Presentation on theme: "RtI and Roles Revisited: Opportunities for School Psychologists"— Presentation transcript:
1 RtI and Roles Revisited: Opportunities for School Psychologists Ann Casey, Ph.D.&Holly Windram, Ph.D.
2 Objectives for todayUnderstand the links between your current skills and roles and those you will need in RtI functioning schools• Understand that consultation and assessment continue to be highly valued skills, but may look different• Learn of tools and resources that you can use to help your school in the implementation process
3 Fundamental Assumptions All the students are all our responsibilityAll students can make progress when given the amount and kind of support neededTeaching to the middle doesn’t meet all students needs.Therefore, we must use our resources in new, different and collaborative ways to ensure each student is as successful as possible!3
4 What is RtI? RtI is the practice of: Providing high quality instruction/intervention matched to student needsUsing learning rate over time and level of performance toMake important educational decisions.NASDSE, 20054
5 3 Components & 3 Tiered System RtI is a process comprised of 3 main components:Evidenced Based Instructional PracticesSystem of Universal Screening and Progress MonitoringProblem Solving as a decision making system to determine who gets what interventions, when and by whom [all of which are the systems that support RtI]EBP - Reading, Behavior, mathtBy the end of today, you should leave with a good idea of what each of these 3 components is5
6 This is a fully integrated system - of both academics and behavior RtI is just a name - but the name has been helpful in unifying seemingly disparate systems. In both an academic and behavior focus we still rely on measurement, EBP, and problem solving6
7 Why a Pyramid?An aerial view- emphasizing that all students need a strong foundation in core instruction and that all students are part of the same educational system.Tier 1Tier 2Tier 37
8 What is not RtI It’s not a prescription It’s not a program, curriculum, strategy, or intervention - some would say this is a paradigm shift• RtI is a model that requires your school structure & resources be used in ways that improve individual student needs.RtI requires 3 components, and a tiered instructional framework, but it’s going to look different in your school than how it looks in mine.8
9 Why does my school need a 3 tiered system? Are you satisfied with how all your students are achieving?Many schools have had few options for struggling students & have not been ideal methods in preventing failureIn fact, special education has really been a ‘wait to fail model’Title I is a funding source but how that has been transformed into prevention services for students varies from school to school.9
10 RtI as an Organizing System for Accelerating Achievement While RtI was conceived with low achieving students in mind, there is no reason the system can not be used for high achieving students as wellFirst and foremost, Response to Intervention is a school improvement modelDiscuss Loring example of 120 minute reading block: 60 minutes of core instruction that is heterogenously grouped, and 60 minutes of targeted instruction for all students, including those above benchmark.10
11 What happens when you implement an RtI system? St. Croix River Education District dataA small cooperative in east central MN comprised of 5 rural districts11
15 CHANGEIt’s about change. What direction will SPs go? How will my roles and responsibilities change? How will I be asked to adjust my own views of problem-solving for kids from . . Test to see what’s going within the child to assess the environment to make instructional changes?
19 People resist change when they experience loss (or the fear of loss)
20 More work. Work I don’t know how to do. And then our minds start to spin this . . .Kid comes from a bad home, poor community, no parent involvement, kid is unmotivated, kid has mental health issues, chemical use . . .BUT
21 “It’s a whole lot easier to look out a window than look in the mirror What’s the only thing we have control over at school?
22 Leadership for implementing Roles for . . .School PsychologistsLeadership for implementingRtI frameworkDid you know that School Psychologist can, in fact, function as leaders for RtI implementation? Why?
23 #1: We love data.SPs can walk the talk when it comes to knowing and understanding data, how to use data to make decisions, etc. Many staff fear data. SPs don’t. In fact, we’re data geeks most of the time.
24 #2: We like problemsWe love being problem-solvers. In fact, that what’s keeps the job so interesting.
25 #3: We love solutionsSolutions that that are research-based; provide a good instructional match to what the child needs; that are highly effective to drive outcomes for kids.
26 #4: We like (most) people This is where I’ll build in consulting.We like kids. We like families. We like teachers. We like consulting and working with these folks to use DATA to Solve Problems.
