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RtI and Roles Revisited: Opportunities for School Psychologists Ann Casey, Ph.D. & Holly Windram, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "RtI and Roles Revisited: Opportunities for School Psychologists Ann Casey, Ph.D. & Holly Windram, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

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2 RtI and Roles Revisited: Opportunities for School Psychologists Ann Casey, Ph.D. & Holly Windram, Ph.D.

3 Objectives for today Understand the links between your current skills and roles and those you will need in RtI functioning schools Understand that consultation and assessment continue to be highly valued skills, but may look different Learn of tools and resources that you can use to help your school in the implementation process

4 Fundamental Assumptions All the students are all our responsibility All students can make progress when given the amount and kind of support needed Teaching to the middle doesnt meet all students needs. Therefore, we must use our resources in new, different and collaborative ways to ensure each student is as successful as possible! http://youtube.com/watch?v=HAMLOnSNwzA

5 What is RtI? RtI is the practice of: 1.Providing high quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs 2.Using learning rate over time and level of performance to 3.Make important educational decisions. NASDSE, 2005

6 3 Components & 3 Tiered System RtI is a process comprised of 3 main components: –Evidenced Based Instructional Practices –System of Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring –Problem Solving as a decision making system to determine who gets what interventions, when and by whom [all of which are the systems that support RtI]

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8 Why a Pyramid? Tier 3 Tier 1 Tier 2 An aerial view- emphasizing that all students need a strong foundation in core instruction and that all students are part of the same educational system.

9 What is not RtI Its not a prescription Its not a program, curriculum, strategy, or intervention - some would say this is a paradigm shift RtI is a model that requires your school structure & resources be used in ways that improve individual student needs. RtI requires 3 components, and a tiered instructional framework, but its going to look different in your school than how it looks in mine.

10 Why does my school need a 3 tiered system? Are you satisfied with how all your students are achieving? Many schools have had few options for struggling students & have not been ideal methods in preventing failure In fact, special education has really been a wait to fail model

11 RtI as an Organizing System for Accelerating Achievement While RtI was conceived with low achieving students in mind, there is no reason the system can not be used for high achieving students as well First and foremost, Response to Intervention is a school improvement model

12 What happens when you implement an RtI system? St. Croix River Education District data –A small cooperative in east central MN comprised of 5 rural districts

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16 CHANGE

17 There are some challenges...

18 Whole Group Discussion When you think about RtI - what are your biggest challenges right now?

19 True or False? People resist change

20 People resist change when they experience loss (or the fear of loss)

21 More work. Work I dont know how to do.

22 Its a whole lot easier to look out a window than look in the mirror.

23 Roles for... School Psychologists Leadership for implementing RtI framework

24 #1: We love data.

25 #2: We like problems

26 #3: We love solutions

27 #4: We like (most) people

28 School Psychologists Leaders for implementing a RtI framework

29 SCRED School Psychologists: Tier 1 Facilitate building level RtI Collect & interpret screening data Consult with general ed teachers

30 Tier 2 Facilitate problem-solving teams Influence Standard Treatment Protocol Ensure implementation integrity Ensure research-based instruction Facilitate regular data reviews

31 Tier 3 Facilitate intensive problem-solving Ensure implementation integrity Ensure research-based instruction In-depth Problem Analysis Facilitate regular data reviews

32 Chisago Lakes High School Facilitator of Problem Solving Process Facilitator of using data for decision- making Leadership on research-based instruction Coaching & support for regular ed. staff Guidance for a systems viewpoint Data collection and integrity checks

33 Minneapolis Public Schools School Psychologists in MPS do not have formal roles as previously described - yet they are the keepers of the problem solving process –Ensuring problems are well defined and analyzed –That data are collected –And that interventions are changed if progress is not made rather than immediately going to special ed. evaluation. –That the system is working - helping people analyze and disaggregate data across the school so that resources are allocated appropriately

34 What is your role in RtI? There are a number of important roles for psychologists. But the key to well functioning RtI systems is collaboration among and between various roles groups. We have strengths that we need to capitalize on for the benefit of the system.

