Presentation on theme: "MAKING IT WORK: Instruction, Assessment & Intervention with ELL students through the RTI process 2nd SLL Activity Were you more successful completing."— Presentation transcript:
1 MAKING IT WORK:Instruction, Assessment & Intervention with ELL students through the RTI process2nd SLL ActivityWere you more successful completing activity? Why/why not?Did you learn any new Spanish words?which?why/why not?
4 TIER I INSTRUCTIONWhere most of the changes are needed to state that an ELL student has received appropriate instruction.
5 *ELL'S READING ACHIEVEMENT Normal Curve EquivalentsDual Language 61Bilingual 52Transitional Bilingual w/ ESL Content 40Transitional Bilingual 35ESL thru content 34ESL Pullout 2450 NCE is 50th percentile—where monolinguals are each yearKids in ESL programs were most likely to drop out—kids in top 2 program least likely to drop out--Thomas & Collier, 1997
6 DE INSTRUCTION FOR ELLS 2007-2008 Regular class instruction—no supportESL Pull-out—leave class w/ ESL teacher to receive small group support once a week—up to 5 x/weekPush-in—ESL teacher comes into the classroom and provide support 1-5x/weekDual Langauge—literacy & content instruction in L1 & L2Maintenance Bilingual—teach content in L1 & L2, but literacy is more geared toward L2Transitional Bilingual—provide L2 support as needed, with intent to mainstream to regular class in a few year years9.8% would be expected to achieve grade level reading skills according to previous graphDELAWARE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, 2008
7 WHY DO MANY ELL'S FAIL TO ACQUIRE CALP? Lack of exposure to appropriate books and people who use academic languageLack of opportunities to learn and use academic languageLack of systematic, explicit instruction and sufficient and supportive feedback1996 study-ELLs spend 2% of day engaging in academic talkSCARCELLA, 2003
8 TRIPLE EFFECT Triple effect of low comprehension Don’t understand new infoDon’t gain new vocabularyLose interestlack motivation & self-confidenceTriple effect of low comprehensionDon’t understand new infoDon’t gain new vocablose interest, motivation & self-confidence
9 IMPROVING CALPConnect academic language with reading & writing activitiesProvide opportunities to produce the language through interactionscontent-driven language insruction
10 This is missing in MOST regular education classrooms UPDATED RESEARCHWith intensive literacy & academic language instruction, ELL students can develop CALP by the 4th gradeExplicit oral language instruction is needed across all content areasThis is missing in MOST regular education classroomsWhen we ask if students have received appropriate instruction—for most ELL's we will have to say NO.Later we will talk in more detail about how to provide this in the regular classrom.
11 CRITICAL FEATURES Intensive literacy instruction Extensive vocabulary instructionacademic language instruction across content areasScaffolding/supports provided to increase comprehensionInstructional conversationsvocab instruction include member s RTI team and consultation with SLP and/or ESL teacher (or other specialists in school)help at-risk students
12 VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION Multiple exposure to target words over several daysReading, Writing and Speaking opportunitiesEmphasize student-friendly definitionsProvide regular reviewresearch—not enuff time dedicated to this in reg classdedicated to disciplinary vocab, not all-purpose vocab wordsless is more—more time on fewer concepts—deep learningnot work—look up words in dictionaryuse written content to figure outunplanned, extemporaneous teachingmorphology instruction—impt in reading comprehension
13 IDENTIFYING VOCABULARY School/district core reading programELLs will need instruction on additional words in the programInstruction will need to be more extensive than recommended by the programmost prog teach vocab—improve comprehe of indiv texts but litle effect on overall reading performanceworthwhile words—related to central lesson conceptsgeneral utility in academic concepts basic concepts (spatial, quantity, temporal and qualitative)
14 IDENTIFYING VOCABULARY Teacher study groups using available textsIdentify vocabulary to be taughtCreate student-friendly definitionsCreate lesson plans for vocabulary instructionOther study groups can beReading coaches, curricula specialists, summer workshops for teachers, grade-level teamsTeachers will need professional development in learning to provide more intensive vocabulary instruction
