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Biodiesel Fuel Quality and Proper handling Hoon Ge Edward Gorr.

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1 Biodiesel Fuel Quality and Proper handling Hoon Ge Edward Gorr

2 National Biodiesel Board Represents the biodiesel industry as the coordinating body for research and development in the US. Represents the biodiesel industry as the coordinating body for research and development in the US. Founded in 1992 by state soybean commodity groups. Founded in 1992 by state soybean commodity groups. NBBs membership is comprised of state, national, and international feedstock and feedstock processor organizations, biodiesel suppliers, fuel marketers and distributors, and technology providers. NBBs membership is comprised of state, national, and international feedstock and feedstock processor organizations, biodiesel suppliers, fuel marketers and distributors, and technology providers.

3 History of Biodiesel

4 Machinery Exhibit – 1900 Worlds Fair Rudolph Diesel demonstrated his compression ignition engine, which at the request of the French Government, ran on peanut oil. - Jeffrey Howe

5 History of Biodiesel Vegetable oils were used in diesel engines until the 1920's when engines began using diesel fuel Vegetable oils were used in diesel engines until the 1920's when engines began using diesel fuel

6 History of Biodiesel Energy crunch of the 1970s stimulated biofuels research but federal research monies disappeared in the 1980s. Energy crunch of the 1970s stimulated biofuels research but federal research monies disappeared in the 1980s. First literature use of the term biodiesel is found in a Chinese paper published in The next paper using that term appeared in 1991.

7 Biodiesel 101

8 Biodiesel Defined Biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D Biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel. Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.

9 Definition of Biodiesel Chemically Mono Alkyl Ester Functionally Surrogate for petroleum distillates Nomenclature B100 = 100% pure Biodiesel, AKA neat B20 = 20% Biodiesel & 80% petroleum diesel

10 5 Most Common Methyl-Esters in Biodiesel

11 Making Biodiesel (Catalyst) (Catalyst) 100 pounds + 10 pounds = 10 pounds pounds Triglyceride Alcohol Glycerin Mono-Alkyl Esters _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____ Soy oil Methanol Biodiesel - Raw Vegetable Oil is NOT Biodiesel! - Raw Vegetable Oil is NOT Biodiesel! - Other biomass products arent Biodiesel - Other biomass products arent Biodiesel - Must meet ASTM D Must meet ASTM D 6751

12 Biodiesel Raw Materials Oil or FatAlcohol SoybeanMethanol (common) CornEthanol Canola CottonseedCatalyst SunflowerSodium hydroxide Beef tallowPotassium hydroxide Pork lard Used cooking oils

13 Other Ingredients Other Ingredients Alcohol Alcohol Methanol is primary choice Methanol is primary choice Ethanol is possible Ethanol is possible Isopropyl, any alcohol can be used in the reaction Isopropyl, any alcohol can be used in the reaction The decision to be made is the cost of the material, the reaction time/vessel sizes, the cost/capability to recover the excess The decision to be made is the cost of the material, the reaction time/vessel sizes, the cost/capability to recover the excess Catalyst Catalyst Sodium Methylate is primary choice Sodium Methylate is primary choice Potassium Methylate is possible Potassium Methylate is possible NaOH/KOH, while they can be used introduce water to the reaction NaOH/KOH, while they can be used introduce water to the reaction Fixed catalysts are being developed for efficiency in process Fixed catalysts are being developed for efficiency in process No catalyst is required, but the yield is low, inefficient process No catalyst is required, but the yield is low, inefficient process

14 The Biodiesel Reaction Vegetable Oil or Animal Fat (100 lbs.) + Methanol or Ethanol (10 lbs.) Biodiesel (100 lbs.) + Glycerine (10 lbs.) In the presence of a catalyst CombiningYields

15 Important Biodiesel Parameters Removal of Glycerin Removal of Glycerin Insured through total and free glycerin tests Insured through total and free glycerin tests Europe has a percent ester spec but ASTM chose not to do Europe has a percent ester spec but ASTM chose not to do Will cause injector coking, filter plugging, sediment formation Will cause injector coking, filter plugging, sediment formation Shortens shelf life Shortens shelf life Removal of Catalyst Removal of Catalyst Insured through sulfated ash test Insured through sulfated ash test May cause injector deposits and/or filter plugging May cause injector deposits and/or filter plugging

16 Important Biodiesel Parameters Removal of Alcohol Removal of Alcohol Insured through flash point or GC tests Insured through flash point or GC tests May cause premature injector failure, safety concern May cause premature injector failure, safety concern Removal of Free Fatty Acids Removal of Free Fatty Acids Insured through acid number test Insured through acid number test Will cause fuel system deposits and effect fuel pump and filter operation Will cause fuel system deposits and effect fuel pump and filter operation