27 Leaders for implementing School PsychologistsLeaders for implementinga RtI framework
28 SCRED School Psychologists: Tier 1 Facilitate building level RtICollect & interpret screening dataConsult with general ed teachers
29 Tier 2 Facilitate problem-solving teams Influence Standard Treatment ProtocolEnsure implementation integrityEnsure research-based instructionFacilitate regular data reviews
30 Tier 3 Facilitate intensive problem-solving Ensure implementation integrityEnsure research-based instructionIn-depth Problem AnalysisFacilitate regular data reviews
31 Chisago Lakes High School Facilitator of Problem Solving ProcessFacilitator of using data for decision-makingLeadership on research-based instructionCoaching & support for regular ed. staffGuidance for a systems viewpointData collection and integrity checksAdvanced knowledge of problem-solving model, academic and social/behavior interventions, and using data for decision-making.On-going support and coaching for regular ed. staff on problem-solving team, interventions, teaching RtI classes, etc. to foster staff buy-in.Ability to see the big picture of school structure and assist with problem solving the systematic issues.Committed follow up with all aspects of problem solving, especially data collection and integrity checks.
32 Minneapolis Public Schools School Psychologists in MPS do not have formal roles as previously described - yet they are the ‘keepers’ of the problem solving processEnsuring problems are well defined and analyzedThat data are collectedAnd that interventions are changed if progress is not made rather than immediately going to special ed. evaluation.That the system is working - helping people analyze and disaggregate data across the school so that resources are allocated appropriately
33 What is your role in RtI?There are a number of important roles for psychologists. But the key to well functioning RtI systems is collaboration among and between various roles groups.We have strengths that we need to capitalize on for the benefit of the system.
34 Evidence Based Practices The implementation of a tiered instructional delivery system rests upon the use of EBP at all levels or tiersHow can school psychologists be of assistance in this endeavor?Understanding of importance of controlled studiesKnowledge of various types of educational journalsSkepticism is taught and valued - show me the evidence that something is effectiveDiscuss skills - many educational professionals do not have as much emphasis on what constitutes research. We have to be careful here - yes we have different knowledge (not superior, but different) and other roles have other emphases and when all these talents are used together we can create something really good for kids..
36 Do School Psychs Need to Know all the Research on Reading, Math, and Behavior? No - but we must be willing to ask the tough questions when someone else suggests a particular approach, curriculum, or strategy be used:Is there an evidence base for the effectiveness of this approach?Honestly, if you are going to useful to your team, you will make it a point to put some of your professional reading time into reading about the evidence for effective practices in these areas. We can not be expert in all things, but you can start with an area of interest to you, or one of necessity for your school.
37 AssessmentMost School Psychs think of themselves as having expertise in this areaIn RtI we shift this focus to the system as a whole, rather than focusing primarily on individualsWe need reliable and valid data for universal screening and progress monitoring.When you are doing less individual formal assessment, you will have time for other roles such as helping teams view and analyze data to make good instructional decisions
38 Data Usage and Data Analysis This is an important skill in making RtI work - and initially, many educators may need assistance with how to use data to make good decisions for kidsGraphing behavior or skillsView trends in data across grades, yearsAnalyzing multiple sources of data across individuals or small groupsIncludes things such ascomparing current skills to expected skills - norms or benchmarks. How big is the gap? Some people need assistance with understanding common metrics such as percentiles (e.g th percentile are the average range - and the idea the percentile ranks are not of equal size/interval)2. Graphing behavior or skills and applying decision rules to the data to know when to make changesLooking at trends in data across grades, across years, and summarizing patternsLooking at multiple sets of data across an individual or small groups of students and making summary statements of what is known/not knownSome psychs actually become the managers of the data system for their school -
39 ConsultationProblem solving which is a key component in RtI has it’s roots in consultationMany of you have had training in behavioral, instructional, or collaborative consultationWhile these skills will continue to be very useful for students needing tier 3 interventions - one of the shifts school psychs will need to make is using these skills to focus on the system rather than individuals if we are serious about all students making progressYour consultation skills will be incredibly valuable in RtIBreak at 10:00
40 Consultation/Collaboration School Psychologists as educational translatorsWe need to help staff see the connections!This is not more on the plate - RtI is the plate.What’s that universal language - EsperantoWell we need an esperanto in Education because we don’t communicate well across disciplines
41 Consensus building Not a one time event Goals and consensus for achieving those goals needs to revisited often to keep focus and momentum goingThere is a role for you in this area
42 Think and Share: Whole Group Integrity is _______________.Holly: “Integrity is doing the right thing even if no one is looking.”
