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Pieces of the Puzzle Special Education Directors’ Conference

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Presentation on theme: "Pieces of the Puzzle Special Education Directors’ Conference"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pieces of the Puzzle Special Education Directors’ Conference
July 31, 2008 Peoria Illinois Pieces of the Puzzle Dr. Stacey Jones Bock, Associate Professor Illinois State University Kathy Gould Director, Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

2 Best Practices/Evidence Based Practices
Ten Guiding Principles for Students with ASD Ten Considerations for Asperger Syndrome

3 Best Practices To date, there is no one intervention that is effective with all children with ASD

4 Best Practices: Common Elements
Core Skills Highly supportive teaching environments Predictability and routine Functional approach to problem behaviors Transition Family involvement -attending -imitation -language -play -social -Other elements: intensity, SLP assistance, aug com, sensory therapy, peer models

5 Best Practices Strong programs address a variety of domains Behavior
Communication Socialization Academics

6 Types of Interventions
Interpersonal Relationship Interventions Skill-Based Interventions and Treatments Cognitive Interventions Physiological/Biological/Neurological Interventions and Treatments Other Interventions, Treatments, and Related Agents Interpersonal – relationship Holding Therapy Gentle Teaching Option Method (Son-Rise Program) Floor Time Play Therapy Animal Therapy Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) SKILL BASED Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Incidental Teaching Facilitated Communication (FC) Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Assistive Technology (AT) Van Dijk Curricular Approach Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Discrete Trial Instruction Joint Action Routines (JAR) Fast ForWard Pivotal Response Training (PVT) Structured Teaching (TEACCH) COGNITIVE Cognitive Behavioral Modification (CBM ) Social Stories Power Cards Cartooning Social Decision Making Strategies Learning experiences: And alternative program for preschoolers and parents (LEAP) PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOLOGICAL NEUROLOGICAL Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome (SSS): Irlen Lenses Sensory Integration (SI) Auditory Integration Training (AIT) Megavitamin Therapy Gluten-Casein Free Diet Pharmacology OTHER Art Therapy Music Therapy Other supplements (herbal & mineral) Mercury: Vaccinations and Autism Richard L. Simpson: Evidence-based practices and students with autism spectrum disorders Focus on Autism and other Developmental Disorders 9/22/

7 Evidence-based Practices
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI) Pivotal Response Training (PRT) Learning Experiences: An Alternative Program for Preschoolers and parents (LEAP)

8 Promising Practices Play therapy Assistive Technology AAC
Incidental Teaching JARS PECS TEACCH CBM Social-decision Making Social Stories Pharmacology Sensory Integration

9 Practices with Limited Support
Gentle Teaching Option Method (Son-Rise Program) Floor Time Animal Therapy Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) Fast ForWard Van Dijk Curricular Approach Cartooning Cognitive Scripts Power Cards Auditory Integration Training (AIT) Megavitamin Therapy Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome (SSS): Irlen Lenses Gluten-Casein Intolerance

10 NATIONAL STANDARDS PROJECT
National Panel conducting a comprehensive review of outcome literature to select methods and practices identified as effective Produce a set of standards for effective, research-validated education and behavioral intervention for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) After completing its scientific validation process and establishing ratified national standards, standards will be distributed in a technical manual through broad web-based distribution To request a copy of the soon to be published report contact

11 Ten Guiding Principles in Programming
for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Dr. Stacey Bock Autism Spectrum Institute Illinois State University

12 1 An effective means of communication
To be “communication”, any system must be: PORTABLE: whatever the system is, it travels with the child - NEVER used as a reward system. UNIVERSAL: able to be understood and used by most people the student might encounter.

13 Each student must be evaluated and observed extensively to determine the best possible match of communication systems. A mismatch will lead to frustration and anger, and ultimately, a lack of ability for the student to make himself understood.

14 Use visual strategies 2 Visual strategies are useful for many people with ASD- not all, but many. Providing visual information at all times may be very useful for people with autism, and can enable independent functioning.

15 Use visual cues to reinforce any information you need to convey.
Pictures Symbols Drawings Words Sign-language Gestures Combinations

16 3 A daily schedule Can be only pictures, only words, or a combination of the two. Can be faded, but should be available if the student experiences levels of stress increasing the level of support needed.

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18 Determine communicative function of behavior
4 Determine communicative function of behavior Be a detective! Watch for patterns in behavior, antecedents and results. Seek input from EVERYONE who works with the student. Functional Behavior Analysis, done properly, will help staff begin to understand what the student is really saying.

