DE INSTRUCTION FOR ELLS DELAWARE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, 2008
WHY DO MANY ELL'S FAIL TO ACQUIRE CALP? Lack of exposure to appropriate books and people who use academic language Lack of exposure to appropriate books and people who use academic language Lack of opportunities to learn and use academic language Lack of opportunities to learn and use academic language Lack of systematic, explicit instruction and sufficient and supportive feedback Lack of systematic, explicit instruction and sufficient and supportive feedback SCARCELLA, 2003
IMPROVING CALP Connect academic language with reading & writing activities Connect academic language with reading & writing activities Provide opportunities to produce the language through interactions Provide opportunities to produce the language through interactions
UPDATED RESEARCH With intensive literacy & academic language instruction, ELL students can develop CALP by the 4 th grade With intensive literacy & academic language instruction, ELL students can develop CALP by the 4 th grade Explicit oral language instruction is needed across all content areas Explicit oral language instruction is needed across all content areas This is missing in MOST regular education classrooms
CRITICAL FEATURES Intensive literacy instructionIntensive literacy instruction Extensive vocabulary instructionExtensive vocabulary instruction academic language instruction across content areasacademic language instruction across content areas Scaffolding/supports provided to increase comprehensionScaffolding/supports provided to increase comprehension Instructional conversationsInstructional conversations
VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION Multiple exposure to target words over several days Multiple exposure to target words over several days Reading, Writing and Speaking opportunities Reading, Writing and Speaking opportunities Emphasize student-friendly definitions Emphasize student-friendly definitions Provide regular review Provide regular review
IDENTIFYING VOCABULARY School/district core reading program ELLs will need instruction on additional words in the program ELLs will need instruction on additional words in the program Instruction will need to be more extensive than recommended by the program Instruction will need to be more extensive than recommended by the program
IDENTIFYING VOCABULARY Teacher study groups using available texts Identify vocabulary to be taught Identify vocabulary to be taught Create student-friendly definitions Create student-friendly definitions Create lesson plans for vocabulary instruction Create lesson plans for vocabulary instruction
ACTIVITY What words or phrases would present the most difficulty to ELL students?
SLP SUPPORT * Identify antonyms and synonyms (e.g. What means the same as…) * Sentence completion (e.g. It was dark so she turned on the _____) * Multiple meaning words (e.g. Give me 2 meanings for bat) * Describing (e.g. tell me 2 things to describe a…) * Categorizing and Classifying (e.g. Tell me 5 things that are cold) * Grammar knowledge (e.g. nouns, verbs, etc.) * Syntax knowledge – parts of a sentence (S-V-O)
ACADEMIC LANGUAGE Gersten et al. (2007), 2007 Instructional time should focus on explicit instruction of academic English explicit instruction of academic English adverbial formsadverbial forms conditional sentencesconditional sentences prepositionsprepositions words that express relationshipswords that express relationships Reading, discussing and writing about texts needs to be a central part of the language development needs to be a central part of the language development instruction dispersed throughout the day instruction dispersed throughout the day
ENGLISH INSTRUCTION TIME Gersten et al. (2007), 2007 Schedule regular blocks of English instruction time It increases the time ELLs have to learn the language It increases the time ELLs have to learn the language Instruction spaced throughout the day provides better opportunities for deep processing and retention Instruction spaced throughout the day provides better opportunities for deep processing and retention The focus is clearly on language The focus is clearly on language
FOR ELL READERS Gersten et al. (2007), 2007 Discuss text & the language in structured ways Discuss text & the language in structured ways Verb tense, plurals, use of adjectives & adverbsVerb tense, plurals, use of adjectives & adverbs Use language in a variety of situations Use language in a variety of situations Tell storiesTell stories Describe eventsDescribe events Explain problemsExplain problems Question intentionsQuestion intentions