17 Biodiesel Attributes High Cetane (avg. over 50) High Cetane (avg. over 50) Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. ~ 2 ppm) Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. ~ 2 ppm) High Lubricity, even in blends as low at 1-2% High Lubricity, even in blends as low at 1-2% High Energy Balance (3.2 to 1) High Energy Balance (3.2 to 1) Low Agriculture Inputs: Soybeans Low Agriculture Inputs: Soybeans 78% Life Cycle CO 2 Reduction 78% Life Cycle CO 2 Reduction Renewable, Sustainable Renewable, Sustainable Domestically Produced Domestically Produced Reduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel engines Reduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel engines Reduces NOx in boilers and home heating Reduces NOx in boilers and home heating

18 Biodiesel ASTM D6751 Property ASTM Method Limits Units Calcium & Magnesium, combined EN max ppm (ug/g) Calcium & Magnesium, combined EN max ppm (ug/g) Flash Point (closed cup) D min. Degrees C Flash Point (closed cup) D min. Degrees C Alcohol Control (One of the following must be met) Alcohol Control (One of the following must be met) Methanol Content EN Max % volume Methanol Content EN Max % volume Flash Point D Min Degrees Flash Point D Min Degrees Water & SedimentD max. % vol. Water & SedimentD max. % vol. Kinematic Viscosity, 40 CD mm2/sec. Kinematic Viscosity, 40 CD mm2/sec. Sulfated Ash D max. % mass Sulfated Ash D max. % mass Sulfur Sulfur S 15 Grade D max. (15) % mass (ppm) S 15 Grade D max. (15) % mass (ppm) S 500 Grade D max. (500) % mass (ppm) S 500 Grade D max. (500) % mass (ppm) Copper Strip CorrosionD 130 No. 3 max. Copper Strip CorrosionD 130 No. 3 max. Cetane D min. Cetane D min. Cloud Point D 2500 Report Degrees C Cloud Point D 2500 Report Degrees C Carbon Residue 100% sample D 4530* 0.05 max. % mass Carbon Residue 100% sample D 4530* 0.05 max. % mass Acid Number D max. mg KOH/g Acid Number D max. mg KOH/g Free Glycerin D max. % mass Free Glycerin D max. % mass Total Glycerin D max. % mass Total Glycerin D max. % mass Phosphorus Content D max.% mass Phosphorus Content D max.% mass Distillation, T90 AETD max. Degrees C Distillation, T90 AETD max. Degrees C Sodium/Potassium, combined EN max ppm Sodium/Potassium, combined EN max ppm Oxidation Stability EN min hours Oxidation Stability EN min hours

19 ASTM - D6751 (B100) Review your fuel analysis to ensure incoming fuel meets agreed upon specifications Review your fuel analysis to ensure incoming fuel meets agreed upon specifications If either the biodiesel or generic diesel fuel fails to meet the agreed specification, notify your fuel supplier immediately If either the biodiesel or generic diesel fuel fails to meet the agreed specification, notify your fuel supplier immediately Retain samples (quart) minimum should analytical work be required to evaluate future issues Retain samples (quart) minimum should analytical work be required to evaluate future issues

20 Emissions

21 U.S. CO2 Emissions

22 Transportation Emissions Increasing

23 Biodiesel CO2 Cycle

24 Reduction in Emissions

25 EPA HD Emissions Averages Emission TypeB100B20B2 Total Unburned Hydrocarbons-67%-20%-2.2% Carbon Monoxide-48%-12%-1.3% Particulate Matter-47%-12%-1.3% Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X )+10%+2%+.2%

26 Historical Overview of NO x Issue Up until early in 2005 it was widely accepted that B20 caused a small, 2%, increase in NO x Up until early in 2005 it was widely accepted that B20 caused a small, 2%, increase in NO x Conclusion of EPA review published in 2002 Conclusion of EPA review published in 2002 Based in large part on data acquired by McCormick and coworkers, Sharp and coworkers, etc. Based in large part on data acquired by McCormick and coworkers, Sharp and coworkers, etc. In February of 2005 we tested 3 vehicles that showed NO x reduction In February of 2005 we tested 3 vehicles that showed NO x reduction Subsequent review of EPAs analysis showed that nearly half of the data reviewed were for one engine model Subsequent review of EPAs analysis showed that nearly half of the data reviewed were for one engine model Subsequent tests with a range of engine models are finding changes in NO x that range roughly from about +5 to -5% Subsequent tests with a range of engine models are finding changes in NO x that range roughly from about +5 to -5% Varies with engine model Varies with engine model Average change is zero Average change is zero Dataset is NOT representative of in-use vehicles Dataset is NOT representative of in-use vehicles