43 What’s in a word or phrase? Fidelity • Treatment IntegrityAdherence • Intervention Integrity“Intervention Integrity is the degree to which a planned intervention is implemented as designed”Greshm, Gansle, Noell, Cohen, & Rosenblum, 1993The degree to which an interventionist is committed to implement a specific treatment and actively demonstrates intervention-related behaviors (Meichenbaum & Turk, 1987)The degree to which a planned intervention is implemented as designed (Moncher & Prinz, 1991)
44 Ensuring Intervention Integrity is Important Key Questions:Is it being done?Is is being done well?What the reason for progress or no progress?Without checking on implementation integrity, teams cannot be sure that interventions are being applied as designed (DuPaul & Stoner, 1994)If the intervention is not applied as designed, progress (or lack thereof) cannot be attributed to the specific plan (Kaufman & Flicek, 1995)Is it being done?Is is being done well? (this means is it being as designed)What the reason for progress or no progress? Is it the intervention was not well-matched?
45 Why School Psychologists? Skilled at problem-solvingTrained observers of human behaviorKnow the right questions to askFor example, Is it being done? We can go observe or interview and find out. What if it’s not being done well? We know how to look at multiple data sources and come up with some possible hypotheses. That’s what ensuring integrity is all about. Do your teams randomly pick interventions for kids based on what’s convienent or available rather than what’s a good instructional match? You’re in a position to suggest that best practice would be to see if we could creatively come up with some other options that are a better match.
48 Problem-Solving Process In an RtI model, we use a 5 step problem solving process to determine who gets Tier 2 or 3 support based on data - not on a referral processAfternoon break is before this section48
49 What is problem-solving? A decision making process1. Problem Identification2. Problem Analysis5. Plan EvaluationReviseModifyIntensifyWith Expanding Support3. Plan Development4. Plan Implementation
50 2 Levels of Problem Solving Grade level teams - for tier 2Building team - for tier 3Presumably you already are a member of a bdlg. Problem solving team - they have many names - TAT, SAT, PST, Child Study, etc. This has been the one kid at a time approach.And if GLTeaming isn’t put into place in your RTI model, one of the first things that will happen is that the building team will be swamped with ‘referrals’ - this is a word that will go away in RtI - as the data tell us who needs more support - no one person no longer has the responsibility to
51 Collaborative Problem Solving Grade level teaching teams meet together on a regular basis to review student data and student progress toward important goalsStudents not making adequate progress receive additional targeted or intensive supportWhen people ask me - can I visit somewhere where they are doing RtI well - they don’t necessarily know what they want to see - but this is what they need to see!51
52 Steps of Problem-Solving IDENTIFICATION2. ProblemAnalysis5. PlanEvaluation3. PlanDevelopmentHolly4. PlanImplementation
53 Step 1: Problem Identification Question: What is the discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring?List problem behaviors and prioritizeCollect baseline data on the primary area of concern (target student and peer comparison):Record ReviewInterviewObservationTestingState discrepancy between target student performance and expected/peer performance.
