Presentation on theme: "Biodiesel Fuel Quality and Proper handling"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biodiesel Fuel Quality and Proper handling Hoon GeEdward Gorr
2 National Biodiesel Board Represents the biodiesel industry as the coordinating body for research and development in the US. Founded in 1992 by state soybean commodity groups.NBB’s membership is comprised of state, national, and international feedstock and feedstock processor organizations, biodiesel suppliers, fuel marketers and distributors, and technology providers.2
4 Machinery Exhibit – 1900 World’s Fair Rudolph Diesel demonstrated his compression ignition engine, which at the request of the French Government, ran on peanut oil.The French Government wanted energy independence for its African Colonies.“The French Government at the time thought of testing the applicability to power production of the Arachide, or earth-nut, which grows in considerable quantities in their African colonies, and which can be easily cultivated there, because in this way the colonies could be supplied with power and industry from their own resources, without being compelled to buy and import coal or liquid fuel.” – Rudolph Diesel- Jeffrey Howe4
5 History of BiodieselVegetable oils were used in diesel engines until the 1920's when engines began using diesel fuel5
6 History of BiodieselEnergy crunch of the 1970s stimulated biofuels research but federal research monies disappeared in the 1980s.First literature use of the term biodiesel is found in a Chinese paper published in The next paper using that term appeared in 1991.6
8 Biodiesel DefinedBiodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D 6751.Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.8
9 Definition of Biodiesel ChemicallyMono Alkyl EsterFunctionallySurrogate for petroleum distillatesNomenclatureB100 = 100% pure Biodiesel, AKA “neat”B20 = 20% Biodiesel & 80% petroleum diesel
11 Making Biodiesel - Raw Vegetable Oil is NOT Biodiesel! (Catalyst)100 pounds pounds = 10 pounds poundsTriglyceride Alcohol Glycerin Mono-Alkyl Esters_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________Soy oil Methanol Biodiesel- Raw Vegetable Oil is NOT Biodiesel!- Other ‘biomass’ products aren’t Biodiesel- Must meet ASTM D 6751
12 Biodiesel Raw Materials Oil or Fat AlcoholSoybean Methanol (common)Corn EthanolCanolaCottonseed CatalystSunflower Sodium hydroxideBeef tallow Potassium hydroxidePork lardUsed cooking oils
13 Other Ingredients Alcohol Catalyst Methanol is primary choice Ethanol is possibleIsopropyl, any alcohol can be used in the reactionThe decision to be made is the cost of the material, the reaction time/vessel sizes, the cost/capability to recover the excessCatalystSodium Methylate is primary choicePotassium Methylate is possibleNaOH/KOH, while they can be used introduce water to the reactionFixed catalysts are being developed for efficiency in processNo catalyst is required, but the yield is low, inefficient process13
14 The Biodiesel Reaction In the presence of a catalystCombiningYieldsVegetable OilorAnimal Fat(100 lbs.)+Methanol orEthanol(10 lbs.)Biodiesel(100 lbs.)+Glycerine(10 lbs.)14
15 Important Biodiesel Parameters Removal of GlycerinInsured through total and free glycerin testsEurope has a percent ester spec but ASTM chose not to doWill cause injector coking, filter plugging, sediment formationShortens shelf lifeRemoval of CatalystInsured through sulfated ash testMay cause injector deposits and/or filter plugging15
16 Important Biodiesel Parameters Removal of AlcoholInsured through flash point or GC testsMay cause premature injector failure, safety concernRemoval of Free Fatty AcidsInsured through acid number testWill cause fuel system deposits and effect fuel pump and filter operation16
17 Biodiesel Attributes High Cetane (avg. over 50) Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. ~ 2 ppm)High Lubricity, even in blends as low at 1-2%High Energy Balance (3.2 to 1)Low Agriculture Inputs: Soybeans78% Life Cycle CO2 ReductionRenewable, SustainableDomestically ProducedReduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel enginesReduces NOx in boilers and home heating