27 NOx Emissions, Chassis Data Bus Chassis Dynamometer Testing: Using B20 in City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle Using B20 in City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle Cummins ISM 2000 Engine. Cummins ISM 2000 Engine. Unexpected NOx REDUCTION of 5% with statistical confidence of >99%. Unexpected NOx REDUCTION of 5% with statistical confidence of >99%. NOx emission changes are caused by differences in test cycles and engine technology. NOx emission changes are caused by differences in test cycles and engine technology. Graph taken from NREL website:

28 Supply and Demand

29 Biodiesel Demand Changes to EPACT Bioenergy Program Biodiesel Tax Incentive

30 Heating Oil Market Almost as much heating oil is sold in the Northeast as on highway diesel fuel Almost as much heating oil is sold in the Northeast as on highway diesel fuel 5.1 billion gallons vs. 5.5 billion gallons 5.1 billion gallons vs. 5.5 billion gallons Heating oil industry is attempting to remake itself as more environmentally friendly and renewable Heating oil industry is attempting to remake itself as more environmentally friendly and renewable Could provide a good winter outlet for biodiesel Could provide a good winter outlet for biodiesel Work is being done to integrate into Underwriters Laboratory certification Work is being done to integrate into Underwriters Laboratory certification

31 If Every Trucker Used B2 The industry would utilize 761 million gallons of B100 annually.

32 Fuel Availability Fuel available through direct shipment from over 1,956 petroleum distributors nationwide Fuel available through direct shipment from over 1,956 petroleum distributors nationwide Over 1,234 retail filling stations nationwide Over 1,234 retail filling stations nationwide 648 locations are semi-truck accessible 648 locations are semi-truck accessible Movement towards biodiesel at the terminal – over 158 terminals nationwide Movement towards biodiesel at the terminal – over 158 terminals nationwide

33 Distribution Locations

34 Biodiesel Production Capacity

35 Production Locations (9/7/07)

36 Size of Current Plants Construction Capacity 1.38 billion gallons per year Average Plant Size 16.3 million gallons per year 165 Plants

37 Biodiesel Plants Under Construction and Expansion (9/7/07)

38 Size of Plants Under Construction & Expansion Construction Capacity: 1.89 billion gallons per year Average Plant Size: 18.7 million gallons per year

39 Production Capacity by State (9/7/07)

40 Production Capacity Trends The industry is tending towards larger facilities The industry is tending towards larger facilities Vegetable oil facilities are larger than recycled cooking oil plants Vegetable oil facilities are larger than recycled cooking oil plants Plants capable of handling multiple feedstocks are becoming more common Plants capable of handling multiple feedstocks are becoming more common Production capacity does not equal production for several reasons Production capacity does not equal production for several reasons Some facilities are just starting up Some facilities are just starting up Some facilities choose to run less than 24/7 Some facilities choose to run less than 24/7 Some facilities have no effectively debottlenecked their systems to maximize their output Some facilities have no effectively debottlenecked their systems to maximize their output Some facilities overestimate their capacity Some facilities overestimate their capacity

41 Blending ULSD and Biodiesel

42 ULSD and Biodiesel Biodiesel is slightly heavier than petroleum diesel with a gravity value of 0.88 versus Biodiesel is slightly heavier than petroleum diesel with a gravity value of 0.88 versus Biodiesel should be introduced after diesel fuel and should be agitated in the tank during splash blending procedures. Biodiesel should be introduced after diesel fuel and should be agitated in the tank during splash blending procedures. Storage and blending of B100 should be maintained at +10 degrees F above the B100s cloud and pour point to blend successfully. Storage and blending of B100 should be maintained at +10 degrees F above the B100s cloud and pour point to blend successfully. Blends will not separate in Blends will not separate in the presence of water. the presence of water.

43 Blending Options (Splash) The biodiesel and diesel fuel are loaded into a tank separately with relatively little mixing occurring as the fuels are placed in the tank. The biodiesel and diesel fuel are loaded into a tank separately with relatively little mixing occurring as the fuels are placed in the tank. The tank is usually the actual delivery truck. The delivery truck movement as well as the physical drop at the end users site provides adequate agitation to successfully blend the fuels.