54 Problem Identification Key Points Collect & analyze school-wide data on top referral concernsDefine “expected” (e.g. local norms / national norms / criterion)Group v. Individual interventionsPrioritize one concernConcern is stated measurablyMultiple data sources certify the problem (RIOT)Avoid problem glorification“Who, what, when, where, how” plan for tasksCollect & analyze regular school-wide data on top referral concernsA decision must be made about how to define “expected” (local norms / national norms / criterion)When possible work with groups of studentsOne concern must be prioritizedConcern needs to be stated measurablyData from a variety of sources should certify this problem (teach RIOT)Avoidance of problem glorificationLogistics plan for completing the tasks
55 Tools to... Review (R) Interview (I) Observe (O) Test (T) Cumulative folderPermanent productsInterview (I)Brief Problem Identification InterviewInstructional Planning Form (IPF)Observe (O)Washington Classroom ObservationOn-taskFrequency/Duration/LatencyCorrect/ErrorsMomentary Time Sampling: e.g., DENO, BASC, Social PlayTest (T)GOM / Early LiteracyMAPOther norm or criterion referenced assessmentsThis will be Data Collection Tools 101. We won’t go indepth except later on the MTS.Whole Group: What information might you look for in the record review?One way to gather existing information about the student is to review the cumulative folder for:Health/Medical recordsAttendanceEducational historyNumber of schools attendedSE evaluationsSpecial instruction, e.g., small group, Title 1, etc.Onset & duration of problemPast interventions Interview referring teacher, parent, and/or student to obtain information on instruction, curriculum, environment, and learner.Guidelines:Should be no more than minutesBest when occurs prior to problem-solving meetingObserve: Helps to create a precise definition of the target behavior you want to increase/decrease/changeTest: Reliable and valid.
56 Basic Problem Identification Interview: What strengths have you identified regarding this student?List your current concerns for this student.Which one concern would you like to work on first?How could this concern be defined as an observable, measurable problem?Do you have any other data regarding this problem?If this problem was magically fixed tomorrow, what would look different for this student?
57 Instructional Planning Form (IPF) Purpose: Examine current educational program and classroom environmentActivity (e.g., Focus or Skill, Teaching Strategy)MaterialsArrangementsTimeMotivational Strategies(Later) Focus on these alterable variables to develop hypotheses and interventions.HANDOUT
58 Goals of Problem Identification Establish a positive working relationship among team membersDefine the problem in observable, measurable terms.Identify the conditions under which the problem exists across setting.Provide a strength of the behavior across settings (e.g., how often, severe).PRODUCT: Discrepancy Statement
59 Discrepancy Statements Discrepancy statement: A clear and measurable statement of the student’s performance and same-age peer performance.When given the Picture Naming IGDI Measurement tool, Sally is able to identify 5 pictures correctly whereas same-age peers are able to correctly identify 18.When observed in circle time, Billy is on-task 30% of the time compared to classmates who are on-task 88% of the time.When observed during the art activity for 10 minutes, given 8 opportunities, Tina makes 7 following instructions errors compared to peers who make 2 following instructions errors.The end result of Prob ID is to have a discrepancy statement about the problem.
60 One Minute Activity: Discrepancy Statement Jimmy is observed for 15 minutes during circle time.JimmySame-age peersOff task9%Out of Place0%Noise40%3%Physical ContactTotal time academically engaged51%88%When observed for 15 minutes during circle time, Jimmy is academically engaged 51% of the time compared to same-age peers who are engaged 88% of the time.NoiseWhat discrepancy statements could you make?
61 Activity: Three Statements in One Minute Tim is reading 10 words correct on 1st grade level CBM ORF probes. Tim is in first grade. The target benchmark is 52 wrc in the spring.Holly blurts out 18 times in a 20 minute observation during circle time. Other kids blurt out 3 times.Minnie has been referred to the Principals office 4 times this month. National data* show that students grades K-6 are referred .35 times per month.PAIRED ACTIVITY - ASSIGN A # TO EACH TABLE.*PBIS SWIS database.
62 Steps of Problem-Solving Identification2. PROBLEMANALYSIS5. PlanEvaluation3. PlanDevelopment4. PlanImplementation
63 Step 2: Problem Analysis Question: Why is the problem occurring?Collect additional RIOT data toDifferentiate between a skill and performance problem (e.g., can’t do v. won’t do).Determine situations in which the problem behavior is most likely and least likely to occur.Generate hypothesesNarrow down to the most validated and alterable hypothesis.Ann will talk about this step more in-depth.
64 Steps of Problem-Solving Identification2. ProblemAnalysis5. PlanEvaluation3. PLANDEVELOPMENT4. PlanImplementation
65 Complete thorough problem analysis to Make the linkComplete thorough problem analysis tomake the link betweenidentified problemsintervention plansIn order to answer the questions of plan development, need to have completed a thorough problem analysis/functional behavior assessment.Need to make educated link between identified problems and intervention plan designs.Intervention plans will fail before they begin if we don’t do a good job of this!