35 Evidence Based Practices The implementation of a tiered instructional delivery system rests upon the use of EBP at all levels or tiers How can school psychologists be of assistance in this endeavor? –Understanding of importance of controlled studies –Knowledge of various types of educational journals –Skepticism is taught and valued - show me the evidence that something is effective

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37 Do School Psychs Need to Know all the Research on Reading, Math, and Behavior? No - but we must be willing to ask the tough questions when someone else suggests a particular approach, curriculum, or strategy be used: Is there an evidence base for the effectiveness of this approach?

38 Assessment Most School Psychs think of themselves as having expertise in this area In RtI we shift this focus to the system as a whole, rather than focusing primarily on individuals We need reliable and valid data for universal screening and progress monitoring. When you are doing less individual formal assessment, you will have time for other roles such as helping teams view and analyze data to make good instructional decisions

39 Data Usage and Data Analysis This is an important skill in making RtI work - and initially, many educators may need assistance with how to use data to make good decisions for kids –Graphing behavior or skills –View trends in data across grades, years –Analyzing multiple sources of data across individuals or small groups

40 Consultation Problem solving which is a key component in RtI has its roots in consultation Many of you have had training in behavioral, instructional, or collaborative consultation While these skills will continue to be very useful for students needing tier 3 interventions - one of the shifts school psychs will need to make is using these skills to focus on the system rather than individuals if we are serious about all students making progress

41 Consultation/Collaboration School Psychologists as educational translators We need to help staff see the connections! This is not more on the plate - RtI is the plate.

42 Consensus building Not a one time event Goals and consensus for achieving those goals needs to revisited often to keep focus and momentum going There is a role for you in this area

43 Think and Share: Whole Group Integrity is _______________.

44 Whats in a word or phrase? Fidelity Treatment Integrity Adherence Intervention Integrity Intervention Integrity is the degree to which a planned intervention is implemented as designed Greshm, Gansle, Noell, Cohen, & Rosenblum, 1993

45 Ensuring Intervention Integrity is Important Key Questions: Is it being done? Is is being done well? What the reason for progress or no progress?

46 Why School Psychologists? Skilled at problem-solving 1.Trained observers of human behavior 2.Know the right questions to ask

47 BREAK

48 Problem-Solving Steps 1. Problem Identification 2. Problem Analysis 3. Plan Development 4. Plan Implementation 5. Plan Evaluation

49 Problem-Solving Process In an RtI model, we use a 5 step problem solving process to determine who gets Tier 2 or 3 support based on data - not on a referral process

50 What is problem-solving? 1. Problem Identification 2. Problem Analysis 3. Plan Development 4. Plan Implementation 5. Plan Evaluation Revise Modify Intensify With Expanding Support A decision making process

51 2 Levels of Problem Solving Grade level teams - for tier 2 Building team - for tier 3

52 Collaborative Problem Solving Grade level teaching teams meet together on a regular basis to review student data and student progress toward important goals Students not making adequate progress receive additional targeted or intensive support

53 Steps of Problem-Solving 1. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 2. Problem Analysis 3. Plan Development 4. Plan Implementation 5. Plan Evaluation

54 Step 1: Problem Identification Question: What is the discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring? 1.List problem behaviors and prioritize 2.Collect baseline data on the primary area of concern (target student and peer comparison): Record Review Interview Observation Testing 3.State discrepancy between target student performance and expected/peer performance.