15 ACTIVITYWhat words or phrases would present the most difficulty to ELL students?Text 3-4th gr. LevelAssume ACCESS level 3 score
16 SLP SUPPORTIdentify antonyms and synonyms (e.g. “What means the same as…”)Sentence completion (e.g. “It was dark so she turned on the _____”)Multiple meaning words (e.g. Give me 2 meanings for “bat”)Describing (e.g. “tell me 2 things to describe a…”)Categorizing and Classifying (e.g. Tell me 5 things that are cold)Grammar knowledge (e.g. nouns, verbs, etc.)Syntax knowledge – parts of a sentence (S-V-O)Games, word walls, visual support
17 ACADEMIC LANGUAGE Instructional time should focus on explicit instruction of academic Englishadverbial formsconditional sentencesprepositionswords that express relationshipsReading, discussing and writing about textsneeds to be a central part of the language developmentinstruction dispersed throughout the day2nd point—scaffolding and other strategies to be discussed later will help to increase academic languageResearch suggests should progress monitor ELLs' English proficiency because has direct bearing on academic successESL teacher can push-inaid w/ lesson planmore intensive instruction for small groupGersten et al. (2007) , 2007
18 ENGLISH INSTRUCTION TIME Schedule regular blocks of English instruction timeIt increases the time ELLs have to learn the languageInstruction spaced throughout the day provides better opportunities for deep processing and retentionThe focus is clearly on languageteachers-professional developmentfew teaching prog.s include linguistics classesGersten et al. (2007) , 2007
19 EARLY ELEMENTARYMORPHOLOGYSYNTAXVOCABULARYMorphology—study of word meanings, looking at word parts to understand meaningmore morphologically complex words in written & academ lang than spoken langmore are Span cognatesSyntax—word orderStudy these at age appropriate level before they're reading
20 FOR ELL READERS Discuss text & the language in structured ways Verb tense, plurals, use of adjectives & adverbsUse language in a variety of situationsTell storiesDescribe eventsExplain problemsQuestion intentions1st year arrive—must also instruct on informal, social languageGersten et al. (2007) , 2007
21 LESSON PLANS Content Objectives Language Objectives what students will learn to doLanguage Objectiveslanguage function or skill that the student will use in the lessonTeachers more mindful & purposeful about developing students' language skills.Language objectives help them to focus on a specific language skill.SIOP Model emphasizes this & is a good resource in learning to do this.
22 SCAFFOLDING Realia Pictures Videos Demonstrations Hands-on ManipulativesGraphic OrganizersTotal Physical ResponseFeedbackL1 SupportModel Performance Indicatorsvideos—use closed captioning—student could also review later with Hispanic subtitles (may not want them during class because then not focusing on attaining the English vocabulary—depends on their level of proficiency)Lesson Plan—point out impt vocabgraphic organizer—similar to what doing nowTotal Physical Response:-Developed by James Asher (1977)-Kinesthetic Activities-Helps develop listening skills before verbally producing the languagePrimary Language SupportProvide bilingual picture dictionariesTeach students how to use themAccept students' initial writing in L1 as they transition to writing in EnglishHave L1 books & recordings in the listening centerShould be similar to the English books in the classroomTo reinforce concepts that were taughtSend books home to read with a parent or siblingEducational activitiesInternet resources****Allow bilingual students to help ELL peers in L1
23 MODEL PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (MPI) Gives expectations for what students should be able to process & produce at a given proficiency level.Based on the ACCESS test & WIDA's English Language Proficiency StandardsUsing state academic content standardsWIDA Consortium, 2007
24 ACCESS TEST academic type tasks—vocab need in content areas not content knowledge
25 ACCESS : LEVELS of ENGLISH PROFICIENCY Entering (1)single words, short phrasesBeginning (2)phrases or short sentences w/ errorsDeveloping (3)expanded sentences w/ some errorsExpanding (4)varying linguistic complexity, minimal errorsBridging (5)varying linguistic complexity, approaching comparability to monolingualsREACHING (6)oral & written communication is comparable to English proficient peersACCESS : LEVELS of ENGLISH PROFICIENCY
