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HR A 1 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land
HR A 2 State Investments in Land Conservation August 10, 2009
HR A 3 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land TPLs Conservation Finance Program 1.Think tank for financing conservation Leading source of research, education and policy information 2.Field services/Consulting #1 provider of technical assistance to state and local governments $32B created, 400+ ballot measures, 84% success rate #1 source of support for lobbying and ballot measure campaigns through TPLs affiliate, The Conservation Campaign
HR A 4 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land The Trust for Public Land: 83% of Measures Passed Year# of MeasuresWins Funds Approved 19962726$0.6 billion 19971311$0.2 billion 19983430$4.1 billion 19991412$0.9 billion 20007155$4.2 billion 20014131$0.5 billion 20026147$4.4 billion 20032221$0.9 billion 20045245$2.4 billion 20054641$0.8 billion 20064941$4.9 billion 20071815$0.6 billion 20085744$7.5 billion Total505419 $32 billion
HR A 5 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land www.landvote.org
HR A 6 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Where Does Public Funding for Land Conservation Come From?
HR A 7 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Public Land Conservation Funding in the United States (1998 – 2005) TotalAnnual Avg.Share Local$16 billion$2 billion67% State$6.75 billion$844m28% Federal$1.02 billion$128m4% Total$23.77 billion$2.97 billion State and federal = actual spending Local = spending authorizations Source: TPL Conservation Almanac, TPL LandVote Database
HR A 8 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Land Conservation Ballot Measures 1998 - 2008
HR A 9 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Recent State Funding Efforts StateDate Measure Type Yes No Amount Hawaii 6-05Legislative $ 72 million Connecticut 7-05Legislative $270 million Maine11-05Referendum 65% 35% $ 12 million California11-06Initiative 54% 46% $ 2.2 billion New Jersey11-07 Referendum 54% 46% $200 million Maine11-07 Referendum 63% 37% $ 17 million Florida 7-08 Legislative $ 3 billion Massachusetts 8-08 Legislative $ 250 million Colorado 11-08 Initiative 42% 58% $ 964 million Minnesota 11-08 Referendum 56% 44% $ 5.5 billion Ohio 11-08 Referendum 69% 31% $ 200 million Rhode Island 11-08 Referendum 68% 32% $ 2.5 million Illinois 6-09Legislative $25 million
HR A 10 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land State Land Conservation Ballot Measures Summary of Funding Sources 40 state ballot measures in 20 states from 1996 - 2008 –34 approved (85% approved) 8 measures in CA; 7 in RI, 2 in NJ, 2 in ME 29 bond measures 5 sales tax measures –6 failed 2 bond measures 1 sugar tax; 1 real estate transfer tax; 1 motor vehicle excise tax; 1 oil and gas tax
HR A 11 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land The State Role in Conservation Finance 1.The state is the playing field; 50 states, 50 diff. approaches 2.Key Factors: The State Policy Framework Political Leadership Broad-based public support Strong leadership by nonprofit conservation groups Good Agency- Nonprofit Relationships
HR A 12 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land The Local Role in Conservation Finance Local funding is the foundation of any long-term land conservation effort External funding – federal, state, private– can be an important, but secondary, means of completing a land conservation project Competition for external funding is fierce and may not be reliable due to ever- changing state and federal budget circumstances Local funding is essential to successfully competing for external funding
HR A 13 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land The Federal Role in Conservation Finance Direct Acquisition: –Land and Water Conservation Fund Offshore Drilling as Funding Source National Parks, US Forest Service, US Fish and Wildlife, Grant Programs –Forest Legacy –Farmland Protection Program –Endangered Species –Coastal and Estuarine Program
HR A 14 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land The Federal Role in Conservation Finance Catalyst…holy grail… icing on the cake… or distraction? Very Competitive One-time or occasional… not regular source of funding Strong political groundwork often needed
HR A 15 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land State Policy Framework: 7 Best Practices for State Land Conservation Policy 1.Substantial State Investment 2.Enable Local Financing 3.State Incentives for Local Conservation 4.Purchase of Development Rights 5.Public-Private Partnerships 6.Conservation Tax Credits 7.Federal Partnerships
HR A 16 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Substantial State Investment A stable state-sponsored revenue source is the foundation of an effective land conservation program Requires a funding source that is long-term and fiscally prudent and ideally doesnt fluctuate Financing strategy should be dedicated to a variety of land conservation projects identified by the state and communities General obligation bonds Budget appropriations Lottery proceeds Property taxes Real estate transfer taxes State sales taxes Tipping fees Severance taxes Revenue bond Examples
HR A 17 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land
