Background The Crusades stimulated trade by introducing Europeans to many desirable products, and trade promoted frequent contacts with the Byzantine and Muslim Empires. SIGNIFICANCE: Wealth accumulated from European trade with the Middle East led to the rise of Italian city-states. Wealthy merchants were active civic leaders.
Advantages of Location for Northern Italian Cities during the Renaissance Florence, Venice, and Genoa 1.Had access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle Eastern markets 2.Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to Northern Europe 3.Were initially independent city-states governed as republics
Machiavelli’s Ideas about Power Background: Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of his day and produced guidelines for the acquisition and maintenance of power by absolute rule
Machiavelli published his ideas in a book called The Prince 1.An early modern treatise on government 2.Supported absolute rule of the ruler 3.Maintains that the ends justify the means 4.Advises that one should do good if possible, but do evil when necessary
Key Concept The Renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy, and literature. People wealthy from newly expanded trade, called patrons, sponsored works that glorified states in northern Italy. Education became increasingly secular.
Humanism Background: classical knowledge of the ancient Greeks and Romans fostered humanism in the Italian Renaissance 1.Celebrated the individual 2.Stimulated the study of Greek and Roman literature and culture 3.Was supported by wealthy patrons
The Northern Renaissance Background-with the rise of trade, travel, and literacy, the Italian Renaissance spread to northern Europe
Art and Literature changed as different cultures adopted Renaissance ideas: 1.Growing wealth in Northern Europe supported Renaissance ideas. 2.Northern Renaissance thinkers merged humanist ideas with Christianity. 3.The moveable type printing press and the production and sale of books (Gutenberg Bible) helped spread ideas.
Important Artists and Writers of the Northern Renaissance Erasmus-The Praise of Folly (1511) Sir Thomas More-Utopia (1516) SIGNIFICANCE-that Northern Renaissance artists portrayed religious and secular subjects