66 Step 3: Plan Development Question: What is the goal?A. Write the goal, a measurable statement of expected outcomes.Question: What is the intervention plan to address the goal?B. Define logistics (e.g., what strategies/procedures will be used, when and how often the intervention will occur, who will implement the intervention and where it will be implemented, and when it will begin).Question: How will progress be monitored?C. Define logistics (e.g., what materials are used, when and how often data will be collected, where data will be collected, and who is responsible).D. Decide on decision-making rules for plan evaluation.
67 Plan Development Key Points Determine rate of growth to reduce the discrepancy:Oral Reading Fluency: 2 words per week or to spring targetWritten Expression: 1/2 CWS per week or to spring targetMath Facts: 1/2 fact per week or to spring targetBehavior: 10% improvement per weekResearch-based intervention planTechnically adequate progress monitoring toolRole of master schedule in planning interventionsDetermine rate of growth for goal that would result in a reduction of the discrepancy of student performanceResearch based intervention planMaster list of interventions used in districtKnowing the difference between an intervention and a modificationRole of master schedule in planning interventionsTechnically adequate progress monitoring tool for outcomes measurement (typically not mastery monitoring)
68 A. Write the Goal Specify desired behavior Specify measurement conditionSpecify criterion for successIn (number) weeks, when (condition) occurs, (learner) will (behavior) to a (criterion).This goal is the same as an IEP goal would be, except shorter term
69 Could you graph this goal? Check:Is the behavior to be measured defined?Are the measurement conditions clear?Is the criterion for success specified?
70 Activity Three Goal Statements in 1 Minute Tim is reading 10 words correct on 1st grade level CBM ORF probes. Tim is in first grade. The target benchmark is 52 wrc in the spring.Holly blurts out 18 times in a 20 minute observation during circle time. Other kids blurt out 3 times.Minnie has been referred to the Principals office 4 times this month. National data* show that students grades K-6 are referred .35 times per month.*PBIS SWIS database.
72 Remember . . .Objective of an intervention for behavior is not just to define and eliminate undesirable behaviors but to teach and reinforce effective replacement behaviors.
73 RememberThere should be a direct relationship between the severity of the problem and the amount of resources being used.NEDSRESOURCES
74 What is it?Accommodation?Modification?Intervention?
75 C. Define Progress Monitoring Logistics Progress monitoring objectively measuresintervention effectiveness so we can:make data-based decisions,know if an intervention is successful,increase emphasis on student outcomes,improve student outcomes,and set clear expectations.
77 Steps of Problem-Solving Identification2. ProblemAnalysis5. PlanEvaluation3. PlanDevelopment4. PLANIMPLEMENTATION
78 Response to “Failure to Implement” Intervention? “If we are going to implement interventions, and use data from these interventions to determine a child’s eligibility for special education services, we must be confident that the student’s outcome (either positive or negative) is a response to the intervention and not a response to someone’s failure to implement the intervention.” Cochrane & Castle, 2006If the intervention is not applied as designed, progress (or lack thereof) cannot be attributed to the specific plan(Kaufman & Flicek, 1995)(Quote given by Kerry Bollman)Response to “Failure to Implement” Intervention?
79 Step 4: Plan Implementation Question: How will implementation integrity be ensured?Select an intervention with high probability of successCommunicate a clear plan to interventionistsProvide specific training and support to interventionists.Directly observe intervention in action.Make adjustments to the plan if needed.Collect and graph data on the goal.
80 Ensuring Intervention Integrity Rarely Happens . . . fewer than 15% evaluated and reported data concerning intervention fidelity. (Gresham, Gansle, Noell, Cohen & Rosenblum, 1993)Pre-referral interventions in applied settings are often absent of treatment integrity measures (Telzrow, McNamara, & Hollinger, 2000)Researchers examined a decade of published studies pertaining to school based behavioral interventions, and reported that fewer than 15% evaluated and reported data concerning intervention fidelity. (Gresham, Gansle, Noell, Cohen & Rosenblum, 1993)
81 Without checking on implementation integrity, teams cannot be sure that interventions are being applied as designed(DuPaul & Stoner, 1994)Bollman slide
82 If the intervention is not applied as designed, progress (or lack thereof) cannot be attributed to the specific plan(Kaufman & Flicek, 1995)Bollman slide
83 Student behavior change is correlated with intervention treatment integrity (Noell et.al., 2005)Why? Mostly it’s because the adults stay consistent and do a better job of implementation.