LESSON PLANS 1.Content Objectives what students will learn to dowhat students will learn to do 2.Language Objectives language function or skill that the student will use in the lessonlanguage function or skill that the student will use in the lesson
SCAFFOLDING Realia Pictures Videos Demonstrations Hands-on Manipulatives Graphic Organizers Total Physical Response Feedback L1 Support Model Performance Indicators
MODEL PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (MPI) WIDA Consortium, 2007 Gives expectations for what students should be able to process & produce at a given proficiency level. Based on the ACCESS test & WIDA's English Language Proficiency Standards Using state academic content standards
ACCESS : LEVELS of ENGLISH PROFICIENCY
LEVEL 1 Match prices/goods with visually supported materials Example: newspapers or magazines Use oral questions with a partner Example: Which one costs a lot? EXAMPLE WIDA CONSORTIUM, 2007
LEVEL 4 Predict prices of goods using visually supported materials and oral questions with partner Example: Which one do you think costs under $1000? EXAMPLE WIDA CONSORTIUM, 2007
FEEDBACK HILL & FLYNN, 2006 Model correct grammar, pronunciation or vocabulary Prevents fossilizing errors Do not point out errors Corrective feedback for errors related to lesson content Should be timely Reflect progress in learning specific information Better than # of correct answers Rubrics are helpful
PRIMARY LANGUAGE SUPPORT WRIGHT, 2008 Provide bilingual picture dictionaries Teach students how to use them Accept students' initial writing in L1 as they transition to writing in English Have L1 books & recordings in the listening center Should be similar to the English books in the classroom To reinforce concepts that were taught Send books home to read with a parent or sibling Use resources on the internet Translations ( ) Online bilingual dictionary ( ) Educational activities Allow bilingual students to help ELL peers in L1
TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS Talk slowly and clearly Talk slowly and clearly Paraphrase often Paraphrase often Use animated facial expressions & gestures Use animated facial expressions & gestures Avoid idioms, or explain them Avoid idioms, or explain them Check in with the student to see if they understand Check in with the student to see if they understand Allow them to use their L1 Allow them to use their L1 Truly value the children's cultures Truly value the children's cultures
USE STUDENTS' CULTURE Introducing a lesson: ask students what experience they have with the topicask students what experience they have with the topic Students are: emotionally connected to the topicemotionally connected to the topic feeling valued as a member of the classfeeling valued as a member of the class motivated to learn moremotivated to learn more exposed to other cultures & historiesexposed to other cultures & histories Building upon a students culture triggers vocabulary & previous knowledge to build on
THE BASICS OF READING COMPREHENSION
INSTRUCTIONAL CONVERSATIONS & COOPERATIVE LEARNING HARRY & FLYNN, 2006
Same interventions as monolinguals BUT…Same interventions as monolinguals BUT… Adaptations for lack of English proficiency Adaptations for lack of English proficiency Additional academic language instruction Additional academic language instruction Understanding that progress will not be as robust Understanding that progress will not be as robust Sensitivity to schedule Sensitivity to schedule should not lose exposure time to content area material should not lose exposure time to content area material
PA INTERVENTIONS Venn diagrams to compare sounds or words in English & L1 Venn diagrams to compare sounds or words in English & L1 Explicit instruction on pronunciation of sounds & words Explicit instruction on pronunciation of sounds & words Encourage pronunciation practice Encourage pronunciation practice Choral reading, echo reading Choral reading, echo reading Sound sorting of pictures Sound sorting of pictures Poetry & music Poetry & music
WORD READING INTERVENTIONS Same reading interventions as for monolingual students, although progress will not be as profound Same reading interventions as for monolingual students, although progress will not be as profound In addition, explicit oral language instruction In addition, explicit oral language instruction Vocabulary Vocabulary Grammar/syntax Grammar/syntax Explicit phonemic instruction may be needed. Explicit phonemic instruction may be needed.
