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Delaware Department of Education School Climate and Discipline Program

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1 Delaware Department of Education School Climate and Discipline Program
Bullying Prevention Training Required of all district and charter public school employees under 14 Del Code §4123A Welcome to the Delaware Department of Education’s required yearly training on bullying prevention as required under Title 14 of the Delaware Code.

2 Title 14 Delaware Code § 4123A School Bullying Prevention Training
(a) Each school district and charter school shall ensure that its public school employees receive combined training each year totaling one (1) hour in the identification and reporting of criminal youth gang activity pursuant to § 617, Title 11 of the Delaware Code and bullying prevention pursuant to § 4112D, Title 14 of the Delaware Code. The training materials shall be prepared by the Department of Justice and the Department of Education in collaboration with law enforcement agencies, the Delaware State Education Association, the Delaware School Boards Association and the Delaware Association of School Administrators. Under Delaware law, each school district and charter school shall ensure that all its public school employees receive combined training each year totaling one (1) hour in the identification and reporting of criminal youth gang activity and bullying prevention. This bullying prevention training module is approximately 30 minutes in length and is for all public school employees including teachers, counselors, administrators, and support staff such as secretaries, custodians, and bus drivers.

3 Bullying “Bullying" means any intentional written, electronic, verbal or physical act or actions against another student, school volunteer or school employee that a reasonable person under the circumstances should know will have the effect of: So, what is bullying and how do we define it in Delaware? You may have heard a lot over the past few years as to what bullying is and what it isn’t. Section 4112D of Title 14 defines what “Bullying" means in our state. Bullying is any intentional written, electronic, verbal or physical act or actions against another student, school volunteer or school employee that a reasonable person under the circumstances should know will have the effect of:

4 (1) Placing a student, school volunteer or school employee in reasonable fear of substantial harm to his or her emotional or physical well-being or substantial damage to his or her property; or (2) Creating a hostile, threatening, humiliating or abusive educational environment due to the pervasiveness or persistence of actions or due to a power differential between the bully and the target; or (3) Interfering with a student having a safe school environment that is necessary to facilitate educational performance, opportunities or benefits; or (4) Perpetuating bullying by inciting, soliciting or coercing an individual or group to demean, dehumanize, embarrass or cause emotional, psychological or physical harm to another student, school volunteer or school employee. (1) Placing a person in reasonable fear of substantial harm to his or her emotional or physical well-being or substantial damage to his or her property; or (2) Creating a hostile, threatening, humiliating or abusive educational environment due to the pervasiveness or persistence of actions or due to a power differential between the bully and the target; or (3) Interfering with a student having a safe school environment that is necessary to facilitate educational performance, opportunities or benefits; or (4) Perpetuating bullying by inciting, soliciting or coercing an individual or group to demean, dehumanize, embarrass or cause emotional, psychological or physical harm to another student, school volunteer or school employee.

5 3 CORE Characteristics of Bullying
AGGRESSIVE, intentional behavior involving unwanted, negative actions. Involves an IMBALANCE of POWER or strength. A pattern of behavior REPEATED over time. (Delaware Law states that bullying can be a one-time incident so don’t wait for the behavior to be repeated before reporting as bullying if you believe it meets any of the state defined criteria.) Dan Olweus’ Core Program Against Bullying and Antisocial Behavior / A Teachers Handbook 2005 To help you identify bullying, remember these 3 CORE Characteristics: First, it is an AGGRESSIVE, intentional behavior involving negative actions that are unwanted by the intended target. Second, bullying involves an IMBALANCE of POWER or strength. This could be things such as physical size, cognitive disparities, social status, or a group of people targeting an individual with the unwanted, negative behavior. And third, A pattern of behavior that is usually REPEATED over time. Please remember, Delaware Law states that bullying behaviors don’t necessarily have to be repeated to be considered a bullying incident. So, don’t’ wait for the behavior to be repeated before reporting if you believe it meets any of the state defined criteria.