26 EXAMPLE LEVEL 1 Match prices/goods with visually supported materials Example: newspapers or magazinesUse oral questions with a partnerExample: “Which one costs a lot?”Levels—different levels of proficiency—see how language standard changes based on levelsShow content & support in standardsThis is how teachers need to approach their lessons for ELLsP.34WIDA CONSORTIUM, 2007
27 EXAMPLELEVEL 4Predict prices of goods using visually supported materials and oral questions with partnerExample: “Which one do you think costs under $1000?”Levels—different levels of proficiency—see how language standard changes based on levelsShow content & support in standardsThis is how teachers need to approach their lessons for ELLsP.34LESSON PLANWIDA CONSORTIUM, 2007
28 FEEDBACK Model correct grammar, pronunciation or vocabulary Prevents fossilizing errorsDo not point out errorsCorrective feedback for errors related to lesson contentShould be timelyReflect progress in learning specific informationBetter than # of correct answersRubrics are helpfulNATALIEHILL & FLYNN, 2006
29 PRIMARY LANGUAGE SUPPORT Provide bilingual picture dictionariesTeach students how to use themAccept students' initial writing in L1 as they transition to writing in EnglishHave L1 books & recordings in the listening centerShould be similar to the English books in the classroomTo reinforce concepts that were taughtSend books home to read with a parent or siblingUse resources on the internetTranslations ( )Online bilingual dictionary ( )Educational activitiesAllow bilingual students to help ELL peers in L1LESSON PLANPA activitiesexample: Board Maker software (you can scan word in English and have appear and print in both languages)WRIGHT, 2008
30 TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS Talk slowly and clearlyParaphrase oftenUse animated facial expressions & gesturesAvoid idioms, or explain themCheck in with the student to see if they understandAllow them to use their L1Truly value the children's culturesNATALIE
31 USE STUDENTS' CULTURE Introducing a lesson: ask students what experience they have with the topicStudents are:emotionally connected to the topicfeeling valued as a member of the classmotivated to learn moreexposed to other cultures & historiesBuilding upon a student’s culture triggers vocabulary & previous knowledge to build onNATALIERevolution/War—may have personal experience from 1st country, or be surrounded by stories of it from parents/grandparentsLESSON PLAN
32 Understanding Text NATALIE scaffolding outlines leveled study guides highlight textgraphic organizerstaped textjigsaw text readingmarginal notesuse native languageNATALIE
33 THE BASICS OF READING COMPREHENSION Preview textspre-teach troublesome wordsFrontloading:make direct connections to students' prior knowledgeMonitor comprehensionduring reading ask questions!Consolidate textsummarize & paraphraseNATALIEThis to do with class as going through text together.
34 INSTRUCTIONAL CONVERSATIONS & COOPERATIVE LEARNING Allow repetition of key words & phrasesRequire functional, context-relevant speech“Feedback-rich”Can reduce student anxietyGives more processing timeCan heighten attention levelsCan increase motivation & comprehensionAnd finally…LESSON PLANjigsaw activityneed to provide support & goalsDiff modes to work on commonrole playdramacompleted organizer!HARRY & FLYNN, 2006
36 TIER II Questions from morning? SLL Activity Toca Que es? success w/ activity?Learn new words?which?why?Tier II—build on Tier in ways that make sense & target student’s weaknesss
37 TIER II Same interventions as monolinguals BUT… Adaptations for lack of English proficiencyAdditional academic language instructionUnderstanding that progress will not be as robustSensitivity to scheduleshould not lose exposure time to content area material
38 PA INTERVENTIONSVenn diagrams to compare sounds or words in English & L1Explicit instruction on pronunciation of sounds & wordsEncourage pronunciation practiceChoral reading, echo readingSound sorting of picturesPoetry & music*REMEMBER – accent is not a disorder, it is a differenceSO – instead of trying to “fix” the child’s accent, think of it as an activity to compare and contrast*the older the student was at time of 1st exposure to English the harder it will be to reduce accent and dialectal differences.
