Presentation on theme: "Pieces of the Puzzle Special Education Directors’ Conference"— Presentation transcript:
1Pieces of the Puzzle Special Education Directors’ Conference July 31, 2008Peoria IllinoisPieces of the PuzzleDr. Stacey Jones Bock, Associate ProfessorIllinois State UniversityKathy GouldDirector, Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
2Best Practices/Evidence Based Practices Ten Guiding Principles for Students with ASDTen Considerations for Asperger Syndrome
3Best PracticesTo date, there is no one intervention that is effective with all children with ASD
4Best Practices: Common Elements Core SkillsHighly supportive teaching environmentsPredictability and routineFunctional approach to problem behaviorsTransitionFamily involvement-attending-imitation-language-play-social-Other elements: intensity, SLP assistance, aug com, sensory therapy, peer models
5Best Practices Strong programs address a variety of domains Behavior CommunicationSocializationAcademics
6Types of Interventions Interpersonal Relationship InterventionsSkill-Based Interventions and TreatmentsCognitive InterventionsPhysiological/Biological/Neurological Interventions and TreatmentsOther Interventions, Treatments, and Related AgentsInterpersonal – relationshipHolding TherapyGentle TeachingOption Method (Son-Rise Program)Floor TimePlay TherapyAnimal TherapyRelationship Development Intervention (RDI)SKILL BASEDPicture Exchange Communication System (PECS)Incidental TeachingFacilitated Communication (FC)Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)Assistive Technology (AT)Van Dijk Curricular ApproachApplied Behavior Analysis (ABA)Discrete Trial InstructionJoint Action Routines (JAR)Fast ForWardPivotal Response Training (PVT)Structured Teaching (TEACCH)COGNITIVECognitive Behavioral Modification (CBM )Social StoriesPower CardsCartooningSocial Decision Making StrategiesLearning experiences: And alternative program for preschoolers and parents (LEAP)PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOLOGICAL NEUROLOGICALScotopic Sensitivity Syndrome (SSS): Irlen LensesSensory Integration (SI)Auditory Integration Training (AIT)Megavitamin TherapyGluten-Casein Free DietPharmacologyOTHERArt TherapyMusic TherapyOther supplements (herbal & mineral)Mercury: Vaccinations and AutismRichard L. Simpson: Evidence-based practices and students with autism spectrumdisorders Focus on Autism and other Developmental Disorders 9/22/
7Evidence-based Practices Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI)Pivotal Response Training (PRT)Learning Experiences: An Alternative Program for Preschoolers and parents (LEAP)
9Practices with Limited Support Gentle TeachingOption Method (Son-Rise Program)Floor TimeAnimal TherapyRelationship Development Intervention (RDI)Fast ForWardVan Dijk Curricular ApproachCartooningCognitive ScriptsPower CardsAuditory Integration Training (AIT)Megavitamin TherapyScotopic Sensitivity Syndrome (SSS): Irlen LensesGluten-Casein Intolerance
10NATIONAL STANDARDS PROJECT National Panel conducting a comprehensive review of outcome literature to select methods and practices identified as effectiveProduce a set of standards for effective, research-validated education and behavioral intervention for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)After completing its scientific validation process and establishing ratified national standards, standards will be distributed in a technical manual through broad web-based distributionTo request a copy of the soon to be published report contact
11Ten Guiding Principles in Programming for Students with Autism Spectrum DisordersDr. Stacey BockAutism Spectrum InstituteIllinois State University
121 An effective means of communication To be “communication”, any system must be:PORTABLE: whatever the system is,it travels with the child - NEVER usedas a reward system.UNIVERSAL: able to be understoodand used by most people the studentmight encounter.
13Each student must be evaluated and observed extensively to determine the best possible match of communication systems.A mismatch will lead to frustrationand anger, and ultimately, a lack ofability for the student to make himselfunderstood.
14Use visual strategies2Visual strategies are useful for many people with ASD- not all, but many.Providing visual information at alltimes may be very useful for peoplewith autism, and can enable independentfunctioning.
15Use visual cues to reinforce any information you need to convey. PicturesSymbolsDrawingsWordsSign-languageGesturesCombinations
163A daily scheduleCan be only pictures, only words, or a combination of the two.Can be faded, but should be availableif the student experiences levels of stressincreasing the level of support needed.