18 Biodiesel ASTM D6751Property ASTM Method Limits UnitsCalcium & Magnesium, combined EN max ppm (ug/g)Flash Point (closed cup) D min Degrees CAlcohol Control (One of the following must be met)Methanol Content EN Max % volumeFlash Point D Min DegreesWater & Sediment D max. % vol.Kinematic Viscosity, 40 C D mm2/sec.Sulfated Ash D max. % massSulfurS 15 Grade D max. (15) % mass (ppm)S 500 Grade D max. (500) % mass (ppm)Copper Strip Corrosion D No. 3 max.Cetane D min.Cloud Point D Report Degrees CCarbon Residue 100% sample D 4530* max. % massAcid Number D max. mg KOH/gFree Glycerin D max. % massTotal Glycerin D max. % massPhosphorus Content D max. % massDistillation, T90 AET D max. Degrees CSodium/Potassium, combined EN max ppmOxidation Stability EN min hours
19 ASTM - D6751 (B100)Review your fuel analysis to ensure incoming fuel meets agreed upon specificationsIf either the biodiesel or generic diesel fuel fails to meet the agreed specification, notify your fuel supplier immediatelyRetain samples (quart) minimum should analytical work be required to evaluate future issues
25 EPA HD Emissions Averages Emission TypeB100B20B2Total Unburned Hydrocarbons-67%-20%-2.2%Carbon Monoxide-48%-12%-1.3%Particulate Matter-47%Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX)+10%+2%+.2%
26 Historical Overview of NOx Issue Up until early in 2005 it was widely accepted that B20 caused a small, 2%, increase in NOxConclusion of EPA review published in 2002Based in large part on data acquired by McCormick and coworkers, Sharp and coworkers, etc.In February of 2005 we tested 3 vehicles that showed NOx reductionSubsequent review of EPA’s analysis showed that nearly half of the data reviewed were for one engine modelSubsequent tests with a range of engine models are finding changes in NOx that range roughly from about +5 to -5%Varies with engine modelAverage change is zeroDataset is NOT representative of in-use vehicles
27 NOx Emissions, Chassis Data Bus Chassis Dynamometer Testing:Using B20 in City Suburban Heavy Vehicle CycleCummins ISM 2000 Engine.Unexpected NOx REDUCTION of 5% with statistical confidence of >99%.NOx emission changes are caused by differences in test cycles and engine technology.Graph taken from NREL website:
29 Biodiesel Tax Incentive Biodiesel DemandChanges to EPACTBioenergyProgramBiodiesel Tax Incentive
30 Heating Oil MarketAlmost as much heating oil is sold in the Northeast as on highway diesel fuel5.1 billion gallons vs. 5.5 billion gallonsHeating oil industry is attempting to remake itself as more environmentally friendly and renewableCould provide a good winter outlet for biodieselWork is being done to integrate into Underwriters Laboratory certification
31 The industry would utilize 761 million gallons of B100 annually. If Every Trucker Used B2The industry would utilize 761 million gallons of B100 annually.
32 Fuel AvailabilityFuel available through direct shipment from over 1,956 petroleum distributors nationwideOver 1,234 retail filling stations nationwide648 locations are semi-truck accessibleMovement towards biodiesel at the terminal – over 158 terminals nationwide32
40 Production Capacity Trends The industry is tending towards larger facilitiesVegetable oil facilities are larger than recycled cooking oil plantsPlants capable of handling multiple feedstocks are becoming more commonProduction capacity does not equal production for several reasonsSome facilities are just starting upSome facilities choose to run less than 24/7Some facilities have no effectively debottlenecked their systems to maximize their outputSome facilities overestimate their capacity
42 ULSD and BiodieselBiodiesel is slightly heavier than petroleum diesel with a gravity value of 0.88 versus 0.85.Biodiesel should be introduced after diesel fuel and should be agitated in the tank during splash blending procedures.Storage and blending of B100 should be maintained at +10 degrees F above the B100’s cloud and pour point to blend successfully.Blends will not separate inthe presence of water.