39 WORD READING INTERVENTIONS Same reading interventions as for monolingual students, although progress will not be as profoundIn addition, explicit oral language instructionVocabularyGrammar/syntaxExplicit phonemic instruction may be needed.Intervention needs to beExplicit—each concept clearly and directly explained by the teacher, rather than left to discoverySystematic—skills taught in sequential fashion, not bits of info here and there as topics ariseMultisensory—more actively engaged, different ways of encoding the information
40 READING FLUENCY INTERVENTIONS Verbal language instructionFocus on vocabularygrammar/syntaxIdiomsIncreased exposure to printVerbal language—the more idioms and phrasing (abstract language) they're familiar with, the easier it will be to use context to anticipate and decode wordsSame intervention programs as monolingualseffects less pronounced
41 EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION Explicitdirect instruction of word meaningSystematiclogical order of difficulty & relevanceExtensivegeneralize across the curriculumIntensivemultiple meanings, word relationships & formsNATALIEFrancis et al. 2006
42 EXAMPLE: “look” Look around (observe) Look into (investigate) Look after (take care of)Look for (search)Look out for (be careful with)Look like (look similar)Look over (read, edit, review)Students need to have an understanding of different meaning of words!
43 EXAMPLE: “look” “take a look” (noun”) “I like the looks of it” (noun) “this is a looking glass” (adjective)“I need to look for it” (infinitive verb)“He looks” (3rd person /s/)“Look at me” (imperative)“She’s looking” (present progressive verb)“We looked around” (regular past tense /-ed/)“They had looked” (past participle)Students need to have an understanding of different meaning of words!
44 COGNATES NATALIE False cognates! e.g. “he is molesting me” Molestar PortugueseparágrafosientistahumanohoraSpanishclasefamosoespecialcentroHaitian CreoleentelijiandolaoranjradyoNATALIEFalse cognates!e.g. “he is molesting me”MolestarEmbarazada
45 COGNATESWords in two languages that share a similar meaning, spelling & pronunciation30-40% of English words have a related word in SpanishMore easily related if students have literacy skills in L1NATALIERomance languages have cognates with EnglishSpellings more similar than pronunciations70% of words on academic word list
46 READING FLUENCY INTERVENTIONS Practice with expository/narratives ( words)Pre-teach vocabularyUse flash cardsModel fluent readingProvide corrective feedbackAs become familiar with words—experiment more w/ phrasing & intonationREPEATED READINGS
47 READING FLUENCY INTERVENTIONS meet oral reading fluency goalread with very few errorsread with acceptable phrasing & expressionRe- read until …
48 READING COMPREHENSION INTERVENTIONS Continue to focus on building vocabularyK-2nd gradefocus on books that are read alouddevelop & extend languageexplicit comprehension strategiesUpper Elementaryfocus on academic language & sentence structurescomp strategies: predicting, monitoring & summarizingprovide modelsdevelop & extend language through structured talk***teach to recognize different types of texts & purposes of reading, & how to adjust strategies
49 PROGRESS MONITORINGCompare to “true peers” immigrant generation, level of English proficiency & SESProgress monitoring instrument What is it really assessing?Error analysis difference or disorder?Best practice monitor English language proficiencyLang Prof = could use the SALT or WMLS-R (not weekly, but as different points in the year)
50 SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS of LANGUAGE TRANSCRIPTS DIAGNOSTIC MEASURES & PROGRESS MONITORMean Length of UtteranceVocabulary UseFluency & Rate of SpeechSentence ComplexityGrammatical Error Types# of Grammatical ErrorsCode-switchingNarrative SkillsSALT is a computer program used to analyze & interpret language samplescommunicative interactionnarrative tell/retellprovides clinicians and researchers with the means to transcribe language samples into a common format & analyzevocabulary knowledgemorphosyntaxfluencyerror categories patterns
51 EXAMPLE: ANA, AGE 7-3, GRADE 1 One day a little boy (he/'s um) he/'s be a :02 frog [EU].And he is go/ing to your[EW:his] bed.The frog, he/'s go/ing.(When he/'s :02 when he/'s :04 s* :09) when he peek/3s up, the frog is not in the frasc*[CS].He/'s call/ing to the frog.But (not) not>The dog, he/'s go/*ing down.He/'s (ca*) call/ing to the frog."Frog, Frog".(He/'s) he/'s call/ing and calling.Then the dog, he/'s (:06 s*) call/ing too.Then :04 he/'s :04 call/ing.He/'s :04 be a :07 bird [EU].The dog is :03 run/*ing.And he go/3s up.(And) one rock [EU].He *is :02 call/ing and call/ing.He is (go/ing in in) go/ing (to to) down.He go/3s down.He say/*3s, "Is *it over there"?The boy said, "Shh".And he busc*[CS] over there.And he is over there.And (he) his frog is in your[EW:his] hand.He say bye to the (s*) nothers[EW:other] frog/s.