84 SCRED LD FAQs (Kerry Bollman) “We serve our children best by being circumspect and not allowing our confidence in our teaching skills translate into a sense of infallibility.”SCRED LD FAQs (Kerry Bollman)
85 Directly Observe the Intervention in Action Do not assume that there is a correspondence between talking and doing or that talk produces change in behavior! (Witt, 1997)Participant report alone should not be used to evaluate treatment integrityWickstrom, et al. (1998) reported significant discrepancies between levels of treatment fidelity reported by teachers (54%) and revealed by direct observation (4%)Objective data collected by outside sources are most useful (Moncher & Prinz, 1991)
86 Wickstrom, et al. (1998) reported significant discrepancies between levels of treatment fidelity reported by teachers (54%) and as revealed by direct observation (4%).Bollman
87 Provide Specific Training and Support Interventionists Initial training for interventionists (Hirallel & Martens, 1998)Trainer explains the procedure to the interventionistTrainer demonstrates the procedureInterventionist practices the procedure with the trainer as mock studentTrainer provides specific feedbackRepeat steps as necessaryApplication in the instructional setting
88 Plan Implementation Key Points Intervention Scripts & TrainingSpecifics of intervention are well understood by interventionistInterventionists like them!Training: Modeling, practice, and feedback with adults prior to use with studentsIntegrity checksWas a direct observation done?Do data support that plan was implemented as designed?Intervention Scripts & TrainingIncreases likelihood that specifics of intervention will be well understood by those performing the interventionAre preferred by interventionists rather than global intervention descriptionsTraining should include modeling, practice, and feedback with adults prior to use with studentsIntegrity checksIt is impossible to evaluate the success of a plan if the team is not certain that the plan was implemented as designedDid the program happen as planned at least once (formal observation)Do you have data to indicate that the student participated fully in the intervention (attendance, time logged in, accuracy of participation in intervention)
89 Integrity doesn’t stop there . . . Complete ongoing assessment of implementation through:Participant ReportsObservationReview of Permanent Product(s)
90 A Note About Participant Reports Self-report feedback from interventionists and students is useful and good.BUTParticipant report alone should not be used to evaluate treatment integrity
91 Making Adjustments to Plans Consider a plan change when the current plan:Is not acceptable to the interventionistIs not feasible to implement.Is not perceived as being effective.Is highly disruptive to the classroom ecology.
92 Changes? Team decision Document! Interventionists should not make unilateral decisions regarding changes to an intervention plan
93 Integrity of Progress Monitoring Collect and graph data on intervention goalMonitor the progress monitoring planProvide support to those collecting the data.If the data are not being collected designed thenGive additional support ORChange the progress monitoring plan
94 Steps of Problem-Solving Identification2. ProblemAnalysis5. PLANEVALUATION3. PlanDevelopment4. PlanImplementation
95 Step 5: Plan Evaluation Question: Is the intervention plan effective? Use data to determine student progressEvaluate intervention acceptabilityDetermine as a team what to do next.