44 Blending Options (In-Tank Blend) Biodiesel and diesel fuel are loaded separately, or at the same time through different incoming sources, but at high speeds which sufficiently mix without the need for additional mixing, recirculation or agitation. Biodiesel and diesel fuel are loaded separately, or at the same time through different incoming sources, but at high speeds which sufficiently mix without the need for additional mixing, recirculation or agitation. Similar to splash blending but not dependent on delivery activity to continue mixing procedures. Similar to splash blending but not dependent on delivery activity to continue mixing procedures.

45 Blending Options (Bottom Loading) B20 is frequently blended in bottom loading tank trucks B20 is frequently blended in bottom loading tank trucks Biodiesel loaded first, followed by diesel fuel where mixing begins. Biodiesel loaded first, followed by diesel fuel where mixing begins. Putting B100 into a cold empty truck can cause the B100 to gel which prohibits mixing properly Putting B100 into a cold empty truck can cause the B100 to gel which prohibits mixing properly

46 Blend Options (In-Line Blend) Biodiesel is added to a stream of diesel fuel as it travels through a pipe or hose in such as way that the biodiesel and diesel fuel become thoroughly mixed by the turbulence encountered in the pipe.

47 Why Blend Biodiesel into ULSD? Compatible with the compression ignition platform and with diesel fuel itself Compatible with the compression ignition platform and with diesel fuel itself Greatly enhances lubricity of ULSD Greatly enhances lubricity of ULSD Compatible with 2007 diesel engine catalysts Compatible with 2007 diesel engine catalysts Aids with ULSD conductivity issues Aids with ULSD conductivity issues Reduces harmful emissions Reduces harmful emissions Power and performance virtually unchanged Power and performance virtually unchanged Seamless & transparent with existing petroleum infrastructure, (liquid not gaseous) Seamless & transparent with existing petroleum infrastructure, (liquid not gaseous) Promotes national energy security Promotes national energy security Renewable, non-toxic, green blend stock option Renewable, non-toxic, green blend stock option

48 ULSD

49 ULSD & Lubricity Sulfur compounds are natural lubricants in diesel. Sulfur compounds are natural lubricants in diesel. ULSD regulations are causing major concerns with diesel engine performance. ULSD regulations are causing major concerns with diesel engine performance. ASTM lubricity requirement effective Jan 1, 2005 for diesel fuels. ASTM lubricity requirement effective Jan 1, 2005 for diesel fuels. ASTM D 6079 ASTM D High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) -High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) -Wear Scar Maximum = 520 micrometers -Wear Scar Maximum = 520 micrometers

50 Biodiesel Adds Significant Lubricity to ULSD The average lubricity of Biodiesel blends compare to lubricity additives.

51 Lubricity Effects of Biodiesel on the Lubricity of Diesel fuel.

52 Cold Weather Operability

53 CFPP Testing of ULSD Bio Blends Sample Description CFPP °F, Base Fuel CFPP °F w/ Additive ULSD B11 ULSD (3x) B20 ULSD(4x) B5 ULSD -18 B2 ULSD B2 ULSD

54 2007 Engines

55 2007 Model Year Engines EPA regulations require reduced sulfur in diesel fuel for 2007 model year engines EPA regulations require reduced sulfur in diesel fuel for 2007 model year engines 80% of highway diesel fuel must be ULSD (< 15ppm sulfur) beginning june1, % of highway diesel fuel must be ULSD (< 15ppm sulfur) beginning june1, 2006 Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters can eliminate 99% of solid particles (soot & metals) and eliminate >90% of semi-volatile hydrocarbons. Source: EPA

56 Diesel Particle Filters (DPF) Diesel particle filters (DPF) are found in all 2007 model year diesel vehicles. Diesel particle filters (DPF) are found in all 2007 model year diesel vehicles. What possible advantages or disadvantages may result from using biodiesel blends in these engines? What possible advantages or disadvantages may result from using biodiesel blends in these engines? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducting a study in order to define these effects on DPFs. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducting a study in order to define these effects on DPFs.

57 Indicators of DPF Performance Filter regeneration rate increased significantly when using blends as low as B5. Lower particulate temperature and less particulate input contributed. Filter regeneration rate increased significantly when using blends as low as B5. Lower particulate temperature and less particulate input contributed. Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter Performance. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, March 2006.