43 Blending Options (Splash) The biodiesel and diesel fuel are loaded into a tank separately with relatively little mixing occurring as the fuels are placed in the tank.The tank is usually the actual delivery truck.The delivery truck movement as well as the physical drop at the end user’s site provides adequate agitation to successfully blend the fuels.
44 Blending Options (In-Tank Blend) Biodiesel and diesel fuel are loaded separately, or at the same time through different incoming sources, but at high speeds which sufficiently mix without the need for additional mixing, recirculation or agitation.Similar to splash blending but not dependent on delivery activity to continue mixing procedures.
45 Blending Options (Bottom Loading) B20 is frequently blended in bottom loading tank trucksBiodiesel loaded first, followed by diesel fuel where mixing begins.Putting B100 into a cold empty truck can cause the B100 to gel which prohibits mixing properly
46 Blend Options (In-Line Blend) Biodiesel is added to a stream of diesel fuel as it travels through a pipe or hose in such as way that the biodiesel and diesel fuel become thoroughly mixed by the turbulence encountered in the pipe.
47 Why Blend Biodiesel into ULSD? Compatible with the compression ignition platform and with diesel fuel itselfGreatly enhances lubricity of ULSDCompatible with 2007 diesel engine catalystsAids with ULSD conductivity issuesReduces harmful emissionsPower and performance virtually unchangedSeamless & transparent with existing petroleum infrastructure, (liquid not gaseous)Promotes national energy securityRenewable, non-toxic, green blend stock option
49 ULSD & Lubricity Sulfur compounds are natural lubricants in diesel. ULSD regulations are causing major concerns with diesel engine performance.ASTM lubricity requirement effective Jan 1, 2005 for diesel fuels.ASTM D 6079-High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)-Wear Scar Maximum = 520 micrometers
50 Biodiesel Adds Significant Lubricity to ULSD The average lubricity of Biodiesel blends compare to lubricity additives.
51 Effects of Biodiesel on the Lubricity of Diesel fuel.
55 2007 Model Year EnginesEPA regulations require reduced sulfur in diesel fuel for 2007 model year engines80% of highway diesel fuel must be ULSD (< 15ppm sulfur) beginning june1, 2006Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filterscan eliminate 99% of solid particles(soot & metals) and eliminate>90% of semi-volatilehydrocarbons.Source: EPA
56 Diesel Particle Filters (DPF) Diesel particle filters (DPF) are found in all 2007 model year diesel vehicles.What possible advantages or disadvantages may result from using biodiesel blends in these engines?The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducting a study in order to define these effects on DPFs.
57 Indicators of DPF Performance Filter regeneration rate increased significantly when using blends as low as B5. Lower particulate temperature and less particulate input contributed.“Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter Performance.” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, March 2006.
58 Materials Compatibility B100 may adversely affect some elastomers such as natural or nitrile rubbers over time.Most elastomers used after 1993 are compatible with B100 (Viton/Teflon).Blends (B20) effect is less, or non-existent.Normal monitoring of hoses and gaskets for leaks is sufficient with B20.Consult with your parts supplier ormechanical engineering partners.
59 Materials Compatibility Biodiesel and biodiesel blends will form high sediment levels when in contact with the following metals:-Brass, Bronze, Copper, Lead, Tin and ZincBiodiesel is compatible with:-Mild and Stainless Steel, Aluminum
60 Biodiesel Position with OEM’s Original Equipment Manufacturers:B100 Must Meet ASTM D 6751Most OEM HQ’s have B20 experience:Won’t void warranteeProblems caused by the fuel are the responsibility of the fuel supplierWant to see additional experience in the fieldHigher blends OK’d based on experience of OEM and their technology
62 No matter where you are in the supply chain both you and your staff are responsible for ensuring optimum storage environments for your fuelsThe three basic ways which fuel may become contaminated are air, water and the fuel itselfClean Tanks
63 Exposure to AirEnters through vent pipes and contains large amounts of moisture.Generally displaces the fuel as tank is emptied.It is not practical to keep air from entering the tank.Will increase the oxidation of fuel.Do not store fuels for long periods of time in partially empty tanks without stabilizers.Consider desiccant dryers.