READING FLUENCY INTERVENTIONS Verbal language instruction Verbal language instruction – Focus on vocabulary – grammar/syntax – Idioms Increased exposure to print Increased exposure to print
EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION Francis et al. 2006
1.Look around (observe) 2.Look into (investigate) 3.Look after (take care of) 4.Look for (search) 5.Look out for(be careful with) 6.Look like(look similar) 7.Look over (read, edit, review) EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE: look
1)take a look (noun) 2)I like the looks of it (noun) 3)this is a looking glass (adjective) 4)I need to look for it (infinitive verb) 5)He looks (3 rd person /s/) 6)Look at me (imperative) 7)Shes looking (present progressive verb) 8)We looked around (regular past tense /-ed/) 9)They had looked (past participle) EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE: look
COGNATES Words in two languages that share a similar meaning, spelling & pronunciation Words in two languages that share a similar meaning, spelling & pronunciation 30-40% of English words have a related word in Spanish 30-40% of English words have a related word in Spanish More easily related if students have literacy skills in L1 More easily related if students have literacy skills in L1
SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS of LANGUAGE TRANSCRIPTS DIAGNOSTIC MEASURES & PROGRESS MONITOR
EXAMPLE: ANA, AGE 7-3, GRADE 1 One day a little boy (he/'s um) he/'s be a :02 frog [EU]. And he is go/ing to your[EW:his] bed. The frog, he/'s go/ing. (When he/'s :02 when he/'s :04 s* :09) when he peek/3s up, the frog is not in the frasc*[CS]. He/'s call/ing to the frog. But (not) not> The dog, he/'s go/*ing down. He/'s (ca*) call/ing to the frog. "Frog, Frog". (He/'s) he/'s call/ing and calling. Then the dog, he/'s (:06 s*) call/ing too. Then :04 he/'s :04 call/ing. He/'s :04 be a :07 bird [EU]. The dog is :03 run/*ing. And he go/3s up. (And) one rock [EU]. He *is :02 call/ing and call/ing. He is (go/ing in in) go/ing (to to) down. He go/3s down. He say/*3s, "Is *it over there"? The boy said, "Shh". And he busc*[CS] over there. And he is over there. And (he) his frog is in your[EW:his] hand. He say bye to the (s*) nothers[EW:other] frog/s.
BEFORE TIER III Diagnostic Assessment should include:
EDUCATIONAL HISTORY Educated in another country? Educated in another country? When started school? When started school? Attendance? Attendance? Performance? Performance? Remedial support? Remedial support? Performance of students in that country? Performance of students in that country? Educated in other state/districts? Educated in other state/districts? L1 literacy instruction? L1 literacy instruction? Bilingual program? Bilingual program? Preschool? Preschool? Attendance? Attendance?
FAMILY HISTORY Immigration status Immigration status Level of acculturation Level of acculturation Understanding of school expectations Understanding of school expectations Travel to home country? Travel to home country? Parents' English levels Parents' English levels Level of academic support Level of academic support Dependence on child for translation Dependence on child for translation
ASSESSING PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS In kindergarten ELLs at-risk for reading can be identified if PA is underdeveloped &/or they have difficulty learning sound- symbol correspondence...
RHYMING Is not a strategy used in all languages Is not a strategy used in all languages Recalling rhyming words is affected by a weak vocabulary Recalling rhyming words is affected by a weak vocabulary Recognizing rhyming words can be affected by semantic interference Recognizing rhyming words can be affected by semantic interference
What rhymes with...?
ASSESSING WORD READING SKILLS Before asking the student to read Before asking the student to read ensure verbal familiarity with the words in textensure verbal familiarity with the words in text Discuss the topic & key words in text Discuss the topic & key words in text
ASSESSING IN L1
Must be done by someone knowledgeable in common errors in L1 Must be done by someone knowledgeable in common errors in L1 English also likely to impact performance in L1 if student exposed to English literacy instruction English also likely to impact performance in L1 if student exposed to English literacy instruction –Example: In Spanish read LL as /L/ instead of /y/
ASSESSING WORD READING SKILLS Error analysis is very important: confusing vowel sounds? confusing vowel sounds? dropping ending sounds? dropping ending sounds? difficulty with English-only phonemes? difficulty with English-only phonemes? allow for accent errors (is = iss) allow for accent errors (is = iss)
ASSESSING READING FLUENCY How many of the words did the student verbally know?
ASSESSING READING COMPREHENSION Oral Retelling (wpm)Oral Retelling (wpm) –Oral fluency is a big factor Cloze ProcedureCloze Procedure –WJ-III: Passage Comprehension –Knowledge of syntax & vocabulary are big factors
CLOZE PROCEDURE He washed his face at the ______.He washed his face at the ______. The dog ___ running.The dog ___ running.
ASSESSING READING COMPREHENSION –Q & A –WIAT-II –BRI-10 –Running Record
ASSESSING COMPREHENSION Read title/heading Read title/heading –What do you think it will be about? –access background knowledge Read text aloud Read text aloud –mark errors With text available With text available –ask comprehension questions –use sentence starters
SENTENCE STARTERS I think the boy felt _____ because ______. The story was about a dragon who______. After pouring in the flour, you need to _____. The story teaches us__________.
WHERE WAS THE TROUBLE? Important vocabulary Important vocabulary Background knowledge Background knowledge Metaphors/Similes Metaphors/Similes Idioms Idioms Ive got butterflies in my stomach!
