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1 Research-Based Strategies for Community-Based Instruction David F. Cihak, Ph.D. University of Tennessee Knoxville.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Research-Based Strategies for Community-Based Instruction David F. Cihak, Ph.D. University of Tennessee Knoxville."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Research-Based Strategies for Community-Based Instruction David F. Cihak, Ph.D. University of Tennessee Knoxville

2 2 Why CBI and Whos Eligible? Students with Low-Incident Disabilities 1 –Students on a Functional Curriculum Learning Characteristics –Cognitive –Acquisition –Generalization –Maintenance

3 3 Community-Based Instruction (CBI) 1 CBI is instruction conducted with actual materials in the natural environment where a functional skill is expected to be ultimately performed. CBI is instruction conducted with actual materials in the natural environment where a functional skill is expected to be ultimately performed.

4 4 Advantages & Challenges of CBI 1 ADVANTAGES Opportunities to learn and to rehearse skills needed to participate in an integrated lifestyle Opportunities to learn and to rehearse skills needed to participate in an integrated lifestyle Mitigates skill generalization Mitigates skill generalization Responding to actual stimuli and naturally occurring cues and antecedents Responding to actual stimuli and naturally occurring cues and antecedents Responding to natural consequences and criteria Responding to natural consequences and criteria Access to age-appropriate environments and materials Access to age-appropriate environments and materials LRE LRECHALLENGES Time constraints SchedulingTransportationCosts

5 5 Implementing CBI Continuum of Scheduling Options 1 1. CBI Only 2. Classroom Simulation Only - instruction designed to approximate the natural environment in the classroom setting Advantages Easier to implement Easier to implement Can use and reuse materials Can use and reuse materials Less time consuming Less time consuming Reduces possible student & parental embarrassment of not being able to perform a skill in the community Reduces possible student & parental embarrassment of not being able to perform a skill in the community Reduction of risk factors and safety concerns Reduction of risk factors and safety concernsDisadvantages Minimal confidence that skills will generalize to natural environments (i.e., training and hoping) Minimal confidence that skills will generalize to natural environments (i.e., training and hoping) Students are less likely to function independently in nonschool domestic, vocational, recreational/leisure, and community environments Students are less likely to function independently in nonschool domestic, vocational, recreational/leisure, and community environments 3. Combined Schedules 2 Concurrent CBI and Classroom Simulation Instructional Schedules Concurrent CBI and Classroom Simulation Instructional Schedules Incorporating the advantages of both CBI and classroom simulation instruction Incorporating the advantages of both CBI and classroom simulation instruction

6 6 Percentage of Student Independent Performance Across Phases and Conditions 3 Simulation Only CBI Only Simulation & CBI (Consecutive Days) Simulation & CBI (Same Day) BLIGFBLIGFBLIGFBLIGF Carl Rich Kyle Jim Tom Mean Ranks a 8*610*99*1117*15 Mean Number of Sessions Note. BL = Baseline, I = intervention, G = generalization, F = follow-up (two-weeks), a = Kruskal-Wallis test, * p <.05. SOI students were taught how to use a fax machine in order to send a fax CBI students were taught how to use a debit card to operate an ATM machine to withdraw cash CCD students were taught how to use a debit card to make a two-item purchase CSD students were taught how to use a copy machine to collate a newsletter

7 7 Classroom Simulation Instruction Continuum of Classroom Simulation Options 4 Materials range from entirely natural to completely artificial Reconstructed replica to Black and white flashcards Within the Continuum of Material Options –Static Picture Prompts –Video Modeling –Video Prompts –Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) –Self-Operated Auditory Prompts (SOAP)

8 8 (1) (2) (3) (4)

9 9 Baseline Alternating Treatments Follow-up Percentage of Steps Performed Correctly 5 Picture Prompt Video Model Don Kym Ann Sessions

10 10 Percentage of Steps Performed Correctly 5 Baseline Alternating Treatments Follow-up Video Model Picture Prompt Sora Percy Mike Joe Sessions

11 11 Group Instruction 6 More Efficient Equally Effective Increased Exposure to Materials Increased Opportunities to Respond Observational Learning Incidental Learning

12 12 Baseline Group Instruction Follow-up Carlos Brady Allen Percentage of Steps Performed Correctly Video Prompt Picture Prompt 1