55 Problem Identification Key Points Collect & analyze school-wide data on top referral concerns Define expected (e.g. local norms / national norms / criterion) Group v. Individual interventions Prioritize one concern Concern is stated measurably Multiple data sources certify the problem (RIOT) Avoid problem glorification Who, what, when, where, how plan for tasks

56 Tools to... Review (R) –Cumulative folder –Permanent products Interview (I) –Brief Problem Identification Interview –Instructional Planning Form (IPF) Observe (O) –Washington Classroom Observation –On-task –Frequency/Duration/Latency –Correct/Errors –Momentary Time Sampling: e.g., DENO, BASC, Social Play Test (T) –GOM / Early Literacy –MAP –Other norm or criterion referenced assessments

57 Basic Problem Identification Interview: What strengths have you identified regarding this student? List your current concerns for this student. Which one concern would you like to work on first? How could this concern be defined as an observable, measurable problem? Do you have any other data regarding this problem? If this problem was magically fixed tomorrow, what would look different for this student?

58 Instructional Planning Form (IPF) Purpose: Examine current educational program and classroom environment –Activity (e.g., Focus or Skill, Teaching Strategy) –Materials –Arrangements –Time –Motivational Strategies (Later) Focus on these alterable variables to develop hypotheses and interventions.

59 Goals of Problem Identification Establish a positive working relationship among team members Define the problem in observable, measurable terms. Identify the conditions under which the problem exists across setting. Provide a strength of the behavior across settings (e.g., how often, severe). PRODUCT: Discrepancy Statement

60 Discrepancy Statements Discrepancy statement: A clear and measurable statement of the students performance and same-age peer performance. When given the Picture Naming IGDI Measurement tool, Sally is able to identify 5 pictures correctly whereas same-age peers are able to correctly identify 18. When observed in circle time, Billy is on-task 30% of the time compared to classmates who are on-task 88% of the time. When observed during the art activity for 10 minutes, given 8 opportunities, Tina makes 7 following instructions errors compared to peers who make 2 following instructions errors.

61 One Minute Activity: Discrepancy Statement JimmySame-age peers Off task9% Out of Place0% Noise40%3% Physical Contact0% Total time academically engaged 51%88% What discrepancy statements could you make? Jimmy is observed for 15 minutes during circle time.

62 Activity: Three Statements in One Minute 1.Tim is reading 10 words correct on 1st grade level CBM ORF probes. Tim is in first grade. The target benchmark is 52 wrc in the spring. 2.Holly blurts out 18 times in a 20 minute observation during circle time. Other kids blurt out 3 times. 3.Minnie has been referred to the Principals office 4 times this month. National data* show that students grades K-6 are referred.35 times per month.

63 Steps of Problem-Solving 1. Problem Identification 2. PROBLEM ANALYSIS 3. Plan Development 4. Plan Implementation 5. Plan Evaluation

64 Step 2: Problem Analysis Question: Why is the problem occurring? 1.Collect additional RIOT data to Differentiate between a skill and performance problem (e.g., cant do v. wont do). Determine situations in which the problem behavior is most likely and least likely to occur. Generate hypotheses 2.Narrow down to the most validated and alterable hypothesis.

65 Steps of Problem-Solving 1. Problem Identification 2. Problem Analysis 3. PLAN DEVELOPMENT 4. Plan Implementation 5. Plan Evaluation

66 Make the link Complete thorough problem analysis to make the link between identified problemsintervention plans

67 Step 3: Plan Development Question: What is the goal? A. Write the goal, a measurable statement of expected outcomes. Question: What is the intervention plan to address the goal? B. Define logistics (e.g., what strategies/procedures will be used, when and how often the intervention will occur, who will implement the intervention and where it will be implemented, and when it will begin). Question: How will progress be monitored? C. Define logistics (e.g., what materials are used, when and how often data will be collected, where data will be collected, and who is responsible). D. Decide on decision-making rules for plan evaluation.

68 Plan Development Key Points Determine rate of growth to reduce the discrepancy: –Oral Reading Fluency: 2 words per week or to spring target –Written Expression: 1/2 CWS per week or to spring target –Math Facts: 1/2 fact per week or to spring target –Behavior: 10% improvement per week Research-based intervention plan Technically adequate progress monitoring tool Role of master schedule in planning interventions

69 A. Write the Goal –Specify desired behavior –Specify measurement condition –Specify criterion for success In (number) weeks, when (condition) occurs, (learner) will (behavior) to a (criterion).