96 Plan Evaluation Key Points What is adequate response to intervention?SCRED Practice:CBM target scores for fall, winter, spring of each grade as linked to state testInherent growth rate within these target scores is defined as our desired rate of growthCalculated confidence interval (Standard error of slope) around the target growth rateStudents with growth rates below the bottom of the confidence interval are considered to not have adequate response to the interventionGradeMinimum GrowthExpected GrowthMaximum Growth21.031.311.5930.75
97 Steps of Problem-Solving Identification2. PROBLEMANALYSIS5. PlanEvaluation3. PlanDevelopment4. PlanImplementation
99 Problem Identification Question: What is the discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring?Academic v. Behavior:“Can’t read because won’t sit still or won’t sit still because they can’t read?”Performance v. SkillCan’t do v. Won’t do
100 Tools to... Review (R) Interview (I) Observe (O) Test (T) Cumulative folderPermanent productsInterview (I)Brief Problem Identification InterviewInstructional Planning Form (IPF)Observe (O)Washington Classroom ObservationOn-taskFrequency/Duration/LatencyCorrect/ErrorsMomentary Time Sampling: e.g., DENO, BASC, Social PlayTest (T)GOM / Early LiteracyMAPOther norm or criterion referenced assessmentsThis will be Data Collection Tools 101. We won’t go indepth except later on the MTS.Whole Group: What information might you look for in the record review?One way to gather existing information about the student is to review the cumulative folder for:Health/Medical recordsAttendanceEducational historyNumber of schools attendedSE evaluationsSpecial instruction, e.g., small group, Title 1, etc.Onset & duration of problemPast interventions Interview referring teacher, parent, and/or student to obtain information on instruction, curriculum, environment, and learner.Guidelines:Should be no more than minutesBest when occurs prior to problem-solving meetingObserve: Helps to create a precise definition of the target behavior you want to increase/decrease/changeTest: Reliable and valid.
101 Basic Problem Identification Interview: What strengths have you identified regarding this student?List your current concerns for this student.Which one concern would you like to work on first?How could this concern be defined as an observable, measurable problem?Do you have any other data regarding this problem?If this problem was magically fixed tomorrow, what would look different for this student?
102 Instructional Planning Form (IPF) (Handout)Purpose: Examine current educational program and classroom environmentActivity (e.g., Focus or Skill, Teaching Strategy)MaterialsArrangementsTimeMotivational Strategies(Later) Focus on these alterable variables to develop hypotheses and interventions.Go through handout instructions.
103 Review: Goals of Problem Identification Establish a positive working relationship among team membersDefine the problem in observable, measurable terms.Identify the conditions under which the problem exists: antecedent, situation, and consequent conditions across settings.Provide a strength of the behavior across settings (e.g., how often, severe).
104 Problem Identification Outcome: Discrepancy Statement An observable and measurable statement of the student’s performance compared to same-age peer performance.The end result of Prob ID is to have a discrepancy statement about the problem.
105 ExamplesWhen given the Picture Naming IGDI Measurement tool, Sally is able to identify 5 pictures correctly whereas same-age peers are able to correctly identify 18.When observed in circle time, Billy is on-task 30% of the time compared to classmates who are on-task 88% of the time.When observed during the art activity for 10 minutes, given 8 opportunities, Tina makes 7 following instructions errors compared to peers who make 2 following instructions errors.
106 One Minute Activity: Discrepancy Statement Jimmy is observed for 15 minutes during circle time.JimmySame-age peersOff task9%Out of Place0%Noise40%3%Physical ContactTotal time academically engaged51%88%When observed for 15 minutes during circle time, Jimmy is academically engaged 51% of the time compared to same-age peers who are engaged 88% of the time.NoiseWhat discrepancy statements could you make?
107 Activity: Three Statements in One Minute Tim is reading 10 words correct on 1st grade level CBM ORF probes. Tim is in first grade. The target benchmark is 52 wrc in the spring.Holly blurts out 18 times in a 20 minute observation during circle time. Other kids blurt out 3 times.Minnie has been referred to the Principals office 4 times this month. National data* show that students grades K-6 are referred .35 times per month.PAIRED ACTIVITY - ASSIGN A # TO EACH GROUP.*PBIS SWIS database.