WHAT FOLLOWS TIER II? Typically: Increased phonics in TIER III Increased phonics in TIER IIIInstead: may need to modify TIER II may need to modify TIER II TIER II may be repeated many times TIER II may be repeated many times
FOR OLDER STUDENTS: TIER II SUPPORT OR
TIER III INTERVENTIONISTS May include any/all of the following: Bilingual or ESL Teacher with background in literacyBilingual or ESL Teacher with background in literacy Special Education TeacherSpecial Education Teacher Reading SpecialistReading Specialist Speech-Language PathologistSpeech-Language Pathologist with background in ELL needs
PHONEMIC AWARENESS HIERARCHY ADAMS, 1990
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS: SLP INVOLVEMENT Consultation OR Direct Services
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF WORDS BIRSH, 2005
READING FLUENCY: INTERVENTIONS Choral/Echo ReadingsChoral/Echo Readings Teach Phrasing & Intonation DirectlyTeach Phrasing & Intonation Directly – Study punctuation & grammar – Practice with 3 or 4 word phrases – Segmented sentences – E.g. The black cat * chased the mouse – Intonation & punctuation – E.g. Bird fly. Birds fly? Birds fly! – Intonation & stress – E.g. You get the car. You get the car BIRSH, 2005
VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR: SLP INVOLVEMENT Consultation OR Direct Services
Understanding parts of a sentence Understanding parts of a sentence Subject-Verb- Object Subject-Verb- Object Increase sentence length Increase sentence length Example: Example: A.The cat ran away. B.The big, mean, scary black cat ran quickly through the trees to get away from him owner. READING COMPREHENSION: SLP INVOLVEMENT
CASE STUDIES Lets discuss each case: What assessments or information would you need to obtain to create appropriate Tier III interventions?
MARIA Mom completed 9 years of school, but was illiterate Mom completed 9 years of school, but was illiterate Dad completed 11 years of school, and was an alcoholic Dad completed 11 years of school, and was an alcoholic Family & neighbors speak Spanish; parents hope to return to Mexico soon. Family & neighbors speak Spanish; parents hope to return to Mexico soon. During testing Maria was anxious during English tests & relaxed during Spanish tests During testing Maria was anxious during English tests & relaxed during Spanish tests Class observation: teacher spoke quickly, went through information once & discouraged clarification questions Class observation: teacher spoke quickly, went through information once & discouraged clarification questions
MARIA'S SCORES ENGLISHSPANISH Oral Language6369 Story Recall Picture Vocabulary4955 Understanding Directions7673 Oral Comprehension7686 Broad Reading72 Letter-word Identification82 Reading Fluency73 Passage Comprehension67 SS U.S. % ADJUSTED % VCI79813 (83) PRI (90) WMI (91) PSI (94) WJ-III: NU WISC-IV: SPANISH
NOW THAT YOU KNOW... What interventions would be appropriate for Maria?
LIZBET parents originally from Mexico; completed the primary grades.parents originally from Mexico; completed the primary grades. language development was slow; mom concerned about her pronunciation of words.language development was slow; mom concerned about her pronunciation of words. attended 1 year of Head Start; was shy at the beginning, but did well.attended 1 year of Head Start; was shy at the beginning, but did well. Parents do not see any of the anxious behaviors at home; Lizbet completes her homework independently; stated she cannot read in English or SpanishParents do not see any of the anxious behaviors at home; Lizbet completes her homework independently; stated she cannot read in English or Spanish
LIZBET'S SCORES ENGLISHSPANISH Oral Language3435 Story Recall3712 Picture Vocabulary4255 Understanding Directions2616 Oral Comprehension5663 Brief Reading75 Letter-Word Identification80 Passage Comprehension69 SS U.S. % ADJUSTED % VCI (63) PRI (90) WMI (59) PSI (78) WJ-III: NU WISC-IV: SPANISH
NOW THAT YOU KNOW... What interventions would be appropriate for Lizbet?