6 Hear what students perceive as bullying….
Elementary Students Adolescents Since most bullying situations you may encounter will involve kids, let’s hear from them. Check out one or all of the videos to see what kids and adolescents view as bullying. PSA created by students - What Bullying is and is not

7 A CONFLICT IS NOT BULLYING
Two parties at odds with each other and there is no real or perceived power differential between them Conflict starts and ends on the same level Both parties feel uncomfortable emotions such as frustration, anger, and/or outrage It’s important to remember that a conflict between students in which “mean” things may be said is not necessarily bullying. A conflict involves students who disagree with one another, are of equal real or perceived power, and both are feeling the same emotions as a result of the conflict. Source: Ed Donnelly

8 Teasing vs Taunting Teasing is a fun thing you do with friends - with people you care about. In teasing: Both participants give and take equally. The teaser and person teased can swap roles with ease. The intention is not to hurt the other person. The basic dignity of everyone involved is maintained. Participants poke fun in a light hearted, clever and harmless way. Participants do it to get both parties to laugh. It is only a small part of the activities shared by kids who have something in common. The motive is innocent . The behavior is stopped when the person teased becomes upset or objects to the teasing. Know the difference between teasing and taunting. Take a moment to review the differences outlined in the next two slides. When you’re ready, click to move on to read about how taunting is different from teasing. Adapted from the book The Bully, the bullied and the bystander by Barbara Coloroso

9 Teasing vs Taunting Taunting is a choice to bully someone for whom you have contempt. There is no intent of playfulness, even if the bully says, I was just teasing, or joking. Taunting is intended to isolate the target, to hurt, and words used are demeaning and cruel. The bully may laugh, and so may the bystander(s).The target is embarrassed, humiliated, or shamed, living in fear of what may come next. Is based on an imbalance of power and is one - sided; the bully taunts (ridicules, uses sarcasm, etc.). Is intended to harm and involves humiliating, cruel, demeaning, or bigoted language thinly disguised as jokes. Includes laughter directed at the target, not with the target. Is meant to diminish the sense of self-worth of target. Induces fear of further taunting or can be a prelude to physical bullying. Is sinister in motive. Continues especially when target becomes distressed or objects to the taunts. Adapted from the book The Bully, the bullied and the bystander by Barbara Coloroso

10 Why Children Bully? 3 interrelated reasons
1. Need for power and (negative) dominance 2. Find satisfaction in causing injury and suffering to others 3. Are often rewarded in some way for their behavior with material or psychological rewards Olweus 2005 Children bully others because of three interrelated reasons: One is the bully’s need for power and dominance. Two is the actual satisfaction the bully feels in hurting someone and watching others suffer. Third, the person exhibiting bullying behavior is often rewarded in some way for their behavior. With kids, this reward is usually receiving an elevated status within their peer social group. It is critical that as adults we encourage student bystanders to be active in reporting bullying behaviors and not just be passive observers. Just because a student or students are laughing at another student does not necessarily mean that bullying is taking place. However, it would be considered bullying if the alleged target is purposefully made to feel embarrassed, degraded, dehumanized, or fearful that he may be physically hurt by an individual or group.

11 Signs a Child is Bullying Others
Kids may be bullying others if they:    Get into physical or verbal fights Have friends who bully others Are increasingly aggressive Get sent to the principal’s office or to detention frequently Have unexplained extra money or new belongings Blame others for their problems Don’t accept responsibility for their actions Are competitive and worry about their reputation or popularity A student may be bullying others if they exhibit some or all of these behaviors including: Getting into physical or verbal fights Having friends who bully others Some students are increasingly aggressive They may get sent to the principal’s office or to detention frequently Having unexplained extra money or new belongings They may tend to blame others for their problems Along with not accepting responsibility for their actions Lastly, they are competitive and worry about their reputation or popularity

12 Types of Bullying VERBAL SOCIAL PHYSICAL CYBER or Electronic
Bullying can take place in many forms including verbal, social, physical, and electronic. A bully may target an individual using one, some or all of these methods. For example, Joe may verbally tell John he’s going to be “dead meat” while physically grabbing John by the neck. In addition, Joe socially bullies John by tweeting to his friends that all of them should ignore and exclude John in and out of school because John is a “snitch” since he was seen meting with the principal. Joe follows all this up electronically by continually ing, texting, and tweeting to John the words “snitch” and “dead meat.”

13 Warning Signs Of A Child Being Bullied
Anxiety or low self-esteem Now that we know some of the reasons why people bully and the different types, let’s look at some of the warning signs that a child is being bullied. Look for these changes in a child, but be aware that not all children who are bullied exhibit these signs. Anxiety and low self-esteem are both warning signs that a child may be the target of bullying. Look for changes in the child. However, be aware that not all children who are bullied exhibit warning signs.

14 More Warning Signs Excuses to avoid school Diminished social contact
Pattern of withdrawal, shame, fearfulness In addition, students who may be the target of bullying will avoid school, withdrawal from social contacts, and quite often feel shame. Some students quit attending school all together.

15 Damaged or missing belongings
Warning Signs Damaged or missing belongings Damaged or missing belongings is a strong warning sign that bullying may be taking place.