HR A 18 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Land Conservation Funding in Illinois (1998-2005) TotalAnnual Avg.Share Local $1.4 billion$169 million92% State$122 million $15 million8% State = actual spending Local = spending authorizations Source: TPL Conservation Almanac, TPL LandVote Database 40 different local governments passed measures
HR A 19 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land State Dollars Spent and Acres Protected Illinois $122m spent 27k acres $4453 per acre
HR A 20 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land State Dollars Spent and Acres Protected $1,501/acre
HR A 21 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land State Dollars Spent Per Capita 1998 - 2005
HR A 22 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land State Dollars Spent Per Capita 1998 - 2005 IL = $9.50 34 th rank
HR A 23 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land State Funding Mechanisms
HR A 24 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Minnesota: State Funding Minnesota: State Funding In 2008, voter-approved constitutional amendment dedicating 3/8ths of 1 percent sales tax –Tax will generate approx. $5.5 billion for conservation over 25 years
HR A 25 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land General Obligation Bonds (Wisconsin) 1989: Legislature establishes Stewardship Program (Nelson-Knowles) Authorized $250m in G.O. Bonds over 10 yrs. Reauthorized in 1999 for 10 years at $46m/yr, later raised to $60m/yr (in 2002) –$45m for land acquisition, $15m for improvements
HR A 26 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Oil and Gas Royalties (Michigan) Michigan Natural Resources Trust Fund Act Capped at $500m In FY06, the fund received $57.4m in oil and gas royalties Approx. $25-$35M are spent each year (75% acquisition, 25% development projects)
HR A 27 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Pennsylvania: State Funding Pennsylvania: State Funding Cigarette Tax –PA Easement Purchase Program –Receives $20.485M annual allotment Real Estate Transfer Tax –15% of revenue generated by tax is allocated to Keystone Fund for land acquisition –Expected to generate $95 million for conservation in 2009 Tipping Fee –Signed into law in 2002 –$4.25/ton municipal waste disposal fee –generated $80 million in 2006 –Set to expire in 2012
HR A 28 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Sales Tax (New Jersey) Green Acres and Farmland Preservation Programs $98M/yr existing sales tax dedication $3 billion over 30 years Passed by voters in 1998
HR A 29 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Sporting Goods Sales Tax (Texas) Allocates share of existing tax revenues estimated to come from sporting goods to TX Parks and Wildlife Dept (TPWD) – Est. 1993 Pre 2007 – capped at $32m/year Cap lifted in 2007; –FY08: $229m estimated revenue; $112m appropriated to TPWD, balance retained in General Fund
HR A 30 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land General Appropriations (Washington) Washington Wildlife and Recreation Program (WWRP) –Supports wildlife habitat, state and local parks, working lands, trails Legislature appropriates funding for WWRP in biennial capital budget $452m approved over 17 years; $50m/biennium in recent years
HR A 31 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Lottery Funds (Colorado) Great Outdoors Colorado (GOCO) In FY06, $125.6M was generated through lottery funds 50% is allocated to GOCO, but is capped at $35M 40% is allocated for local conservation efforts 10% is allocated to Colorados Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation
HR A 32 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Deed Recording Surcharge (Massachusetts) Community Preservation Trust Fund $20 for deeds, $10 for municipal liens Generated between $20m and $75m to provide matching funds to communities who adopt the Community Preservation Act (CPA) To date, 144 of 351 communities have adopted CPA
HR A 33 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Land Preservation Tax Credits (Virginia) Program capped at $100m/yr Credit is 40% of the fair market value of the land donation Between 2000 and 2005 there were $380M in tax credit requests and $134M approved
HR A 34 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Documentary Stamp Tax (Florida) Florida Forever (FF) Program 70¢ tax on deeds and 35¢ tax on notes generates approx. $4 billion/yr $300M/yr is dedicated for FF Bonds issued by legislature backed by Doc. Stamp Tax
HR A 35 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Water Supplier Fees (Rhode Island) Public Drinking Water Protection Act 2.92¢ per 100 gallons water supplier levy generates about $9M/yr 1.054¢ is deposited into the Watershed Protection Fund for watershed protection and water quality projects. This penny per hundred is about $3.6M/yr and used to support revenue bonds
HR A 36 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land Water Resource Restoration Sponsor Program (Ohio) Funds from the federal Clean Water State Revolving Fund Combines wastewater treatment and water source restoration projects Communities enter into an agreement with a conservation partner (land trust) Communities borrow money to facilitate the restoration project and receive a reduced interest rate
HR A 37 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land
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HR A 1 © Copyright 2004 The Trust for Public Land O`ahu Land Trust Forum January 20, 2007.
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