108 Problem AnalysisGoal of problem analysis is to understand the variables that may be contributing to the problem, to develop potential hypotheses from this learning, and design a plan to solve the problem.Ann
109 PA: Scientific Method Observe and identify problem Develop relevant hypothesesDesign procedures to test hypothesisCollect dataAnalyze and synthesize dataMake a conclusionProblem IDPAPdPIPE
110 Hypotheses and Level of Inference All hypotheses require some inferenceWhat is known vs what is inferredWe want to rely more on low level vs high level inferences - more explicit behaviors and environmental eventsThese will lead to alterable variable, ones which we have control overThe instruction, curriculum, school environment
111 Shift in thinkingIf you are used to giving tests that purportedly give you information about something within the student that is contributing to the problem, then we are asking you to suspend this for a moment.While student characteristics are not unimportant, we want to investigate those lower level inferences first.We consider student characteristics when they interact with alterable variables
112 Thinking Differently about Students’ Problems Student problems can be defined and changedQuestions will drive assessmentsAssessments will lead to instructional decisionsEnabled learning rather than discrepancy or diagnosis is the goal
113 Instead of diagnosing the learner, we begin by diagnosing the instruction. We identify flaws in the instruction and correct them, with the assumption that the learner’s problems were caused by flaws in the instruction (Engelmann & Carnine, 1982, p.18.
114 Asking the Right Question What does this student need in order to fix the problem we have identified?
115 Problem Analysis Defined… Problem Analysis is the process of gathering relevant information in the domains of the instruction, curriculum, environment, and the learner (ICEL) through the use of reviews, interviews, observations, and tests (RIOT) in order to evaluate the underlying causes of the problem.
116 Importance of Problem Analysis Interventions are derived from results (data) generated during problem analysis.Interventions linked to assessment information are more likely to be effective in meeting the desired level of performance.Ineffective interventions can lead to resistance to intervention by further supporting problem behaviors and making it harder to meet desired outcomes.
117 Warning!!!Teams: Do Not discuss hypotheses for why the behavior is occurring before you have defined the behavior you are considering.Team note takers should have a written discrepancy statement on the Problem Identification Summary Form before hypothesis discussions begin.This will help keep discussions more focused and efficient
118 Question: Why is the problem occurring? • Based on what you know list possible causes for the student’s problem (hypotheses)Consider all domains (Instruction, Curriculum, Environment, Learner)Differentiate between skill problems and performance problemsDetermine situations in which the problem behavior is most likely and least likely to occur• For each hypothesis generated, list the data you have that supports or refutes the hypothesis• Narrow down to the most validated and alterable hypothesis• Collect any additional data you need to validate the hypothesis that the team considers to be the most likelyThis might be an observation or informal assessment to examine skills - but you are looking for convergent data
119 Problem Analysis This phase can be a bit circular… Look at the data you haveCollect anyadditional datayou would needto confirm orrefute your guessReview and interview could provide your current data but if you need more, then you could observe and/or test.Think about whathypotheses seempossible given thedata you have, and list data for each
120 Irrelevant and Unknown A. Consider what you know about the target behavior that is relevant to determining why the problem is occurring and a possible solutionRelevant and KnownRelevant and UnknownIrrelevant and KnownIrrelevant and UnknownCurriculumInstruction (e.g., arrangement, response format)Allotted/Engaged TimeClassroom EnvironmentMotivational Strategies
121 PA: SummaryInterviewing is often a skill strength that many school psychologists have developedThese skills are directly transferable to the Problem Analysis process, and will be a valuable asset to teams in solving problemsThis afternoon we will practice using a tool to help in this important part of the Problem Solving Proces
125 Name the five wealthiest people in the world Name the last five Heisman trophy winnersName the last five winners of Miss America.Name then people who have won a Noble or Pulizter prize.Name the last half dozen Academy Award winners for best actor and actress.Name the last decade’s worth of World Series winners.
126 None of us remember the headliners of yesterday. None of us remember the headliners of yesterday. These are no second-rate achievers. They are the best in their fields. But the applause dies. Awards tarnish. Achievements are forgotten. Accolades and certificates are buried with their owners.
127 List a few teachers who aided your journey through school. Name three friends who have helped you through a difficult time.Name five people who have taught you something worthwhile.Think of a few people who have made you feel appreciated and special.Think of five people you enjoy spending time with.
128 They are the ones that care. The Lesson:The people who make a difference in your life are not the ones with the most credentials, the most money, or the most awards.They are the ones that care.You do not have to be the Administrator or blah, blah to make a legitimate, measurable difference in the lives of ALL students in your buildings and districts. You may be feeling more behind the scenes or feeling like it’s one student at a time - a slow process - but your efforts will pay off exponentially. Just think of why you dientified the people you did in quiz 2.