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**Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: Coherence**

Grade 6 Overview

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Essential Questions How and why were the Common Core State Standards developed and by whom? What are the 3 shifts in math instruction in the CCSS? Why the need for Coherence? How is Focus reflected in the classroom? What are the next steps in implementing Coherence?

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Shift 2: Coherence The Standards are designed around coherent progressions from grade to grade. Principals and teachers carefully connect the learning across grades so that students can build new understanding onto foundations built in previous years. Teachers can begin to count on deep conceptual understanding of core content and build on it. Each standard is not a new event, but an extension of previous learning.

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**William McCallum on Coherence**

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**Coherence: Think Across Grades**

Example: Fractions “The coherence and sequential nature of mathematics dictate the foundational skills that are necessary for the learning of algebra. The most important foundational skill not presently developed appears to be proficiency with fractions (including decimals, percents, and negative fractions). The teaching of fractions must be acknowledged as critically important and improved before an increase in student achievement in algebra can be expected.” Final Report of the NMA Panel, 2008

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**COHERENCE Card Activity**

See COHERENCE Card Activity (attachment)

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**Examples of Key Advances from Grade 5 to Grade 6**

Students’ prior understanding of and skill with multiplication, division, and fractions contribute to their study of ratios, proportional relationships and unit rates (6.RP). Students begin using properties of operations systematically to work with variables, variable expressions, and equations (6.EE). Students extend their work with the system of rational numbers to include using positive and negative numbers to describe quantities (6.NS.5), extending the number line and coordinate plane to represent rational numbers and ordered pairs (6.NS.6), and understanding ordering and absolute value of rational numbers (6.NS.7). Having worked with measurement data in previous grades, students begin to develop notions of statistical variability, summarizing and describing distributions (6.SP).

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**Fluency Expectations or Examples of Culminating Standards**

6.NS.2 Students fluently divide multidigit numbers using the standard algorithm. This is the culminating standard for several years’ worth of work with division of whole numbers. 6.NS.3 Students fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation. This is the culminating standard for several years’ worth of work relating to the domains of Number and Operations in Base Ten, Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations — Fractions. 6.NS.1 Students interpret and compute quotients of fractions and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions. This completes the extension of operations to fractions.

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CCSS RP Progression 6.RP.3 Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations. 6.RP.1 Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. 6.RP.2 Understand the concept of a unit rate a{b associated with a ratio a : b with b 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. 7.RP.1 Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. 7.RP.2 Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. 7.RP.2 Represent proportional relationships by equations.

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**Coherence: Think Across Grades**

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The Number System (NS) Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions. 6.NS.1 – Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 3/4-cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi? Resources: Contexts and visual models can help students to understand quotients of fractions and begin to develop the relationship between multiplication and division. Model development can be facilitated by building from familiar scenarios with whole or friendly number dividends or divisors. Computing quotients of fractions build upon and extends student understandings developed in Grade 5. Students make drawings, model situations with manipulatives, or manipulate computer-generated models.

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Sample Items Sample 1: Three people share pound of chocolate. How much of a pound of chocolate does each person get? Solution: Each person gets 1/6 pound of chocolate. Sample 2: Manny has 1/2 yard of fabric to make book covers. Each book cover is made from 1/8 yard of fabric. How many book covers can Manny make? Solution: Manny can make 4 book covers.

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**Group Discussion Math Shifts What is this shift? Why this shift?**

Opportunities Challenges 2. Coherence: Think across grades

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