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20 Shape, don’t eliminate, self-stimulatory behavior
5 Shape, don’t eliminate, self-stimulatory behavior If student is making noise (clicking, tapping pencil), try providing the same sensory input in a more appropriate way. Recognize when the student is exhibiting a need for sensory stimulation.

21 Allow student to hold something (if needed) during structured large group activities.
Teach student to recognize and request sensory stimulation. Allow student to choose a safe area in the room which they find calming.

22 Some activities that will provide sensory stimulation…..
Chewing, which is helpful in organizing the brain Alphabet letters, words and numbers are calming Smells can help to alert or calm

23 Remember: Each student has their own unique sensory diet!
Incorporate music and motor movements into instruction as much as possible. Get a rocking chair, exercise bicycle and mini-trampoline for the classroom! Remember: Each student has their own unique sensory diet!

24 6 Plan for generalization When it cannot be learned where it will
Provide instruction in the typical environment whenever possible- if the skill is learned where it will be used, the work is cut in half! When it cannot be learned where it will be used, provide as many elements of the typical environment as possible (lighting, noise, physical layout, etc.), and transition training.

25 7 Identify reinforcers Ask the student!!! And………
Put on your detective hat again! Observe, observe, observe Identify things which seem to calm the student: movement patterns response to auditory stimuli visual preference And……… Ask the student!!!

26 8 Frequent choice-making Creates a sense of control
Allows the student to choose activities which enhance feelings of safety Strengthen the student’s motivation to increase communication skills!

27 9 Don’t talk too much! Many people with autism are easily overwhelmed with sensory information. Since we believe many people with autism are highly visual in nature, the verbal input may actually decrease their ability to process the visual input.

28 Reduce “ancillary” words….
“Just the facts, ma’am!’ Try reducing directions to just the key informational words- who, what, when, where, why, etc.

29 10 Evaluate, Evaluate, Evaluate Observe and record responses to
Just as children change, their responses change. Weather, physical state, emotional state- all play a part. Observe and record responses to every strategy attempted to determine best practice for this student.

30 Always have a backup plan (or two or three!) in your bag of tricks!
Document results of your evaluation- you will not be the only person to use the information!

31 Ten Considerations for
Students with Asperger Syndrome

32 Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
1 Structure Seat Arrangement Students with Asperger Syndrome are easy targets for Bullies Be aware of bullies or otherwise aggressive students seat the student with AS next to an understanding or “model” student who might be a peer buddy or “social translator” Proximity matters – might be best next to the teacher or an open quiet area If the seat arrangement is found to be negative, make changes in context with a full class change or other changes Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

33 Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
Good Seating Choices Next to a “model” student Near the teacher A quieter area of the class seat the student with AS next to an understanding or “model” student who might be a peer buddy or “social translator” Proximity matters – might be best next to the teacher or an open quiet area If the seat arrangement is found to be negative, make changes in context with a full class change or other changes Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

34 Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
Group Work 2 The characteristics of students with AS can make group work challenging and sometimes horrible experiences. Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

35 Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
Some Ideas about Group Work Avoid self-selection Teach all students how to function in a group Suggest tasks or roles Carefully consider the maturity and nature of the group when including a student With AS – Have written procedures – Before making a plan- have a go-around where everyone makes a suggestion, each person has a job, etc Propose a task for each student – pick a skill area of the student with AS (computer research, etc) Provide a stop watch or timer for the amount of time each person talks (helps The student with AS not to dominate – also keeps the whole group on task) Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

36 3 Make your Classroom a Caring Community
Model and praise respect and caring Zero tolerance for unkind remarks or actions Whatever you can do to create safe, supportive accepting community for everyone will help the student with AS along with everyone else Model respect and caring Have zero tolerance for put-downs, name calling or unkind remarks

37 Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
4 Use Visual Supports Sometime people think these kids can talk – are smart and don’t need visuals - Students with AS usually need and respond well to visuals Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

38 Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
Sequences Calendars Schedule Class jobs Space Display prominently – refer to it often examples Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

39 Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
4 Use Organizational Supports Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

40 Break assignments down into steps Examples of expectations
Graphic organizers Break assignments down into steps Examples of expectations Outlines and guided notes Organized notebooks Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

41 Morning Checklist  Put away backpack Make lunch selection
Activity Put away backpack Make lunch selection Turn in Homework Pick reward from menu