SUMMARY ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS… do benefit from the RTI processdo benefit from the RTI process are placed in classrooms that dont provide appropriate ELL instructionare placed in classrooms that dont provide appropriate ELL instruction require intensive & systematic instructionrequire intensive & systematic instruction –academic language & literacy skills can attain grade level word reading skillscan attain grade level word reading skills have greater difficulty attaining grade level reading comprehension & fluency skills.have greater difficulty attaining grade level reading comprehension & fluency skills. benefit from the same reading intervention as monolingual peersbenefit from the same reading intervention as monolingual peers – rate of progress may be different have Tier II & III interventions for longer time periodshave Tier II & III interventions for longer time periods
WHAT SHOULD WE DO NOW? If there are different languages in the school If there are different languages in the school have select staff become experts on each language & be on the RTI teamhave select staff become experts on each language & be on the RTI team Use appropriate progress monitoring systems Use appropriate progress monitoring systems Diagnostic Assessment after Tier II Diagnostic Assessment after Tier II Tier III interventionists need appropriate training in ELLs & literacy development Tier III interventionists need appropriate training in ELLs & literacy development Assign ELL students to teachers with training in ELL instruction Assign ELL students to teachers with training in ELL instruction Consult SLPs for vocabulary & language development activities Consult SLPs for vocabulary & language development activities
WHAT ARE OUR LONG TERM OBJECTIVES? Professional Development Professional Development Principals need to understand appropriate ELL instruction to ensure fidelity Principals need to understand appropriate ELL instruction to ensure fidelity Teachers need training Teachers need training School-wideSchool-wide Professional advancementProfessional advancement specific teachers develop an expertise specific teachers develop an expertise Develop academic language instruction Develop academic language instruction
Find ways to engage ELL parents Interpreters/translators Home activities Opportunities to volunteer Resources WHAT ARE OUR LONG TERM OBJECTIVES?
TAKING STOCK What resources does your district currently have? Staff, media, volunteers, technology, materialsStaff, media, volunteers, technology, materials How can these be used to provide better instruction, assessments, and/or interventions for your ELL students? What does your district need?
References: Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Birsh, J.R. (2005). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Colorin Colorado. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies for English language learners. Retrieved from Colorín Colorado. (2007). Using cognates to develop comprehension in English. Retrieved from Delaware Department of Education. (2008). Annual Report of Delawares English Language Learners Staff & Programs. Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. & Short, D. (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model. Pearson Education, Inc. Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners: Research-based Recommendations for Instruction and Academic Interventions. Center on Instruction. Gersten, R., Baker, S. K., Shanahan, T., Linan-Thompson, S., Collins, P., & Scarcella, R. (2007). Effective literacy and English language instruction for English learners in the elementary grades. U.S. Department of Education.
References: Hill, J. D. & Flynn, K. M. (2006). Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Klingner, J., Artiles, A., & Mendez Barletta, L. (2004). English language learners and learning disabilities: A critical review of the literature [Powerpoint]. Retrieved from Lundgren, C. & Robertson, K. (n.d.) Comprehension: Helping English language learners grasp the full picture. Retrieved from Scarcella, R. (2003). Academic English: A Conceptual Framework. University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute. Thomas, W. P. & Collier, V. P. (1997). School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. WIDA Consortium (2007). English Language Proficiency Standards for English Language Learners in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 5. Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Wright, Wayne E. (2008). Primary language support: Facilitating English language development and sheltered content instruction through effective use of students primary language(s) Message posted to
References: Goldstein, B. (2000). Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Research Guide for Speech-Language Pathologists. San Diego: Thomson Learning, Inc. Goldstein, B. (2005). Language & Culture: Assessment and Treatment of Diverse Populations. (unpublished PowerPoint presentation for CS 824 course at Temple University) Battle, D. (2002). Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations. Boston: Butterworth- Heinemann. Genesee, F. et al (2004). Dual Language Development & Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism & Second Language Learning. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy, & Cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press. Goldstein, B. (2004). Bilingual Language Development & Disorders in Spanish-English Speakers. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Kayser, H. (1995). Bilingual Speech-Language Pathology: An Hispanic Focus. San Diego: Thompson Learning, Inc. Cheng, L. (1995). Integrating Language & Learning for Inclusion: An Asian-Pacific Focus. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc. Dickinson, D. & Tabors, P. (2001). Beginning Literacy With Language: Young Children Learning at Home & School. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Caesar, L.G. & Kohler, P.D. (2007). The State of School-Based Bilingual Assessment: Actual Practice Versus Recommended Guidelines. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools. v38 ;3 pp August, D. et al (2006). Literacy Development in Elementary School Second Language Learners. Topics in Language Disorders v26;4 pp