58 Materials Compatibility B100 may adversely affect some elastomers such as natural or nitrile rubbers over time. B100 may adversely affect some elastomers such as natural or nitrile rubbers over time. Most elastomers used after 1993 are compatible with B100 (Viton/Teflon). Most elastomers used after 1993 are compatible with B100 (Viton/Teflon). Blends (B20) effect is less, or non-existent. Blends (B20) effect is less, or non-existent. Normal monitoring of hoses and gaskets for leaks is sufficient with B20. Normal monitoring of hoses and gaskets for leaks is sufficient with B20. Consult with your parts supplier or Consult with your parts supplier or mechanical engineering partners. mechanical engineering partners.

59 Materials Compatibility Biodiesel and biodiesel blends will form high sediment levels when in contact with the following metals: Biodiesel and biodiesel blends will form high sediment levels when in contact with the following metals: -Brass, Bronze, Copper, Lead, Tin and Zinc Biodiesel is compatible with: Biodiesel is compatible with: -Mild and Stainless Steel, Aluminum

60 Biodiesel Position with OEMs Original Equipment Manufacturers: B100 Must Meet ASTM D 6751 B100 Must Meet ASTM D 6751 Most OEM HQs have B20 experience: Most OEM HQs have B20 experience: Wont void warrantee Problems caused by the fuel are the responsibility of the fuel supplier Want to see additional experience in the field Higher blends OKd based on experience of OEM and their technology Higher blends OKd based on experience of OEM and their technology

61 Housekeeping

62 No matter where you are in the supply chain both you and your staff are responsible for ensuring optimum storage environments for your fuels The three basic ways which fuel may become contaminated are air, water and the fuel itself

63 Exposure to Air Enters through vent pipes and contains large amounts of moisture. Enters through vent pipes and contains large amounts of moisture. Generally displaces the fuel as tank is emptied. Generally displaces the fuel as tank is emptied. It is not practical to keep air from entering the tank. It is not practical to keep air from entering the tank. Will increase the oxidation of fuel. Will increase the oxidation of fuel. Do not store fuels for long periods of time in partially empty tanks without stabilizers. Do not store fuels for long periods of time in partially empty tanks without stabilizers. Consider desiccant dryers. Consider desiccant dryers.

64 Water Free water in the fuel system accelerates corrosion and fuel degradation, it can also create a fertile growing place for bugs. Poor tank design has made complete removal of water impossible. Enters mostly as condensation from air. Vents and seals that are poorly constructed or maintained can allow water to infiltrate the storage tank.

65 Exposure to Fuel Contaminants Stored fuel will degrade forming insoluble materials. Stored fuel will degrade forming insoluble materials. Insolubles will plug filters, foul injectors and form combustion system deposits which promotes fuel system corrosion. Insolubles will plug filters, foul injectors and form combustion system deposits which promotes fuel system corrosion. Fuel can bring in contaminants during the delivery process, sand, dirt etc. Fuel can bring in contaminants during the delivery process, sand, dirt etc. Lack of housekeeping practices will absolutely increase operational headaches. Lack of housekeeping practices will absolutely increase operational headaches.

66 Maintaining Your Fuel Quality Begin by specifying ASTM designed fuels, 6751 and 975 Reference cold weather performance and other special needs prior to ordering Be proactive with general housekeeping practices Maintain optimum storage conditions Execute a quarterly fuel analysis program to ensure good preventative measures.

67 Steps to Maintaining Fuel Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark Environment Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark Environment Keep Tank Topped off to eliminate head space Keep Tank Topped off to eliminate head space Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaks Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaks Storage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months. Storage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months. Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination

68 Tips for Biodiesel Handling In the winter months, its important to use appropriate additives to ensure good winter- weather operability. In the winter months, its important to use appropriate additives to ensure good winter- weather operability. If any biodiesel is spilled, it is important to clean it up quickly. Pure biodiesel may remove paint from equipment. If any biodiesel is spilled, it is important to clean it up quickly. Pure biodiesel may remove paint from equipment.

69 Tips for Biodiesel Handling When switching from diesel fuel to biodiesel blend, it may be necessary to change the fuel filter an extra time or two. When switching from diesel fuel to biodiesel blend, it may be necessary to change the fuel filter an extra time or two.

70 Quality Issues

71 Biodiesel Issue Monoglyceride Build-up (rare) Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if the glycerin levels are too high in the biodiesel used in the blend Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if the glycerin levels are too high in the biodiesel used in the blend

72 Other Issues We have Seen Paraffin Wax High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed. High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed. When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank. When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank. Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel. Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel. Icing of the filter Since the temperatures of engines are warm, any moisture picked up within the engine can be brought back to the fuel lines. This moisture can freeze overnight in low ambient temperatures.