16 Warning Signs Of Bullying
Persistent, vague, unexplained physical complaints Unexplained bruising or injuries If a child has a hard time explaining the incident or avoids telling an adult all together, it is usually because they don’t have the vocabulary or they are afraid of retaliation. Some students with disabilities may have a difficult time articulating and even writing about the bullying.

17 Additional Warning Signs
Frequent headaches or stomach aches, feeling sick or faking illness Changes in eating habits, like suddenly skipping meals or binge eating. Kids may come home from school hungry because they did not eat lunch. Difficulty sleeping or frequent nightmares Declining grades, loss of interest in schoolwork Self-destructive behaviors such as running away from home, harming themselves, or talking about suicide Here are some other additional warning signs. Students feeling sick or faking illness is a classic warning sign. It’s important to remember that some kids are just better than others at hiding the trauma that results from being a target of bullying. Regardless of your role within the school setting, if you suspect a student is a target of bullying, you are obligated to report it to a building administrator. You should know who that person is in your building. If you don’t know, ask your principal.

18 Bullying and Suicide Take every threat seriously
Immediately inform the child’s counselor regarding your concern or the child’s threat to harm him/herself Ensure that the parent/guardian is notified about your concern State and National Suicide Hotlines Child Priority Response Hotline HELP National Suicide Prevention LifeLine TALK Delaware TeenLine (not a 24/7 hotline) Unfortunately, relentless bullying and harassment can push certain students to the brink of attempting suicide. If you suspect a child may be suicidal or he threatens suicide there are several things you must do. Take every threat seriously Immediately contact the child’s counselor. If your school does not have a counselor, contact the principal. Ensure that the parent/guardian is notified about your concern as soon as possible. In addition, there are several state and national hotline resources that are available.

19 Any staff member must report suspected bullying
14 Del Code 4112D(b)(2)(e) Subsection e. A requirement that any school employee that has reliable information that would lead a reasonable person to suspect that a person is a target of bullying shall immediately report it to the administration. As a staff member, you are obligated by your district or charter bullying prevention policy to report suspected bullying. The law is specific in that each district and charter will have a bullying prevention policy which requires any staff member to immediately report suspected bullying to the administration. If your district or charter does not have such a policy it is not in compliance with the law in Delaware. It’s also important to note that students, school employees and volunteers are individually immune from liability for reporting bullying in good faith to the appropriate school personnel. However, no such immunity will exist if the act of reporting constituted gross negligence and/or reckless, willful, or intentional conduct.

20 Twenty-one percent of students said that they had experienced bullying that consisted of being made fun of or taunted. This indicator repeats information from the 2009 Indicators of School Crime and Safety report. For more information: Tables 11.1, 11.2, and 11.3 and DeVoe and Kaffenberger (2005), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/ pdf Here are some of the statistics of what type of bullying is occurring to students nationwide Twenty-one percent of students said that they had been bullied by unwanted taunting or being made fun of.

21 18 percent reported being the subject of rumors
18% were the subject of rumors….

22 11 percent said that they were pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on
Eleven percent said they were pushed, shoved, tripped or spit on. 11 percent said that they were pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on

23 6 percent said they were threatened with harm
Six percent said they were threatened with some type of harm.

24 5 percent said they were excluded from activities on purpose
Five percent were excluded from activities on purpose by their peers.

25 Nationwide over 160,000 students per day do not go to school for fear of bullying….
That is more than all the students enrolled in Delaware public schools. In the United States, over 160,000 students per day do not go to school for fear of bullying… That is more than all the students enrolled in Delaware public schools.

26 Anyone can be a victim of bullying….
Have you ever been bullied? Anyone can be the target or victim of bullying. Popular or unpopular, short or tall, overweight or skinny, gay or straight…… The reasons are numerous and varied. Delaware law requires that schools have a procedure in place to investigate bullying and to determine the reason “why” the bullying is occurring. Reasons may include race, age, marital status (such as having gay/lesbian parents), creed, religion, color, sex, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, or national origin. Or, it may be because of a person’s physical appearance or some other unknown reason. Delaware law requires that schools have a procedure in place to investigate bullying and to determine the reason “why” the bullying is occurring. Reasons may include race, age, marital status (such as having gay/lesbian parents), creed, religion, color, sex, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, or national origin. Or, it may be because of a person’s physical appearance or some other unknown reason.

27 Could this be a classroom in your school?
Video 1 Could this be happening in a classroom in your school? Could you blame this student if he said he didn’t want to attend school? Even though we can’t hear what the other students are saying you can get a sense of the effect on the target by his physical responses. In addition to what appears to be verbal bullying, the target is physically harassed as well. Unfortunately, sometimes we miss the bullying and catch the target reacting to the negative behavior which can result in disciplinary action for the target and not the bully. Click on the internet link to watch and take notice that it’s not always the bigger kid that bullies a smaller one. Can you blame this student if he did not want to attend school?