64 WaterFree water in the fuel system accelerates corrosion and fuel degradation, it can also create a fertile growing place for “bugs.”Poor tank design has made complete removal of water impossible.Enters mostly as condensation from air. Vents and seals that are poorly constructed or maintained can allow water to infiltrate the storage tank.
65 Exposure to Fuel Contaminants Stored fuel will degrade forming insoluble materials.Insolubles will plug filters, foul injectors and form combustion system deposits which promotes fuel system corrosion.Fuel can bring in contaminants during the delivery process, sand, dirt etc.Lack of housekeeping practices will absolutely increase operational headaches.
66 Maintaining Your Fuel Quality Begin by specifying ASTM designed fuels, 6751 and 975Reference cold weather performance and other special needs prior to orderingBe proactive with general housekeeping practicesMaintain optimum storage conditionsExecute a quarterly fuel analysis program to ensure good preventative measures.
67 Steps to Maintaining Fuel Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark EnvironmentKeep Tank Topped off to eliminate head spaceMonitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaksStorage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months.Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination
68 Tips for Biodiesel Handling In the winter months, it’s important to use appropriate additives to ensure good winter-weather operability.If any biodiesel is spilled, it is important to clean it up quickly. Pure biodiesel may remove paint from equipment.
69 Tips for Biodiesel Handling When switching from diesel fuel to biodiesel blend, it may be necessary to change the fuel filter an extra time or two.
71 Monoglyceride Build-up (rare) Biodiesel IssueMonoglyceride Build-up (rare)Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if the glycerin levels are too high in the biodiesel used in the blend
72 Other Issues We have Seen Paraffin Wax High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed.When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank.Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel.Icing of the filterSince the temperatures of engines are warm, any moisture picked up within the engine can be brought back to the fuel lines. This moisture can freeze overnight in low ambient temperatures.
73 Sediment/Rust build-up Some of the filters had solid sediment within the folds and solid particles in the filter casing.Sediment present in the fuel or rust particles from within the engine can collect over time and plug the filter even when there are not necessarily problems with the fuel.OxidationBecause many newer engines run at higher temperatures, there may be a black “asphaltene” type material collecting on the filter.This phenomenon has been seen all around the country, often in newer engines.
74 Microbial GrowthSeveral filters showed high content of live microbial organisms or a build-up of dead microbial material. The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell.The lack of sulfur in biodiesel and ULSD aids in the build-up of such organisms since sulfur is a key component of many biocides and is a natural inhibitor of bacterial and fungal growth.
75 What Are Microbes?Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel.They live at the fuel/water interface.The hydrocarbons in the fuel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen.This environment is needed for living,growth, and reproduction.
76 Where Do They Come From? Air Water Contains airborne microorganisms, yeast and mold spores, and dirt particles that can enter through tank vents.WaterWater, unless sterilized, can contain a variety microorganisms.
77 Treatment and Prevention BiocidesThree major groups: Fuel soluble, Water soluble, and Universally soluble.Need to be EPA registered and compatible with the lubricant.Preventing Fuel ContaminationPreventing contamination from air and water requires proper tank maintenance and cleaning
78 Biocide: Universally Soluble Stable in both fuel and water.Primarily fuel soluble with sufficient water solubility to perform in both phases.Can be transported throughout the fuel system and be effective against biofilms and bottom water microbes.Contains sulfur.Relatively expensive.
79 Preventing Contamination: Tank Cleaning Clean TanksCan be expensive and disruptive.Needs to be used in conjunction with a biocide treatment.The biocide should be used after the tank is clean, then fuel should be added (to eliminate microbes collected on the bottom of the tank).As a preventative measure, it is important to keep tanks as full of fuel as possible, and to keep the amount of air in the tank minimal.