52 Diagnostic Assessment should include: BEFORE TIER IIIDiagnostic Assessment should include:Educational HistoryFamily HistoryLanguage DominanceSpecific Reading SkillsSpecific Language SkillsL1 Literacy SkillsWorking MemoryNeed person on team who is knowledgeable about issues of student's culture/countrySpecific language skills—have difficulty w/ grammar or syntax? (SALT) Assess what areas have difficultyWould not be unreasonable to have SLP involved in assessment as long as they understood L1 affects on EnglishNot tx—acad lang instruction
53 EDUCATIONAL HISTORY Educated in another country? When started school? Attendance?Performance?Remedial support?Performance of students in that country?Educated in other state/districts?L1 literacy instruction?Bilingual program?Preschool?Educated in other countryMexico—don't start until child speaks (age 8 for some!)4 hrs/daymore informal, grp work, student interaction & movementHaiti—education valued, but many in rural areas don't attend b/of fees, school supplies & uniformsRote learning & memorization is the norm; not expected to have more than 1 right answer—confusing for them herePR—sit & copy from blackboard
54 FAMILY HISTORY Immigration status Level of acculturation Understanding of school expectationsTravel to home country?Parents' English levelsLevel of academic supportDependence on child for translationWhat generation of immigrants are they? If their parents were born here, the parents & children will be much more accustomed to the social & academiexpectations, & more comfortable in relating with English speakersIf they travel to the home country often, there may be less acculturation. Also, if travel during school year, are missing instructionTranslation—family important—children miss school to help parents with dr's appts, etc.
55 ASSESSING PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS In kindergarten ELLs at-risk for reading can be identified if PA is underdeveloped &/or they have difficulty learning sound-symbol correspondence...If PA is low, do not take the wait & see attitude. Needs interventions
56 BUT…Are they able to hear the phonemes?Are they able to produce the phonemes?Do they understand the task?Are they familiar with the task?If PA is low, do not take the wait & see attitude. Needs interventions
57 BILINGUAL SLP SUPPORT Phonological awareness tasks: focus on similaritiesCVC syllabledog d-ogsol s-olcall attention to differencesCVCV syllablecasa c-a-s-acasa c-asa**be careful with tests that exploit the similarities between two languages may make student appear higher with respect to phonological awareness skillsabove examples show that child understands onset-rime in the context of a word, but have difficulty at the syllable levelTests tend to have CVC words, which wouldn’t show difficulty in this areaAND if you don’t see it when assessing, you may not focus on it enough in TIER I and II supportsHammer & Miccio (2006)
58 ASSESSING IN L1 Low performance in English PA skills in L1 age-appropriateunfamiliarity with English phonemesexplain differences between L1 & Englishweakness in PA in L1interventions need target these PA skillsENGLISHL1
59 RHYMING Is not a strategy used in all languages Recalling rhyming words is affected by a weak vocabularyRecognizing rhyming words can be affected by semantic interferenceSome countries, including some Spanish-speaking, emphasis more beginning letters than endingLo, la, las, losMa, me, mi, mo, muWIAT & WJ-III have rhyme recall & recognize rhyming tasks
60 What rhymes with...?Semantic interference—lack of understanding of task, so they choose based on category or relationship.Higher cognitive skill than rhymingMay use L1 words
61 ASSESSING WORD READING SKILLS Before asking the student to readensure verbal familiarity with the words in textDiscuss the topic & key words in text
62 ASSESSING IN L1 LOW PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH If L1 literacy skills are appropriateindicative of limited language proficiencynot a learning disabilityIf patterns of errors occur in both languagespossible indicator of a learning disabilityfurther assessment may be necessary
63 ASSESSING IN L1Must be done by someone knowledgeable in common errors in L1English also likely to impact performance in L1 if student exposed to English literacy instructionExample:In Spanish read “LL” as /L/ instead of /y/
64 ASSESSING WORD READING SKILLS Error analysis is very important:confusing vowel sounds?dropping ending sounds?difficulty with English-only phonemes?allow for accent errors (is = iss)