28 How about Delaware schools?
58% of elementary 54% of middle 38% of high school Students strongly agreed that bullying was a problem in their Delaware schools 2012 Delaware school climate Survey of 165 schools How about bullying in “our back yard” here in Delaware? Over half of elementary and middle school students and over a third of high school students strongly agreed with the statement that bullying was a problem in our schools.

29 23% of elementary 46% of middle 30% of high school Teachers strongly agreed that bullying was a problem in their Delaware schools Yet, not nearly as many teachers as students believe that bullying is a problem in Delaware schools. Even if you don’t believe a student is being bullied, but the student came to you with a concern of being bullied you must report it or help the student report it to the school’s administration.

30 Even Teachers Are Bullied
Students are not the only victims of intimidation or violence in schools. Teachers are also subject to threats and physical attacks. Unfortunately, these behaviors are sometimes exhibited from their own students. 5% are verbally abused on a daily basis Everyone can be a target of bullying, even teachers and other school staff.

31 Unfortunately, sometimes adults can be the bullies….
Click on the internet link below to watch the video. Video 2 Unfortunately, sometimes adults can be the bullies. Regardless of who is the bully or the target, in order to stop the bullying, it must be reported. Click on the internet link to watch the video of a student being verbally bullied by an adult.

32 Support and Supervision are the keys
Every Child, Teacher and Staff Member Should Love the School Experience Support and Supervision are the keys Support and supervision are some of the main keys to preventing and stopping incidents of bullying.

33 The five most common areas where bullying occurs in schools include….
Where does bullying most often occur? The five most common areas where bullying occurs in the school environment include….

34 School Buses

35 Playgrounds

36 Hallways

37 Locker Rooms

38 Supervision is key Other areas to look out for And bathrooms.
Although the cafeteria is a place that is supervised by numerous staff, bullying often occurs during lunch time as well. Supervision is key

39 What Will Help Prevent Bullying?
Creating a positive School Climate Supervision Encourage students not to be passive bystanders, but to be active and report bullying behavior to an adult Strong teacher-student relationships Positive expectations of students Atmosphere of cooperation in the classroom Firm limits for unacceptable behavior Reporting the behavior What will help prevent bullying in your building? Fostering a positive school climate which addresses the issue of bullying and reporting suspected bullying are effective in reducing the negative behaviors associated with bullying.

40 (Jones v. Indiana Area School District 2005)
“Kids will be kids”, but behaviors that demean, dehumanize, or instill fear in an individual must be addressed by the school. Courts found that where the school district has knowledge that attempts to stop the bullying are ineffective, it is required to take additional action to eliminate the bullying. Its failure to do so is a form of discrimination (Jones v. Indiana Area School District 2005) Are we doing enough to address the bullying in our schools? Staff should never dismiss suspected bullying or a complaint of bullying as “not my problem.” “Kids will be kids” is a statement we’ve all heard, but when their behaviors demean, dehumanize, or instill fear in another person it’s the job of the school to address this behavior and help make it stop.

41 (Flores v. Morgan Hill Unified School District 2003)
Courts held that the rights to be free from bullying based on sexual orientation is clearly established. School officials do not enjoy immunity for liability when they fail to respond to a pattern of bullying. (Flores v. Morgan Hill Unified School District 2003) Courts have held that the rights to be free from bullying based on sexual orientation is clearly established. Schools are not immune from liability when they fail to respond to a pattern of bullying.

42 (Vance v. Spencer County Public Schools 2000)
Courts ruled that when schools have actual knowledge of the bullying they have a duty to take appropriate action and are not allowed to continue to use methods that fail to address what they know is happening. (Vance v. Spencer County Public Schools 2000) Bernard James, Professor of Constitutional Law. Pepperdine University ,2010 Journal of school safety When schools have actual knowledge of the bullying they have a duty to take appropriate action.