70 Could you graph this goal? Check: –Is the behavior to be measured defined? –Are the measurement conditions clear? –Is the criterion for success specified?

71 Activity Three Goal Statements in 1 Minute 1.Tim is reading 10 words correct on 1st grade level CBM ORF probes. Tim is in first grade. The target benchmark is 52 wrc in the spring. 2.Holly blurts out 18 times in a 20 minute observation during circle time. Other kids blurt out 3 times. 3.Minnie has been referred to the Principals office 4 times this month. National data* show that students grades K-6 are referred.35 times per month.

72 Discuss & Document…

73 Remember... Objective of an intervention for behavior is not just to define and eliminate undesirable behaviors but to teach and reinforce effective replacement behaviors.

74 Remember There should be a direct relationship between the severity of the problem and the amount of resources being used. RESOURCES NEEDSNEEDS

75 What is it? Accommodation? Modification? Intervention?

76 Progress monitoring objectively measures intervention effectiveness so we can: make data-based decisions, know if an intervention is successful, increase emphasis on student outcomes, improve student outcomes, and set clear expectations. C. Define Progress Monitoring Logistics

77 Discuss and Document...

78 Steps of Problem-Solving 1. Problem Identification 2. Problem Analysis 3. Plan Development 4. PLAN IMPLEMENTATION 5. Plan Evaluation

79 Response to Failure to Implement Intervention?

80 Step 4: Plan Implementation Question: How will implementation integrity be ensured? A.Select an intervention with high probability of success B.Communicate a clear plan to interventionists C.Provide specific training and support to interventionists. D.Directly observe intervention in action. E.Make adjustments to the plan if needed. F. Collect and graph data on the goal.

81 Ensuring Intervention Integrity Rarely Happens... fewer than 15% evaluated and reported data concerning intervention fidelity. (Gresham, Gansle, Noell, Cohen & Rosenblum, 1993)

82 Without checking on implementation integrity, teams cannot be sure that interventions are being applied as designed (DuPaul & Stoner, 1994)

83 If the intervention is not applied as designed, progress (or lack thereof) cannot be attributed to the specific plan (Kaufman & Flicek, 1995)

84 Student behavior change is correlated with intervention treatment integrity (Noell et.al., 2005)

85 We serve our children best by being circumspect... and not allowing our confidence in our teaching skills translate into a sense of infallibility. SCRED LD FAQs (Kerry Bollman)

86 Directly Observe the Intervention in Action

87 Wickstrom, et al. (1998) reported significant discrepancies between levels of treatment fidelity reported by teachers (54%) and as revealed by direct observation (4%).

88 Provide Specific Training and Support Interventionists Initial training for interventionists (Hirallel & Martens, 1998) 1.Trainer explains the procedure to the interventionist 2.Trainer demonstrates the procedure 3.Interventionist practices the procedure with the trainer as mock student 4.Trainer provides specific feedback 5.Repeat steps as necessary 6.Application in the instructional setting

89 Plan Implementation Key Points Intervention Scripts & Training –Specifics of intervention are well understood by interventionist –Interventionists like them! –Training: Modeling, practice, and feedback with adults prior to use with students Integrity checks -Was a direct observation done? -Do data support that plan was implemented as designed?

90 Integrity doesnt stop there... Complete ongoing assessment of implementation through: –Participant Reports –Observation –Review of Permanent Product(s)

91 A Note About Participant Reports Self-report feedback from interventionists and students is useful and good. BUT Participant report alone should not be used to evaluate treatment integrity

92 Making Adjustments to Plans Consider a plan change when the current plan: –Is not acceptable to the interventionist –Is not feasible to implement. –Is not perceived as being effective. –Is highly disruptive to the classroom ecology.