42 Homework Checklist I filled out my agenda book for all my classes
Lang Arts Math Science I have my assignments for all my classes I have all the textbooks I need for my homework I have the supplies I need for my homework Calculator Notebook I have checked out with Ms. Jones Time ________

43 5 Prepare for Change Whenever possible, explain changes well in advance, put in writing Discussion at beginning of the year, explaining there are sometimes changes that we cannot do anything about

44 Clearly stated and posted class rules Private conversation Signal
Be an interpreter Students with AS might fixate on a subject and continue long after class has moved on, make comments out of place - if allowed, can affect negative peer reaction Need to have specific rules posted – 5 min for questions, others need to be written Down and given to me, no one can ask a second question or comment until all Others have has a chance to speak May need a private conversation to explain directly to student what that means And what it expected Inobtrusive signal reminder If you can understand and see the value of what is being said that might Be being missed by peers, you can restate and explain

45 6 Reduce Stress Related Activities Many students with AS can
become easily overwhelmed Whether it is by the noise, crowds, the chaos, or sometimes just the effort and Stress of engaging in social interaction required for the entire school day

46 Ear plugs or headphones Alternative activity for difficult events
A designated support person/place Assemblies, pep rallies, unstructured time can be very difficult and increase anxiety - sometimes better to offer an alternative activity Sometimes just being around others is a constant effort to fit in a designated person and quiet place can offer the student needed respite so he can be more able to work the rest of the day

47 Coping Cards Take 2 deep breaths with your eyes closed Press your hands together and count to 10 slowly

48 Feeling Anxious All people feel anxious now and then.
It is acceptable to feel anxious. Our bodies, thoughts and actions can tell us when we are feeling anxious. Anxiety may look different for different people. For some, they may feel it in their stomach. When I feel overwhelmed with noise in class or am sensitive to other’s touch, that might tell me that I am feeling anxious. I can use the relaxation techniques on my coping cards. Bixler, 2006

49 5 4 3 2 1 Incredible 5-Point Scale rating description setting
Screaming Emergency only 4 Outside Voice Ball game 3 Talking voice Classroom 2 Soft voice Library 1 No talking When someone is talking to me Buron, K.D., & Cutis, M. (2003) The Incredible 5-Point Scale

50 7 “SAVE” the student Students with AS do not have
internal social understanding As a result, they are often seen as rude, irritating and immature Metaphors, simple teasing,or sarcasm that other might think funny can be taken Literally and misunderstood Accidents taken as deliberate intent to hurt

51 Matter – of – fact explanation Use a peer “social translator”
Label the comment Matter – of – fact explanation Use a peer “social translator” That was a joke meaning That is a metaphor that means John lost his balance Peers can be Social translator, explaining the social understanding of what was meant, happened in from peer to peer

52 8 Promote Positive Peer Interaction
Direct toward structured activities Avoid unstructured activities Identify arenas where the student can contribute How to connect student with some of the most kind, empathetic peers Because they may not have the social intuition or social learning, they may not be able to know how, and will need direct instruction Competitive Math groups, Geography teams, Also, assist in avoiding those activities where “geeks” are not that welcome or supported Peer Buddy Program Tutoring in an area of strength, class presentation on area of strength Community service

53 9 Capitalize on Special Interests
Use special interests to bridge classroom content Organize areas where the strength can be utilized – like computer research but may need to be structured (must work with another person and only search for topics designated Teach another classmate to search

54 10 Teach The Hidden Curriculum Myles, Trautman, Schelvan, 2004
All the subtle, unwritten rules that we learn as a part of living are often misunderstood or totally missing for a person with AS They must be taught DIRECTLY for a person with AS Myles, Trautman, Schelvan, 2004

55 Conversation Rules Who you are with determines what you should talk about When making conversation, avoid constantly telling others how good you are at something. This usually makes others avoid being around you. Keep approximately an arms distance away from the person you are talking with

56 Rules for Class Discussion
No insults Make on-topic remarks Focus on speaker Quiet mouth Think about topic

57 Kind Words Rude Words Great job! Great idea Nice job Awesome Yeah So what You’re stupid That was dumb That Stinks Duh!

58 Words that Mean the Same
PE Gym Break Snack time Complete Finished Recess Outside

59 Just Good Teaching with a Bonus!
Best practices for students with ASD Benefit other students as well


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