43 New Bullying & Cyberbullying law
Click on the link below to watch the Governor and Lt. Governor speak about these important legislative changes. Video 3 Recent updates and additions to Delaware’s bullying prevention law include the requirement that school adminstration report both alleged and substantiated incidents of bullying to the Delaware Department of Education. In addition, under the new cyberbullying law signed in July 2012 districts and charters must adopt the model cyberbullying policy which allows schools to discipline students for off-campus cyberbullying which causes a substantial disruption to the educational process within the school. Schools must also publish and post the phone number of the School Criminal Offense Omubudsperson who is part of the Delaware Attorney General’s Office. Click on the internet link to watch the Governor and Lt. Governor speak about these important legislative changes. AG’s School Ombudsperson Contact Number is

44 Other Legal Requirements
Schools identify an appropriate range of consequences A procedure in place for students and guardians to provide information on bullying activity That the guardian of both the bully and the target be notified by the school That the school forbid retaliation following a report of bullying That the school bullying prevention program be implemented throughout the school year That a procedure be in place for communication with medical professionals treating students for bullying issues Some other important requirements under Delaware’s bullying prevention law include: - That schools identify an appropriate range of consequences for bullying behavior - That a procedure is in place for students and guardians to provide information on bullying activity - That the guardian of both the bully and the target be notified by the school - That the school forbid retaliation following a report of bullying That the school bullying prevention program be implemented throughout the school year That a procedure be in place for communication with medical professionals treating students for bullying issues

45 How you can help your school prevent bullying?

46 Forming a team approach to prevention and intervention (Support & Supervision)
About 50 percent of all behavior problems in schools are associated with three to five percent of students. Team-based approaches aim to target these students. There are two types of team-based approaches that are effective in dealing with at-risk and behavior problem children (bullying)—the Behavior Support Teams and the Student Intervention Teams. Many schools use these two approaches, but may refer to them by another name. Be a part of the team approach. By law, your school must have a site-based bullying prevention committee that is responsible for coordinating the school’s year-long bullying prevention program. Schools with grade levels between 7th to 12th grade must also include student members on its committee.

47 Support and Supervision
The Behavior Support Team (also known as PBS) designs a comprehensive approach whose focus is primarily on prevention. Support and Supervision are the keys to reducing bullying within your school environment.

48 It takes a Team Team-based approaches and working together are effective in dealing with behavior problem children and bullying However.. Team-based approaches and working together are effective in dealing with at-risk and behavior problem children and bullying. However…

49 The Individual Teacher is the key person in the intervention against bullying and antisocial behavior. Research shows that the individual teacher is the key person in the intervention of bullying. Yet, ALL school staff are instrumental in preventing bullying in the overall school environment. Never underestimate your power as an individual to have a positive or negative effect on a student’s well-being. All school staff are instrumental in preventing bullying in the overall school environment. Dan Olweus 2005 “A Teachers Handbook”

50 The three core characteristics of bullying are:
Review The three core characteristics of bullying are: 1) Aggressive & unwanted negative actions 2) Imbalance of power 3) Repeated (usually)

51 Review True or False? Under Delaware law a bullying behavior does not necessarily have to be repeated for it to be reported as an instance of bullying. True

52 Review True or False? To meet the state requirement of having a school-wide bully prevention program a school only needs to conduct a half-hour anti-bullying assembly at the beginning of the school year. False. State law requires that a school’s bully prevention program be implemented through the entire school year.

53 Review As opposed to bullying, a conflict among students includes what three characteristics? Equal power Starts and ends on same level Each person feels same emotions

54 Review Purposefully spreading rumors about a student to isolate a him/her from his/her peers would be considered what type of bullying? Social

55 Review The five main areas where bullying is most likely to occur in the school environment include: School Bus Bathroom Playground Hallway Locker Room

56 Review What are the two keys to bully prevention in classrooms and schools? Support & Supervision

57 Review True or False? Custodians, bus drivers, secretaries, and cafeteria workers are not obligated to report suspected instances of bullying to the school administration. False. Under Delaware law LEA policies must require that any school employee that has reasonable information that would lead a reasonable person to suspect that a person is a target of bullying shall immediately report it to the administration.

58 You can and do make a difference in a child’s life
Regardless of the role you play in your school building…. You can and do make a difference in a child’s life. Be a good role model…. Use discipline as a teaching opportunity… Be aware… Be consistent… Be seen… Kids need help when bullied. Take appropriate action. If you suspect bullying, reach out, report, and follow-up.

59 If you have any questions please contact
John Sadowski, Education Associate School Climate and Discipline Program Manager Delaware Department of Education

60 Additional Resources

61 Additional Resources http://www.bullyingnoway.gov.au/

62 Acknowledgements and Resources
The U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) U.S. Dept of Education BJS Delaware Dept of Education Stop Bullying Now.org Delaware Attorney Generals Office National Center for Education, US Department of Education Los Angeles Police Department Federal Bureau of Investigation Delaware State Police Ed Donnelly Lifelines Suicide Prevention Program The Bully, the bullied and the bystander by Barbara Coloroso


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