73 Sediment/Rust build-up Some of the filters had solid sediment within the folds and solid particles in the filter casing. Sediment present in the fuel or rust particles from within the engine can collect over time and plug the filter even when there are not necessarily problems with the fuel. Oxidation Because many newer engines run at higher temperatures, there may be a black asphaltene type material collecting on the filter. This phenomenon has been seen all around the country, often in newer engines.

74 Microbial Growth Several filters showed high content of live microbial organisms or a build-up of dead microbial material. The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell. Several filters showed high content of live microbial organisms or a build-up of dead microbial material. The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell. The lack of sulfur in biodiesel and ULSD aids in the build- up of such organisms since sulfur is a key component of many biocides and is a natural inhibitor of bacterial and fungal growth. The lack of sulfur in biodiesel and ULSD aids in the build- up of such organisms since sulfur is a key component of many biocides and is a natural inhibitor of bacterial and fungal growth.

75 What Are Microbes? Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel. They live at the fuel/water interface. The hydrocarbons in the fuel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen. This environment is needed for living, growth, and reproduction.

76 Where Do They Come From? Air Contains airborne microorganisms, yeast and mold spores, and dirt particles that can enter through tank vents. Contains airborne microorganisms, yeast and mold spores, and dirt particles that can enter through tank vents.Water Water, unless sterilized, can contain a variety microorganisms. Water, unless sterilized, can contain a variety microorganisms.

77 Treatment and Prevention Biocides Three major groups: Fuel soluble, Water soluble, and Universally soluble. Need to be EPA registered and compatible with the lubricant. Preventing Fuel Contamination Preventing contamination from air and water requires proper tank maintenance and cleaning

78 Biocide: Universally Soluble Stable in both fuel and water. Primarily fuel soluble with sufficient water solubility to perform in both phases. Can be transported throughout the fuel system and be effective against biofilms and bottom water microbes. Contains sulfur. Relatively expensive.

79 Preventing Contamination: Tank Cleaning Can be expensive and disruptive. Needs to be used in conjunction with a biocide treatment. The biocide should be used after the tank is clean, then fuel should be added (to eliminate microbes collected on the bottom of the tank). As a preventative measure, it is important to keep tanks as full of fuel as possible, and to keep the amount of air in the tank minimal.

80 Renewable Fuel Standard and RINs

81 How it all began Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05) provides for a renewable fuels requirement. The RFS Program took effect September 1, 2007

82 Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) RINs are generated by renewable fuel producers and importers and assigned to batches that they transfer RINs are generated by renewable fuel producers and importers and assigned to batches that they transfer Represent volumes of renewable fuel produced. Represent volumes of renewable fuel produced. RINs are the tools obligated parties utilize to demonstrate compliance with their annual renewable fuel volume obligations. RINs are the tools obligated parties utilize to demonstrate compliance with their annual renewable fuel volume obligations.

83 RIN Codes The Renewable Identification Number (RIN) is a 38-character numeric code in the format: KYYYYCCCCFFFFFBBBBBRRDSSSSSSSSEEEEEEEE K RIN assignment code (1=assigned, 2=unassigned) YYYY Year batch is produced/imported (when it leaves the facility) CCCC Company registration ID FFFFF Facility registration ID BBBBBProducer assigned batch number RR Equivalence Value for the renewable fuel D Renewable type code (1=cellulosic; 2=non-cellulosic) SSSSSSSS RIN Block Starting Number EEEEEEEE RIN Block Ending Number

84 Equivalence Values The Equivalence Value indicates how many gallon-RINs can be generated for each gallon of renewable fuel The Equivalence Value indicates how many gallon-RINs can be generated for each gallon of renewable fuel The EPA has specified the Equivalence Value for several renewable fuels using volumetric energy content in comparison to ethanol (adjusted for renewable content) The EPA has specified the Equivalence Value for several renewable fuels using volumetric energy content in comparison to ethanol (adjusted for renewable content) Corn-ethanol: 1.0 Corn-ethanol: 1.0 Cellulosic biomass ethanol: 2.5 Cellulosic biomass ethanol: 2.5 Biodiesel (alkyl esters): 1.5 Biodiesel (alkyl esters): 1.5 Renewable diesel: 1.7 Renewable diesel: 1.7 Biobutanol: 1.3 Biobutanol: 1.3

85 Compliance by Marketers/Producers Biodiesel Producer or Importer: Biodiesel Producer or Importer: Must attach RINs to volumes of fuel and transfer those RINs for any blends greater than B80 (on-road) Must attach RINs to volumes of fuel and transfer those RINs for any blends greater than B80 (on-road) An assigned RIN cannot be transferred to another party without simultaneously transferring a volume of renewable fuel to that same party. An assigned RIN cannot be transferred to another party without simultaneously transferring a volume of renewable fuel to that same party. ("Transfer" means a change in ownership, not custody; Change in custody but not ownership has no RIN responsibilities)