81 How it all began The RFS Program took effect September 1, 2007 Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05) provides for a renewable fuels requirement.The RFS Program took effect September 1, 2007
82 Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) RINs are generated by renewable fuel producers and importers and assigned to batches that they transferRepresent volumes of renewable fuel produced.RINs are the tools obligated parties utilize to demonstrate compliance with their annual renewable fuel volume obligations.
83 KYYYYCCCCFFFFFBBBBBRRDSSSSSSSSEEEEEEEE RIN CodesThe Renewable Identification Number (RIN) is a 38-character numeric code in the format:KYYYYCCCCFFFFFBBBBBRRDSSSSSSSSEEEEEEEEK RIN assignment code (1=assigned, 2=unassigned)YYYY Year batch is produced/imported (when it leaves the facility)CCCC Company registration IDFFFFF Facility registration IDBBBBB Producer assigned batch numberRR Equivalence Value for the renewable fuelD Renewable type code (1=cellulosic; 2=non-cellulosic)SSSSSSSS RIN Block Starting NumberEEEEEEEE RIN Block Ending Number
84 Equivalence ValuesThe Equivalence Value indicates how many gallon-RINs can be generated for each gallon of renewable fuelThe EPA has specified the Equivalence Value for several renewable fuels using volumetric energy content in comparison to ethanol (adjusted for renewable content)Corn-ethanol:Cellulosic biomass ethanol: 2.5Biodiesel (alkyl esters): 1.5Renewable diesel: 1.7Biobutanol:
85 Compliance by Marketers/Producers Biodiesel Producer or Importer:Must attach RINs to volumes of fuel and transfer those RINs for any blends greater than B80 (on-road)An assigned RIN cannot be transferred to another party without simultaneously transferring a volume of renewable fuel to that same party.("Transfer" means a change in ownership, not custody; Change in custody but not ownership has no RIN responsibilities)The requirements for parties that buy and sell renewable fuel are designed to ensure that RINs generated make their way to the obligated parties who need them85
86 Compliance At the end of each quarter: ≤ Cannot own any more assigned RINs (with K = 1) than gallons of renewable fuel (adjusted for its Equivalence Value)Sum of assigned gallon-RINs≤Volume of renewable fuel owned X Equivalence Value per volumeThis requirement ensures that, at least quarterly, RINs have been transferred with volume and obligated parties have opportunities to get RINs
87 Quarterly Reporting RIN Transaction Report: RIN Generation Report: Each facility owned by a renewable fuel producer must report information pertaining to the RINs generated and attached to a “batch” produced; or imported.RIN Transaction Report:Any transaction where biodiesel produced is sold to a second party will need a separate report submitted to document change of ownership transactions(including providing registration information for 2nd party)RIN Activity Report:Summary report for RIN related activity during a quarter for RINs owned by the reporting party. Includes status (assigned or separated); volumes of renewable fuel owned at the end of a quarter; current year RINs owned at start of quarter; etc.
88 Annual Reporting Attest Engagement: Annual “attest engagement” completed by a CPA or certified internal auditor to verify the accuracy of the information contained in the reports submitted to EPA by covered entities.Due Date: Attest Engagements are due May 31st of the year following compliance year. (Ex. May 31, 2009 for compliance year 2008).
89 Registration with the EPA Any entity that owns or intends to own biodiesel with RINs attached is required to register with the EPA.Registration with the EPA is required prior to owning fuel with RINs attached.
90 Additional RFS Resources Renewable Fuel Standard RegulationsCompliance Help InformationPMAA is working with their state associations in an effort to disseminate information to their member marketers as quickly as possible to help educate them on their compliance requirements.
92 BQ-9000 “Quality Assurance Program” “Specifies requirements for a quality assurance program where an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to provide product that meets ASTM D 6751… and applicable regulatory requirements, and to address quality assurance through the effective application of the program…”HELPS ENSURE THAT END-USER IS GETTING HIGH-QUALITY BIODIESEL!!