65 ASSESSING READING FLUENCY How many of the words did the student verbally know?Introduce words before reading so will perform betterDetermine unfamiliar words after reading to understand lower scoreDo both to see if there is a difference!WJ=III Fluency—words seem more basic, but also adding a comprehension element in deciding if true or notWIAT-II—Quartile score 1-4, not very specific—low ave & deficient in same quartileIntroduce words before—really make sure they understand and know the word
66 ASSESSING READING COMPREHENSION Oral Retelling (wpm)Oral fluency is a big factorCloze ProcedureWJ-III: Passage ComprehensionKnowledge of syntax & vocabulary are big factorsOral Retelling—count any word, even irrelevantELL's can recognize & understand many words that they cannot recall independently—the understood it, but can't retell it as fluentlyCloze procedure—syntax—should be noun or adjective?Vocabulary—understood sentence but don't know appropriate word
67 CLOZE PROCEDURE He washed his face at the ______. The dog ___ running. Sink—may not have this vocab wordDon't recognize AT would make “bathroom” inappropriatebut non-native speakers of English typically make this mistake*response = bathroom shows that student understands context (i.e. used a noun, not verb or adjective & used contextually appropriate vocabulary)Natalie: I would mark this CORRECT if I were testing vocabulary or grammar in Spanish because could be a dialectal difference not indicative of language delay/disorderIs—need to understand how to do this verb tense
68 ASSESSING READING COMPREHENSION Q & AWIAT-IIBRI-10Running RecordRead text then answer questionsMore similar to classroom demands than other tests, tooQuestions can help them frame & recall informationSyntax not importantWJ vs WIAT
69 ASSESSING COMPREHENSION Read title/heading“What do you think it will be about?”access background knowledgeRead text aloudmark errorsWith text availableask comprehension questionsuse sentence startersTitle—They access background knowledge to help them frontload available vocab.YOU assess if they have background knowledge & appropriate vocab for the topicErrors—related to decoding, syntax, grammar?Helps to understand errors in comprehension questions—Did they have trouble reading an essential word?Comprehension—have text available to assist in their word recall.Sentence Starters—if have difficulty understanding the questions, starters might help them understand and express more easilyor retelling
70 SENTENCE STARTERSI think the boy felt _____ because ______. The story was about a dragon who______. After pouring in the flour, you need to _____. The story teaches us__________.
71 “I’ve got butterflies in my stomach!” WHERE WAS THE TROUBLE?Important vocabularyBackground knowledgeMetaphors/SimilesIdiomsreunion storyinference of underlying dynamics“I’ve got butterflies in my stomach!”
72 WHAT FOLLOWS TIER II? Typically: Increased phonics in TIER III Instead:may need to modify TIER IITIER II may be repeated many timesExpect to be in Tier II for many years!
73 OR FOR OLDER STUDENTS: TIER II SUPPORT Fluency Interventions & Vocabulary BuildingComprehension Strategies & Vocabulary BuildingExpect to be in Tier II for long timeBREAK!OR
75 TIER III INTERVENTIONISTS May include any/all of the following:Bilingual or ESL Teacher with background in literacySpecial Education TeacherReading SpecialistSpeech-Language PathologistMay be in Tier III for extended period of timewith background in ELL needs
76 PHONEMIC AWARENESS HIERARCHY rhymingmatching by rhyme & alliterationsyllable splittingfull phoneme segmentationmanipulation of phonemesADAMS, 1990
77 PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS: SLP INVOLVEMENT Consultation OR Direct ServicesKnow dialectal differencesvowel distortionsinterchangeable sounds in Spanish (e.g. /b/, /v/)sounds not common to Spanish (e.g. /z/, /sh/)Use gesture & visual cueExample: “Easy Does It” hand cueshighlight words that have soundshow different spellings for same sound in Englishshow frequency of that sound used in text
78 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF WORDS SYLLABLESACCENTSMORPHOLOGYNATALIESyllables:Type of syllable gives clues about the sounds of the vowelsClosed—syllable ends w/ a consonant hat, got, hip, mendOpen—syllable ends with a vowel he, go, hi meVowel-consonant-e (silent “e”)Vowel pair (vowel team)Vocalic /r/ (r-controlled)Consonant-leAccent-where to put the accent in the word (use mirror to help—model and have student watch your mouth then his to imitate that mouth movement)Morphology—helps w/ decoding & vocabulary development & spellingBase word, affix, root, suffix, prefix*Teach specific spelling and grammatical conventions (e.g. –ing on end of verb meaning progressive action – helping verb tells past or present)Teach common Latin Roots & common Greek combining formsBIRSH, 2005