86 Compliance At the end of each quarter: At the end of each quarter: Cannot own any more assigned RINs (with K = 1) than gallons of renewable fuel (adjusted for its Equivalence Value) Cannot own any more assigned RINs (with K = 1) than gallons of renewable fuel (adjusted for its Equivalence Value) Sum of assigned gallon-RINs Volume of renewable fuel owned X Equivalence Value per volume This requirement ensures that, at least quarterly, RINs have been transferred with volume and obligated parties have opportunities to get RINs

87 Quarterly Reporting RIN Generation Report: Each facility owned by a renewable fuel producer must report information pertaining to the RINs generated and attached to a batch produced; or imported. Each facility owned by a renewable fuel producer must report information pertaining to the RINs generated and attached to a batch produced; or imported. RIN Transaction Report: Any transaction where biodiesel produced is sold to a second party will need a separate report submitted to document change of ownership transactions Any transaction where biodiesel produced is sold to a second party will need a separate report submitted to document change of ownership transactions (including providing registration information for 2 nd party) RIN Activity Report: Summary report for RIN related activity during a quarter for RINs owned by the reporting party. Includes status (assigned or separated); volumes of renewable fuel owned at the end of a quarter; current year RINs owned at start of quarter; etc. Summary report for RIN related activity during a quarter for RINs owned by the reporting party. Includes status (assigned or separated); volumes of renewable fuel owned at the end of a quarter; current year RINs owned at start of quarter; etc.

88 Annual Reporting Attest Engagement: Annual attest engagement completed by a CPA or certified internal auditor to verify the accuracy of the information contained in the reports submitted to EPA by covered entities. Annual attest engagement completed by a CPA or certified internal auditor to verify the accuracy of the information contained in the reports submitted to EPA by covered entities. Due Date: Attest Engagements are due May 31st of the year following compliance year. (Ex. May 31, 2009 for compliance year 2008). Due Date: Attest Engagements are due May 31st of the year following compliance year. (Ex. May 31, 2009 for compliance year 2008).

89 Registration with the EPA Any entity that owns or intends to own biodiesel with RINs attached is required to register with the EPA. Any entity that owns or intends to own biodiesel with RINs attached is required to register with the EPA. Registration with the EPA is required prior to owning fuel with RINs attached. Registration with the EPA is required prior to owning fuel with RINs attached.

90 Additional RFS Resources Renewable Fuel Standard Regulations Renewable Fuel Standard Regulations Compliance Help Information Compliance Help Information PMAA is working with their state associations in an effort to disseminate information to their member marketers as quickly as possible to help educate them on their compliance requirements. PMAA is working with their state associations in an effort to disseminate information to their member marketers as quickly as possible to help educate them on their compliance requirements.

91 BQ-9000

92 BQ-9000 Quality Assurance Program Specifies requirements for a quality assurance program where an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to provide product that meets ASTM D 6751… and applicable regulatory requirements, and to address quality assurance through the effective application of the program… HELPS ENSURE THAT END-USER IS GETTING HIGH-QUALITY BIODIESEL!!

93 The National Biodiesel Board is a strong proponent of ASTM D The National Biodiesel Board is a strong proponent of ASTM D The National Biodiesel Board created the National Biodiesel Accreditation Commission in 2000 and charged it with developing a certification program for quality biodiesel producers and marketers. The resulting certification program is BQ The National Biodiesel Board created the National Biodiesel Accreditation Commission in 2000 and charged it with developing a certification program for quality biodiesel producers and marketers. The resulting certification program is BQ NBB will encourage active enforcement of D6751 by the IRS, the EPA, the US Department of Agriculture, and individual state Weights and Measures Bureaus. NBB will encourage active enforcement of D6751 by the IRS, the EPA, the US Department of Agriculture, and individual state Weights and Measures Bureaus. NBB Fuel Quality Policy

94 Fuel Quality Fuel quality is of the utmost concern and importance to the biodiesel industry. Fuel quality is of the utmost concern and importance to the biodiesel industry. ASTM D 6751 is the specification for biodiesel fuels irrespective of the feedstock source and/or processing method. ASTM D 6751 is the specification for biodiesel fuels irrespective of the feedstock source and/or processing method. BQ-9000 Assures cradle-to-grave fuel quality BQ-9000 Assures cradle-to-grave fuel qualitycradlegrave