13 13 Percentage of Steps Performed Correctly Baseline Group Instruction Follow-up Frank Drew Edgar Video Prompt Picture Prompt 1

14 14 Behavior Management The degree to which students participate in CBI is often dependent on their ability to demonstrate appropriate behaviors while in the community The degree to which students participate in CBI is often dependent on their ability to demonstrate appropriate behaviors while in the community Behavioral Characteristics Behavioral Characteristics - Self-stimulatory behaviors, such as rocking and hand-flapping - Self-injurious behaviors, such as head banging and hand biting, and aggressive behaviors such hitting others and throwing objects Access to these programs may be limited or even denied because of inappropriate behaviors Access to these programs may be limited or even denied because of inappropriate behaviors Inappropriate social behaviors are the most frequent reason students with intellectual disabilities fail to acquire or fail to maintain their employment 7 Inappropriate social behaviors are the most frequent reason students with intellectual disabilities fail to acquire or fail to maintain their employment 7

15 15 Behavior Management The use of brief functional analysis and intervention evaluation in public settings –Brief-Functional Analysis 8 –Antecedent-Based Intervention –Response-Based Intervention –Social Validity

16 Sessions Standard Assessment Confirmatory Analysis Escape Attention Escape Cumulative Number Percentage of Intervals ofof Outbursts/Minute Task Engagement/Minute Control Attention Escape Control Attention Hannah

17 17 Number of Percentage of Intervals of Outbursts Task Engagement Alternating Treatments Treatment Evaluation SOAP No SOAP SOAP Sessions DRA SOAP Hannah Sessions SOAP DRA

18 18 Standard Assessment Confirmatory Analysis Escape Attention Escape Cumulative Number of Percentage of Intervals ofMasturbations/Minute Task Engagement/Minute Sessions Control Attention Escape Control Escape Attention Ashley Control Escape Attention

19 19 Alternating Treatments Treatment Evaluation SOAP No SOAP SOAP Number of Masturbation Percentage of Intervals of Occurrences Task Engagement DRA SOAP Sessions DRA SOAP Ashley

20 20 Standard Assessment Confirmatory Analysis Escape Attention Escape Cumulative Number Percentage of Intervals ofof Vocalizations/Minute Task Engagement/Minute Sessions Control Escape Attention Gillian

21 21 Number of Percentage of Intervals ofVocalizations Task Engagement Alternating Treatments Treatment Evaluation SOAP No SOAP SOAP Gillian DRA SOAP DRA SOAP Gillian

22 Sessions Standard Assessment Confirmatory Analysis Escape Attention Escape Cumulative Number Percentage of Intervals ofof Elopements/Minute Task Engagement/Minute Kevin Control Escape Attention

23 23 Alternating Treatments Treatment Evaluation SOAP No SOAP SOAP Number of Percentage of Intervals ofElopements Task Engagement Sessions Kevin DRA SOAP

24 24 References 5 Alberto, P. A., Cihak, D. F., & Gama, R. I. (2005). Use of static picture prompts versus video modeling during simulation instruction. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, Brown, L., Nisbet, J., Ford, A., Sweet, M., Shiraga, B., York, J., & Loomis, R. (1983). The critical need for nonschool instruction in educational programs for severely handicapped students. Journal of Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 8, Bates, P. E., Cuvo, T., Miner, C. A., & Korbeck, C. A. (2001). Simulated and community-based instruction involving persons with mild and moderate mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities,22, Cihak, D. F., Alberto, P. A., Kessler, K., & Taber, T. (2004). An investigation of instructional scheduling arrangements and community-based instruction. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 25, Collins, B. C., Gast, D. L., Ault, M. J., & Wolery, M. (1991). Small group instruction: Guidelines for teachers of students with moderate to severe handicaps. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 26, Cuvo, A. J., & Klatt, K. P. (1992). Effects of community-based, videotape, and flash card instruction of community-referenced sight words on students with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, Northup, J., Wacker, D., Sasso, G., Steege, M., Cigrand, K., Cook, J., & DeRaad, A. (1991). A brief functional analysis of aggressive and alternative behavior in an outpatient setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, Reitman, D., Drabman, R.S., Speaks, L.V., Burkley, S., & Rhode, P.C. (1999). Problem social behavior in the workplace: An analysis of social behavior problems in a supported employment setting. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 20,


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