93 Changes? Team decision Document!

94 Integrity of Progress Monitoring Collect and graph data on intervention goal Monitor the progress monitoring plan Provide support to those collecting the data. If the data are not being collected designed then –Give additional support OR –Change the progress monitoring plan

95 Steps of Problem-Solving 1. Problem Identification 2. Problem Analysis 3. Plan Development 4. Plan Implementation 5. PLAN EVALUATION

96 Step 5: Plan Evaluation Question: Is the intervention plan effective? Use data to determine student progress Evaluate intervention acceptability Determine as a team what to do next.

97 Plan Evaluation Key Points What is adequate response to intervention? SCRED Practice: –CBM target scores for fall, winter, spring of each grade as linked to state test –Inherent growth rate within these target scores is defined as our desired rate of growth –Calculated confidence interval (Standard error of slope) around the target growth rate –Students with growth rates below the bottom of the confidence interval are considered to not have adequate response to the intervention Grade Minimum Growth Expected Growth Maximum Growth 21.031.311.59 30.751.031.31

98 Steps of Problem-Solving 1. Problem Identification 2. PROBLEM ANALYSIS 3. Plan Development 4. Plan Implementation 5. Plan Evaluation

99 Problem Identification

100 Question: What is the discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring? Academic v. Behavior: –Cant read because wont sit still or wont sit still because they cant read? Performance v. Skill –Cant do v. Wont do

101 Tools to... Review (R) –Cumulative folder –Permanent products Interview (I) –Brief Problem Identification Interview –Instructional Planning Form (IPF) Observe (O) –Washington Classroom Observation –On-task –Frequency/Duration/Latency –Correct/Errors –Momentary Time Sampling: e.g., DENO, BASC, Social Play Test (T) –GOM / Early Literacy –MAP –Other norm or criterion referenced assessments

102 Basic Problem Identification Interview: What strengths have you identified regarding this student? List your current concerns for this student. Which one concern would you like to work on first? How could this concern be defined as an observable, measurable problem? Do you have any other data regarding this problem? If this problem was magically fixed tomorrow, what would look different for this student?

103 Instructional Planning Form (IPF) (Handout) Purpose: Examine current educational program and classroom environment –Activity (e.g., Focus or Skill, Teaching Strategy) –Materials –Arrangements –Time –Motivational Strategies (Later) Focus on these alterable variables to develop hypotheses and interventions.

104 Review: Goals of Problem Identification Establish a positive working relationship among team members Define the problem in observable, measurable terms. Identify the conditions under which the problem exists: antecedent, situation, and consequent conditions across settings. Provide a strength of the behavior across settings (e.g., how often, severe).

105 Problem Identification Outcome: Discrepancy Statement An observable and measurable statement of the students performance compared to same-age peer performance.

106 Examples When given the Picture Naming IGDI Measurement tool, Sally is able to identify 5 pictures correctly whereas same-age peers are able to correctly identify 18. When observed in circle time, Billy is on-task 30% of the time compared to classmates who are on-task 88% of the time. When observed during the art activity for 10 minutes, given 8 opportunities, Tina makes 7 following instructions errors compared to peers who make 2 following instructions errors.

107 One Minute Activity: Discrepancy Statement JimmySame-age peers Off task9% Out of Place0% Noise40%3% Physical Contact0% Total time academically engaged 51%88% What discrepancy statements could you make? Jimmy is observed for 15 minutes during circle time.

108 Activity: Three Statements in One Minute 1.Tim is reading 10 words correct on 1st grade level CBM ORF probes. Tim is in first grade. The target benchmark is 52 wrc in the spring. 2.Holly blurts out 18 times in a 20 minute observation during circle time. Other kids blurt out 3 times. 3.Minnie has been referred to the Principals office 4 times this month. National data* show that students grades K-6 are referred.35 times per month.

109 Problem Analysis Goal of problem analysis is to understand the variables that may be contributing to the problem, to develop potential hypotheses from this learning, and design a plan to solve the problem.