95 Who and What are Accredited Two accreditations possible for companies: Two accreditations possible for companies: BQ-9000 Accredited Producer BQ-9000 Accredited Producer BQ-9000 Certified Marketer BQ-9000 Certified Marketer BQ-9000 accredits companies, not fuel BQ-9000 accredits companies, not fuel There is no such thing as 'BQ-9000 Biodiesel' There is no such thing as 'BQ-9000 Biodiesel' BQ-9000 does, however, help insure that biodiesel produced and sold will meet D 6751 BQ-9000 does, however, help insure that biodiesel produced and sold will meet D 6751

96 Benefits of BQ-9000 Provides the biodiesel users (individuals, fleets, government agencies, etc.) with a feeling of confidence Provides the biodiesel users (individuals, fleets, government agencies, etc.) with a feeling of confidence Improved consistency saves biodiesel producers and marketers time and money by minimizing problems with out of specification fuel Improved consistency saves biodiesel producers and marketers time and money by minimizing problems with out of specification fuel Your competitive position within the industry is strengthened as you gain a market advantage through recognition of quality Your competitive position within the industry is strengthened as you gain a market advantage through recognition of quality

97 BQ-9000 Initial Registration Complete the Application Complete the Application Submit Quality Manual Submit Quality Manual Pay $1000 application fee Pay $1000 application fee Provide proof of EPA Registration Provide proof of EPA Registration

98 BQ-9000 Accreditation The Commission reviews the application and application materials: Applications considered administratively complete shall be accepted for processing Applications considered administratively complete shall be accepted for processing and audit. $ 2,500 Certification Audit Fee $ 2,500 Certification Audit Fee

99 BQ-9000 Accreditation Auditor is assigned, establishes the audit schedule with applicant. Auditor is assigned, establishes the audit schedule with applicant. Desk audit to verify written compliance Desk audit to verify written compliance On-site audit to verify compliance. On-site audit to verify compliance. The Commission reviews results of audits, votes on the companys status. The Commission reviews results of audits, votes on the companys status. If applicant passes audit, Commission grants accreditation for 2 years. If applicant passes audit, Commission grants accreditation for 2 years.

100 Accreditation Timeline Avg. Length (days)Accreditation Step Quality Manual, Application & Audit Fees Received 7-10Quality Manual from NBAC to Auditor 10Desk Audit 180Set Onsite Audit Date & Resolve Desk Audit Issues (scheduled 6 months from implementation date of all elements of quality system) 1.5Registration Audit 30Resolve Nonconformances 10Final Report & Recommendations 10-21NBAC Meets & Approves Total

101 ALWAYS BUY PRODUCT FROM BQ-9000 CERTIFIED PRODUCERS OR MARKETERS!!!

102 Accredited Producers (19)

103 Certified Marketers (9)

104 BQ-9000 Information Through the NBB Find information on the requirements for the program and a list of accredited producers/marke ters on the NBB website.

105 Biodiesel Resources

106 Educational Resources BEN: Biodiesel Education Network BEN: Biodiesel Education Network Web-based resource specifically for petroleum marketers Web-based resource specifically for petroleum marketers Partnership between NBB/PMAA Partnership between NBB/PMAA

107 NBB Resources: Technical LibraryTechnical Library Biodiesel BulletinBiodiesel Bulletin Informational ResourcesInformational Resources Technical ResourcesTechnical Resources Educational Videos AvailableEducational Videos Available On-line Database & Spec SheetsOn-line Database & Spec Sheets

108 Other Biodiesel Resources Biodiesel Magazine Biodiesel Magazine A MUST HAVE magazine Biodiesel Industry Directory On-Line Biodiesel Industry Directory On-Line

109 Biodiesel Help-line Established to: Provide triage for fuel problems Provide triage for fuel problems problems not adequately addressed by distributors/producers Diagnose/analyze/assist with problems from: Diagnose/analyze/assist with problems from: customers customers fleets fleets fuel distributors fuel distributors Provide assistance through chemical analysis Provide assistance through chemical analysis Through the use of third party Lab Through the use of third party Lab Help provide assistance to users to ensure the image/integrity of Biodiesel is maintained. Help provide assistance to users to ensure the image/integrity of Biodiesel is maintained.

110 Contact Information The National Biodiesel Helpline is: The National Biodiesel Helpline is: For when you cannot get help elsewhere. For when you cannot get help elsewhere. Not meant for General guidance issues. Not meant for General guidance issues. You should always begin by asking your fuel supplier, they will most likely be able to answer your question more accurately

111 Questions


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