79 READING FLUENCY: INTERVENTIONS Choral/Echo ReadingsTeach Phrasing & Intonation DirectlyStudy punctuation & grammarPractice with 3 or 4 word phrasesSegmented sentencesE.g. The black cat * chased the mouseIntonation & punctuationE.g. Bird fly. Birds fly? Birds fly!Intonation & stressE.g. You get the car. You get the carBIRSH, 2005
80 VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR: SLP INVOLVEMENT WORD CLASSIFICATION, CATEGORIZATION & USE:CLASSIFYsingular nounplural nounCATEGORIZEanimalspetsfurrysoftstart with “C”rhyme with “-at”USEsubjectobject
81 VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR: SLP INVOLVEMENT Consultation OR Direct Servicesantonyms & synonymsmultiple meaning wordscognates & false cognatesdescribing words & definitionsexample:“What means the same/opposite as…”“Tell me 2 meanings for the word bat”false cognate: “molestar”
82 READING COMPREHENSION: SLP INVOLVEMENT Understanding parts of a sentenceSubject-Verb- ObjectIncrease sentence lengthExample:The cat ran away.The big, mean, scary black cat ran quickly through the trees to get away from him owner.tx vs instruction
83 CASE STUDIESLet’s discuss each case:What assessments or information would you need to obtain to create appropriate Tier III interventions?
85 MARIA Mom completed 9 years of school, but was illiterate Dad completed 11 years of school, and was an alcoholicFamily & neighbors speak Spanish; parents hope to return to Mexico soon.During testing Maria was anxious during English tests & relaxed during Spanish testsClass observation: teacher spoke quickly, went through information once & discouraged clarification questions
86 MARIA'S SCORES WJ-III: NU WISC-IV: SPANISH ENGLISH SPANISH Oral Language6369Story Recall106109Picture Vocabulary4955Understanding Directions7673Oral Comprehension86Broad Reading72Letter-word Identification82Reading FluencyPassage Comprehension67WJ-III: NUSpanish scores very typical for a student of her educational hx—English is lower, but family very immersed in Mexican culture still. Not lot of academic language support in classroom to inEnglishFew sight words—could sound out unfamiliar words, weak vocab made it difficult to recognize words. Read haltingly, but when pictures were with text, she was much more confident and fluent. Difficulty recalling the words in reading comprehensionVCI very typical for ELL student (explain adjusted %)BOOKS in L1 INappropriateHave teams discuss some possible interventions for Maria before go to next slide.WISC-IV: SPANISHSSU.S. %ADJUSTED %VCI79813 (83)PRI882127 (90)WMI912729 (91)PSI37 (94)
87 What interventions would be appropriate for Maria? NOW THAT YOU KNOW...What interventions would be appropriate for Maria?
89 LIZBET parents originally from Mexico; completed the primary grades. language development was slow; mom concerned about her pronunciation of words.attended 1 year of Head Start; was shy at the beginning, but did well.Parents do not see any of the anxious behaviors at home; Lizbet completes her homework independently; stated she cannot read in English or Spanish
90 LIZBET'S SCORES WJ-III: NU WISC-IV: SPANISH ENGLISH SPANISH Oral Language3435Story Recall3712Picture Vocabulary4255Understanding Directions2616Oral Comprehension5663Brief Reading75Letter-Word Identification80Passage Comprehension69Very inhibited during testing. Would not guess, rarely spoke.Knew letter sounds, but had difficulty putting the sounds together to form words (WJ-III often gives elevated scores for K & 1st grades)Diff w/ working memory & processing speed, which would affect ability to retain sounds in wordsWISC-IV: SPANISHSSU.S. %ADJUSTED %VCI530.11.0 (63)PRI8212.029.0 (90)WMI560.20.5 (59)PSI702.08.0 (78)
91 What interventions would be appropriate for Lizbet? NOW THAT YOU KNOW...What interventions would be appropriate for Lizbet?bil SLP do eval, but give object to Eng SLP to work on tx
92 SUMMARY ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS… do benefit from the RTI process are placed in classrooms that don’t provide appropriate ELL instructionrequire intensive & systematic instructionacademic language & literacy skillscan attain grade level word reading skillshave greater difficulty attaining grade level reading comprehension & fluency skills.benefit from the same reading intervention as monolingual peersrate of progress may be differenthave Tier II & III interventions for longer time periods
93 WHAT SHOULD WE DO NOW? If there are different languages in the school have select staff become experts on each language & be on the RTI teamUse appropriate progress monitoring systemsDiagnostic Assessment after Tier IITier III interventionists need appropriate training in ELLs & literacy developmentAssign ELL students to teachers with training in ELL instructionConsult SLPs for vocabulary & language development activitieshow would person become an expert?