18Determine communicative function of behavior 4Determine communicative function of behaviorBe a detective! Watch for patterns in behavior, antecedents and results.Seek input from EVERYONE who workswith the student.Functional Behavior Analysis, doneproperly, will help staff begin to understandwhat the student is really saying.
20Shape, don’t eliminate, self-stimulatory behavior 5Shape, don’t eliminate, self-stimulatory behaviorIf student is making noise (clicking, tapping pencil), try providing the same sensory input in a more appropriate way.Recognize when the student is exhibitinga need for sensory stimulation.
21Allow student to hold something (if needed) during structured large group activities. Teach student to recognize andrequest sensory stimulation.Allow student to choose a safe areain the room which they find calming.
22Some activities that will provide sensory stimulation….. Chewing, which is helpful in organizing the brainAlphabet letters, words andnumbers are calmingSmells can help to alert or calm
23Remember: Each student has their own unique sensory diet! Incorporate music and motor movements into instruction as much as possible.Get a rocking chair,exercise bicycle andmini-trampolinefor the classroom!Remember: Each student has their own unique sensory diet!
246 Plan for generalization When it cannot be learned where it will Provide instruction in the typical environment whenever possible- if the skill is learned where it will be used, the work is cut in half!When it cannot be learned where it willbe used, provide as many elements ofthe typical environment as possible(lighting, noise, physical layout, etc.),and transition training.
257 Identify reinforcers Ask the student!!! And……… Put on your detective hat again!Observe, observe, observeIdentify things which seem to calm the student:movement patternsresponse to auditory stimulivisual preferenceAnd………Ask the student!!!
268 Frequent choice-making Creates a sense of control Allows the student to choose activitieswhich enhance feelings of safetyStrengthen the student’s motivation toincrease communication skills!
279Don’t talk too much!Many people with autism are easily overwhelmed with sensory information.Since we believe many people withautism are highly visual in nature,the verbal input may actually decreasetheir ability to process the visual input.
28Reduce “ancillary” words…. “Just the facts, ma’am!’Try reducing directions to just thekey informational words-who, what, when, where, why, etc.
2910 Evaluate, Evaluate, Evaluate Observe and record responses to Just as children change, their responses change. Weather, physical state, emotional state- all play a part.Observe and record responses toevery strategy attempted to determinebest practice for this student.
30Always have a backup plan (or two or three!) in your bag of tricks! Document results of your evaluation-you will not be the only personto use the information!
31Ten Considerations for Students with Asperger Syndrome
32Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project 1Structure Seat ArrangementStudents with Asperger Syndromeare easy targets for BulliesBe aware of bullies or otherwise aggressive students seat the student with ASnext to an understanding or “model” student who might be a peer buddy or“social translator”Proximity matters – might be best next to the teacher or an open quiet areaIf the seat arrangement is found to be negative, make changes in context witha full class change or other changesIllinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
33Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project Good Seating ChoicesNext to a “model” studentNear the teacherA quieter area of the classseat the student with AS next to an understanding or “model” student whomight be a peer buddy or “social translator”Proximity matters – might be best next to the teacher or an open quiet areaIf the seat arrangement is found to be negative, make changes in context witha full class change or other changesIllinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
34Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project Group Work2The characteristics of students with AS can make group work challenging and sometimes horrible experiences.Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
35Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project Some Ideas about Group WorkAvoid self-selectionTeach all students how to functionin a groupSuggest tasks or rolesCarefully consider the maturity and nature of the group when including a studentWith AS –Have written procedures – Before making a plan- have a go-around whereeveryone makes a suggestion, each person has a job, etcPropose a task for each student – pick a skill area of the student with AS(computer research, etc)Provide a stop watch or timer for the amount of time each person talks (helpsThe student with AS not to dominate – also keeps the whole group on task)Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
363 Make your Classroom a Caring Community Model and praise respect and caringZero tolerance for unkind remarks or actionsWhatever you can do to create safe, supportive accepting community foreveryone will help the student with AS along with everyone elseModel respect and caringHave zero tolerance for put-downs, name calling or unkind remarks
37Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project 4Use Visual SupportsSometime people think these kids can talk – are smart and don’t need visuals - Students with AS usually need and respond well to visualsIllinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
38Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project SequencesCalendarsScheduleClass jobsSpaceDisplay prominently – refer to it oftenexamplesIllinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
39Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project 4Use Organizational SupportsIllinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
40Break assignments down into steps Examples of expectations Graphic organizersBreak assignments down into stepsExamples of expectationsOutlines and guided notesOrganized notebooksIllinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance ProjectIllinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project
41Morning Checklist Put away backpack Make lunch selection ActivityPut away backpackMake lunch selectionTurn in HomeworkPick reward from menu
42Homework Checklist I filled out my agenda book for all my classes Lang ArtsMathScienceI have my assignments for all my classesI have all the textbooks I need for my homeworkI have the supplies I need for my homeworkCalculatorNotebookI have checked out with Ms. JonesTime ________
435Prepare for ChangeWhenever possible, explain changes well in advance, put in writingDiscussion at beginning of the year, explaining there are sometimes changes thatwe cannot do anything about
44Clearly stated and posted class rules Private conversation Signal Be an interpreterStudents with AS might fixate on a subject and continue long after class hasmoved on, make comments out of place - if allowed, can affect negativepeer reactionNeed to have specific rules posted – 5 min for questions, others need to be writtenDown and given to me, no one can ask a second question or comment until allOthers have has a chance to speakMay need a private conversation to explain directly to student what that meansAnd what it expectedInobtrusive signal reminderIf you can understand and see the value of what is being said that mightBe being missed by peers, you can restate and explain
456 Reduce Stress Related Activities Many students with AS can become easily overwhelmedWhether it is by the noise, crowds, the chaos, or sometimes just the effort andStress of engaging in social interaction required for the entire school day
46Ear plugs or headphones Alternative activity for difficult events A designated support person/placeAssemblies, pep rallies, unstructured time can be very difficult and increaseanxiety - sometimes better to offer an alternative activitySometimes just being around others is a constant effort to fit ina designated person and quiet place can offer the student needed respite so he canbe more able to work the rest of the day
47Coping CardsTake 2 deep breathswith your eyes closedPress your hands togetherand count to 10 slowly
48Feeling Anxious All people feel anxious now and then. It is acceptable to feel anxious. Our bodies,thoughts and actions can tell us when weare feeling anxious. Anxiety may look differentfor different people. For some, they may feel itin their stomach. When I feel overwhelmed withnoise in class or am sensitive to other’s touch,that might tell me that I am feeling anxious. Ican use the relaxation techniques on my copingcards.Bixler, 2006
495 4 3 2 1 Incredible 5-Point Scale rating description setting ScreamingEmergency only4Outside VoiceBall game3Talking voiceClassroom2Soft voiceLibrary1No talkingWhen someone is talking to meBuron, K.D., & Cutis, M. (2003) The Incredible 5-Point Scale
507 “SAVE” the student Students with AS do not have internal social understandingAs a result, they are often seen as rude, irritating and immatureMetaphors, simple teasing,or sarcasm that other might think funny can be takenLiterally and misunderstoodAccidents taken as deliberate intent to hurt
51Matter – of – fact explanation Use a peer “social translator” Label the commentMatter – of – fact explanationUse a peer “social translator”That was a joke meaningThat is a metaphor that meansJohn lost his balancePeers can be Social translator, explaining the social understanding of whatwas meant, happened in from peer to peer
528 Promote Positive Peer Interaction Direct toward structured activitiesAvoid unstructured activitiesIdentify arenas where the studentcan contributeHow to connect student with some of the most kind, empathetic peersBecause they may not have the social intuition or social learning, they maynot be able to know how, and will need direct instructionCompetitive Math groups, Geography teams,Also, assist in avoiding those activities where “geeks” are not that welcomeor supportedPeer Buddy ProgramTutoring in an area of strength, class presentation on area of strengthCommunity service
539 Capitalize on Special Interests Use special interests to bridge classroom contentOrganize areas where the strength can be utilized – like computer research butmay need to be structured (must work with another person and only search fortopics designatedTeach another classmate to search
5410 Teach The Hidden Curriculum Myles, Trautman, Schelvan, 2004 All the subtle, unwritten rules that we learn as a part of living are oftenmisunderstood or totally missing for a person with ASThey must be taught DIRECTLY for a person with ASMyles, Trautman, Schelvan, 2004
55Conversation RulesWho you are with determines what you should talk aboutWhen making conversation, avoid constantly telling others how good you are at something. This usually makes others avoid being around you.Keep approximately an arms distance away from the person you are talking with
56Rules for Class Discussion No insultsMake on-topic remarksFocus on speakerQuiet mouthThink about topic