increased risk-taking Lack of practical experiences; immature judgment **importance of parental involvement/limit setting

24 Preventing Brain Diseases Positive emotions linked to longevity Intellectual stimulation Folic acid reduces risks and damage

25 Life Expectancy Life expectancy — number of years that an average person born in a particular year will probably live Impacted by heredity and environment

26 Life Expectancy Females average 80 years, 74 years for males Men are more likely to die from leading causes of death (respiratory diseases, accidents, suicide, cirrhosis of the liver, heart disease) Role of lifestyle, workplace stress, heath habits

27 Centenarians Individuals who live to 100: Women who have never married Ability to cope successfully with stress Education, health, and lifestyle Individual personality traits **Highest ratio in Okinawa: why?

28 Fig. 3.20 Risks of Dying from Cancer in Okinawa, Japan, and the United States

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