94 WHAT ARE OUR LONG TERM OBJECTIVES? Professional DevelopmentPrincipals need to understand appropriate ELL instruction to ensure fidelityTeachers need trainingSchool-wideProfessional advancementspecific teachers develop an expertiseDevelop academic language instructionSIOP training for teacher and principalsTraining in WIDA English Language proficiency standards
95 WHAT ARE OUR LONG TERM OBJECTIVES? Find ways to engage ELL parentsInterpreters/translatorsHome activitiesOpportunities to volunteerResources
96 TAKING STOCK What resources does your district currently have? Staff, media, volunteers, technology, materialsHow can these be used to provide better instruction, assessments, and/or interventions for your ELL students?What does your district need?Resources in district that can help ELLs.How can they be tapped in new ways?What need? (Money is #1)
98 References:Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Birsh, J.R. (2005). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Colorin Colorado. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies for English language learners. Retrieved from Colorín Colorado. (2007). Using cognates to develop comprehension in English. Retrieved from Delaware Department of Education. (2008). Annual Report of Delaware’s English Language Learners Staff & Programs. Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. & Short, D. (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model. Pearson Education, Inc. Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners: Research-based Recommendations for Instruction and Academic Interventions. Center on Instruction. Gersten, R., Baker, S. K., Shanahan, T., Linan-Thompson, S., Collins, P., & Scarcella, R. (2007). Effective literacy and English language instruction for English learners in the elementary grades. U.S. Department of Education.
99 References:Hill, J. D. & Flynn, K. M. (2006). Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Klingner, J., Artiles, A., & Mendez Barletta, L. (2004). English language learners and learning disabilities: A critical review of the literature [Powerpoint]. Retrieved from Lundgren, C. & Robertson, K. (n.d.) Comprehension: Helping English language learners grasp the full picture. Retrieved from Scarcella, R. (2003). Academic English: A Conceptual Framework. University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute. Thomas, W. P. & Collier, V. P. (1997). School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. WIDA Consortium (2007). English Language Proficiency Standards for English Language Learners in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 5. Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Wright, Wayne E. (2008). Primary language support: Facilitating English language development and sheltered content instruction through effective use of students’ primary language(s) Message posted to
100 References:Goldstein, B. (2000). Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Research Guide for Speech-Language Pathologists. San Diego: Thomson Learning, Inc. Goldstein, B. (2005). Language & Culture: Assessment and Treatment of Diverse Populations. (unpublished PowerPoint presentation for CS 824 course at Temple University) Battle, D. (2002). Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. Genesee, F. et al (2004). Dual Language Development & Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism & Second Language Learning. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy, & Cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press. Goldstein, B. (2004). Bilingual Language Development & Disorders in Spanish-English Speakers. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Kayser, H. (1995). Bilingual Speech-Language Pathology: An Hispanic Focus. San Diego: Thompson Learning, Inc. Cheng, L. (1995). Integrating Language & Learning for Inclusion: An Asian-Pacific Focus. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc. Dickinson, D. & Tabors, P. (2001). Beginning Literacy With Language: Young Children Learning at Home & School. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Caesar, L.G. & Kohler, P.D. (2007). “The State of School-Based Bilingual Assessment: Actual Practice Versus Recommended Guidelines.” Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools. v38 ;3 pp August, D. et al (2006). Literacy Development in Elementary School Second Language Learners. Topics in Language Disorders v26;4 pp