93 NBB Fuel Quality Policy The National Biodiesel Board is a strong proponent of ASTM D-6751.The National Biodiesel Board created the National Biodiesel Accreditation Commission in 2000 and charged it with developing a certification program for quality biodiesel producers and marketers. The resulting certification program is BQ-9000.NBB will encourage active enforcement of D6751 by the IRS, the EPA, the US Department of Agriculture, and individual state Weights and Measures Bureaus.
94 Fuel Quality BQ-9000 Assures “cradle-to-grave” fuel quality Fuel quality is of the utmost concern and importance to the biodiesel industry.ASTM D 6751 is the specification for biodiesel fuels irrespective of the feedstock source and/or processing method.BQ-9000 Assures “cradle-to-grave” fuel quality“cradle”“grave”Current Accredited Producers Application Process Audits In ProcessAccredited Producers Accredited ProducersPeter Cremer Stephan Company Huish DetergentsWest Central Evergreen Renewables World EnergyDow Haltermann MN. Soybean Processors CargillEastman Chemical FUMPA Bioenergy of ColoradoImperial Western Products Griffin IndustriesAGPCertified Marketers Certified MarketersMN. Soybean Processors Trans MontaigneFUMPA World EnergySC Petroleum Western States PetroleumPro Petroelum
95 Who and What are Accredited Two accreditations possible for companies:BQ-9000 Accredited ProducerBQ-9000 Certified MarketerBQ-9000 accredits companies, not fuelThere is no such thing as 'BQ-9000 Biodiesel'BQ-9000 does, however, help insure that biodiesel produced and sold will meet D 6751
96 Benefits of BQ-9000Provides the biodiesel users (individuals, fleets, government agencies, etc.) with a feeling of confidenceImproved consistency saves biodiesel producers and marketers time and money by minimizing problems with out of specification fuelYour competitive position within the industry is strengthened as you gain a market advantage through recognition of quality
97 BQ-9000 Initial Registration Complete the ApplicationSubmit Quality ManualPay $1000 application feeProvide proof of EPA Registration
98 BQ-9000 Accreditation The Commission reviews the application and application materials:Applications considered administratively complete shall be accepted for processingand audit.$ 2,500 Certification Audit Fee
99 BQ-9000 AccreditationAuditor is assigned, establishes the audit schedule with applicant.Desk audit to verify written complianceOn-site audit to verify compliance.The Commission reviews results of audits, votes on the company’s status.If applicant passes audit, Commission grants accreditation for 2 years.
100 Accreditation Timeline Avg. Length (days)Accreditation StepQuality Manual, Application & Audit Fees Received7-10Quality Manual from NBAC to Auditor10Desk Audit180Set Onsite Audit Date & Resolve Desk Audit Issues (scheduled 6 months from implementation date of all elements of quality system)1.5Registration Audit30Resolve NonconformancesFinal Report & Recommendations10-21NBAC Meets & ApprovesTotal
101 ALWAYS BUY PRODUCT FROM BQ-9000 CERTIFIED PRODUCERS OR MARKETERS!!!
102 Accredited Producers (19) Johann Haltermann LtdRenewable Energy Group, Inc.Western Iowa EnergyAGPMinnesota Soybean ProcessorsOrganic Fuels, LLCPeach State LabsGriffin IndustriesCargillImperial Western ProductsStepan CompanyPurada Processing, LLCPeter CremerHuish DetergentsFUMPA BioFuelsSeattle BiodieselSoymorFurtureFuel Chemical CompanyCarolina Biofuels, LLC
108 Other Biodiesel Resources Biodiesel MagazineA ‘MUST HAVE’ magazineBiodiesel Industry Directory On-Line
109 Biodiesel Help-line Established to: Provide triage for fuel problems problems not adequately addressed by distributors/producersDiagnose/analyze/assist with problems from:customersfleetsfuel distributorsProvide assistance through chemical analysisThrough the use of third party LabHelp provide assistance to users to ensure the image/integrity of Biodiesel is maintained.
110 Contact InformationThe National Biodiesel Helpline is:For when you cannot get help elsewhere.Not meant for General guidance issues.You should always begin by asking your fuel supplier, they will most likely be able to answer your question more accurately.