3Theory of Action Universal Theory of Action: Collaborative partnerships are the mechanism for actionProject Theories of Action: how each intervention is deliveredtrain-the-trainers modelon-line learning modeldirect instruction modelcooperative learning modelworkshop series modelmentor/mentee modelThe Theory of Action describes HOW a project is delivered, usually based on the professional development literature
4Limitations of Theories of Action They describe HOW a project is delivered, not WHY it will work or what EFFECTS it will have.They are therefore evaluated by outputs, not by outcomes/effects.Output evaluation is necessary, but not sufficient, to show value for the project.
6Element One: The Change Framework A backward mapping process that begins with Outcomes to plan, implement, and continuously develop and improve programs
7Element Two: Program Interventions Designing interventions or activities intended to create desired results, and linking them systematically
8Element Three: Program Assumptions Carefully articulating assumptions about how change will occur and testing the assumptions systematically through evaluation
9Theory of Change: Background Evaluation is challenging because program assumptions are not well-articulated.The more complex the problem, the more difficult it is to be clear about how things will change as a result of the program.By designing a Pathway of Change, program developers/ implementers/ evaluators, can strengthen the case that an intervention caused a result.
10Theory of Change: Process Backward mapping from long, short, and mid-range goals or outcomes laid out in sequenceLink outcomes to program elementsPlan evaluation from the outset to track achievement of the intended outcomesUse evaluation results for improvement and accountability
11Broad Benefits of Theories of Change “Stakeholders value theories of change as part of program planning and evaluation because they create a commonly understood vision of the long-term goals, how they will be reached, and what will be used to measure progress along the way.”ActKnowledge/The Aspen Roundtable
12Theory of Change:Project Benefits Makes explicit the basis for the project interventionConsolidates the research that undergirds the projectProvides an overarching framework for project planning, implementation and evaluation
13Theory of Change and Logic Modeling A Logic Model is a graphic form of a Theory of ChangeTakes the theory, which is selected on the basis of empirical evidence that it will work, and translates it into an operational plan.Created by backward mapping.
14The “IfThen” Connections IF certain inputs are available…THEN certain activities/interventions can take place;IF these interventions occur…THEN certain outputs will be seen; andIF the interventions are effective…THEN certain outcomes will be attained.Finally, what we learn from the outputs and outcomes can be used to improve the intervention.
15Building the Logic Model Start with the Theory of Change:“Companies do better when their employees are healthy.”Cite empirical evidence for this theory.
16Building the Logic Model Do the backward mappingAsk and answer the “How?” questionsCenters for Disease Control Healthier Worksite Initiative
17Building The Logic Model Lay out the steps in order from inputs to outcomesAnswer the “Why?” questions.Centers for Disease Control Healthier Worksite Initiative
18Building The Logic Model Create the model with appropriate connectionsINPUTSFundingStaffScientific Evidence
19Building The Logic Model Create the model with appropriate connectionsINPUTSINTERVENTIONFundingStaffScientific EvidenceWorkplace Walkability Program
20Building The Logic Model Create the model with appropriate connectionsINPUTSINTERVENTIONOUTPUTFundingStaffScientific EvidenceEmployees walk to meetings more oftenWorkplace Walkability Program
21Building The Logic Model Create the model with appropriate connectionsINPUTSINTERVENTIONOUTPUTOUTCOMESEmployee level of physical activity and fitness increasesFundingStaffScientific EvidenceEmployees walk to meetings more oftenWorkplace Walkability ProgramProductivity Increases
22Building The Logic Model Create the model with appropriate connectionsIdentify your evaluation measures for outputs and outcomesINPUTSINTERVENTIONOUTPUTOUTCOMESEmployee level of physical activity and fitness increasesFundingStaffScientific EvidenceEmployees walk to meetings more oftenWorkplace Walkability ProgramProductivity IncreasesEmployee LogsEmployee Fitness ScreeningsCompany Data
23Project Benefits of Logic Models They make a stronger case for project investment – funders understand more clearly what you intend to doThey reflect group process and understanding among project staff and project participantsThey indicate where and how to evaluate program effects
24We Now Find These Everywhere U.S. Department of Health & Human ServicesIdaho State Board of Education
25We Now Find These Everywhere National Institute of Standards and Technologyprocessoutcome.orgResearch Utilization Support & Help (RUSH)Canadian Department of Justice
26Ohio Department of Education (ODE) NOT Recommended!Ohio Department of Education (ODE)