110 PA: Scientific Method Observe and identify problem Develop relevant hypotheses Design procedures to test hypothesis Collect data Analyze and synthesize data Make a conclusion

111 Hypotheses and Level of Inference All hypotheses require some inference What is known vs what is inferred We want to rely more on low level vs high level inferences - more explicit behaviors and environmental events These will lead to alterable variable, ones which we have control over –The instruction, curriculum, school environment

112 Shift in thinking If you are used to giving tests that purportedly give you information about something within the student that is contributing to the problem, then we are asking you to suspend this for a moment. While student characteristics are not unimportant, we want to investigate those lower level inferences first. We consider student characteristics when they interact with alterable variables

113 Thinking Differently about Students Problems Student problems can be defined and changed Questions will drive assessments Assessments will lead to instructional decisions Enabled learning rather than discrepancy or diagnosis is the goal

114 Instead of diagnosing the learner, we begin by diagnosing the instruction. We identify flaws in the instruction and correct them, with the assumption that the learners problems were caused by flaws in the instruction (Engelmann & Carnine, 1982, p.18.

115 Asking the Right Question What does this student need in order to fix the problem we have identified?

116 Problem Analysis Defined… Problem Analysis is the process of gathering relevant information in the domains of the instruction, curriculum, environment, and the learner (ICEL) through the use of reviews, interviews, observations, and tests (RIOT) in order to evaluate the underlying causes of the problem.

117 Importance of Problem Analysis Interventions are derived from results (data) generated during problem analysis. Interventions linked to assessment information are more likely to be effective in meeting the desired level of performance. Ineffective interventions can lead to resistance to intervention by further supporting problem behaviors and making it harder to meet desired outcomes.

118 Warning!!! Teams: Do Not discuss hypotheses for why the behavior is occurring before you have defined the behavior you are considering. Team note takers should have a written discrepancy statement on the Problem Identification Summary Form before hypothesis discussions begin. This will help keep discussions more focused and efficient

119 Question: Why is the problem occurring? Based on what you know list possible causes for the students problem (hypotheses) Consider all domains (Instruction, Curriculum, Environment, Learner) Differentiate between skill problems and performance problems Determine situations in which the problem behavior is most likely and least likely to occur For each hypothesis generated, list the data you have that supports or refutes the hypothesis Narrow down to the most validated and alterable hypothesis Collect any additional data you need to validate the hypothesis that the team considers to be the most likely This might be an observation or informal assessment to examine skills - but you are looking for convergent data

120 Problem Analysis This phase can be a bit circular… Look at the data you have Think about what hypotheses seem possible given the data you have, and list data for each Collect any additional data you would need to confirm or refute your guess

121 A. Consider what you know about the target behavior that is relevant to determining why the problem is occurring and a possible solution Relevant and Known Relevant and Unknown Irrelevant and Known Irrelevant and Unknown

122 PA: Summary Interviewing is often a skill strength that many school psychologists have developed These skills are directly transferable to the Problem Analysis process, and will be a valuable asset to teams in solving problems This afternoon we will practice using a tool to help in this important part of the Problem Solving Proces

123 LUNCH!

124 Resources See Handout

125 Leadership

126 1.Name the five wealthiest people in the world 2.Name the last five Heisman trophy winners 3.Name the last five winners of Miss America. 4.Name then people who have won a Noble or Pulizter prize. 5.Name the last half dozen Academy Award winners for best actor and actress. 6.Name the last decades worth of World Series winners.

127 None of us remember the headliners of yesterday.

128 1.List a few teachers who aided your journey through school. 2.Name three friends who have helped you through a difficult time. 3.Name five people who have taught you something worthwhile. 4.Think of a few people who have made you feel appreciated and special. 5.Think of five people you enjoy spending time with.

129 The Lesson: The people who make a difference in your life are not the ones with the most credentials, the most money, or the most awards. They are the ones that care.


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