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Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: Focus at Grade 5 Professional Development Module

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2 The CCSS Requires Three Shifts in Mathematics 1.Focus: Focus strongly where the standards focus. 2.Coherence: Think across grades, and link to major topics 3.Rigor: In major topics, pursue conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application

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Focus The two major evidence-based principles on which the standards are based are focus and coherence. Focus is necessary so that students have sufficient time to think, practice, and integrate new ideas into their growing knowledge structure. Focus is also a way to allow time for the kinds of rich classroom discussion and interaction that support the Standards for Mathematical Practice. 3

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4 Shift #1: Focus Strongly where the Standards Focus Significantly narrow the scope of content and deepen how time and energy is spent in the math classroom. Focus deeply on what is emphasized in the standards, so that students gain strong foundations.

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Focus Focus is critical to ensure that students learn the most important content completely, rather than succumb to an overly broad survey of content. Focus shifts over time, as seen in the following: In grades K-5, the focus is on the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers; fractions and decimals; with a balance of concepts, skills, and problem solving. Arithmetic is viewed as an important set of skills and also as a thinking subject that, done thoughtfully, prepares students for algebra. Measurement and geometry develop alongside number and operations and are tied specifically to arithmetic along the way. 6

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7 Grade Focus Areas in Support of Rich Instruction and Expectations of Fluency and Conceptual Understanding K–2 Addition and subtraction - concepts, skills, and problem solving and place value 3–5 Multiplication and division of whole numbers and fractions – concepts, skills, and problem solving 6 Ratios and proportional reasoning; early expressions and equations 7 Ratios and proportional reasoning; arithmetic of rational numbers 8 Linear algebra Key Areas of Focus in Mathematics

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Focus Move away from "mile wide, inch deep" curricula identified in TIMSS. Learn from international comparisons. Teach less, learn more. Less topic coverage can be associated with higher scores on those topics covered because students have more time to master the content that is taught. – Ginsburg et al., 2005 8

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Mathematics topics intended at each grade by at least two-thirds of A+ countries Mathematics topics intended at each grade by at least two-thirds of 21 U.S. states The shape of math in A+ countries 1 Schmidt, Houang, & Cogan, A Coherent Curriculum: The Case of Mathematics. (2002). 9

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10 K 12 Number and Operations Measurement and Geometry Algebra and Functions Statistics and Probability Traditional U.S. Approach

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11 Focusing Attention Within Number and Operations Operations and Algebraic Thinking Expressions and Equations Algebra Number and Operations Base Ten The Number System Number and Operations Fractions K12345678High School

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Examples of Opportunities for In- Depth Focus 5.NBT.1 The extension of the place value system from whole numbers to decimals is a major intellectual accomplishment involving understanding and skill with base-ten units and fractions. 5.NBT.6 The extension from one-digit divisors to two-digit divisors requires care. This is a major milestone along the way to reaching fluency with the standard algorithm in grade 6 (6.NS.2). 5.NF.2 When students meet this standard, they bring together the threads of fraction equivalence (grades 3–5) and addition and subtraction (grades K–4) to fully extend addition and subtraction to fractions. 5.NF.4 When students meet this standard, they fully extend multiplication to fractions, making division of fractions in grade 6 (6.NS.1) a near target. 5.MD.5 Students work with volume as an attribute of a solid figure and as a measurement quantity. Students also relate volume to multiplication and addition. This work begins a progression leading to valuable skills in geometric measurement in middle school. 12

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Example of Opportunities for Connecting Mathematical Content and Mathematical Practices Mathematical practices should be evident throughout mathematics instruction and connected to all of the content areas addressed at this grade level. Mathematical tasks (short, long, scaffolded, and unscaffolded) are an important opportunity to connect content and practices. The example below shows how the content of this grade might be connected to the practices. When students break divisors and dividends into sums of multiples of base-ten units (5.NBT.6), they are seeing and making use of structure (MP.7) and attending to precision (MP.6). Initially for most students, multi-digit division problems take time and effort, so they also require perseverance (MP.1) and looking for and expressing regularity in repeated reasoning (MP.8). 13

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Group Discussion Shift #1: Focus strongly where the Standards focus. In your groups, discuss ways to respond to the following question, Why focus? Theres so much math that students could be learning, why limit them to just a few things? 14

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Engaging with the shift: What do you think belongs in the major work of each grade? Grade Which two of the following represent areas of major focus for the indicated grade? KCompare numbersUse tally marksUnderstand meaning of addition and subtraction 1Add and subtract within 20 Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units Create and extend patterns and sequences 2 Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication Understand place value Identify line of symmetry in two dimensional figures 3Multiply and divide within 100 Identify the measures of central tendency and distribution Develop understanding of fractions as numbers 4 Examine transformations on the coordinate plane Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering 5 Understand and calculate probability of single events Understand the place value system Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions 6 Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems Identify and utilize rules of divisibility Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions 7 Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions Generate the prime factorization of numbers to solve problems 8Standard form of a linear equation Define, evaluate, and compare functions Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem Alg.1Quadratic inequalitiesLinear and quadratic functionsCreating equations to model situations Alg.2Exponential and logarithmic functionsPolar coordinatesUsing functions to model situations 15

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Examples of Key Advances from Grade 4 to Grade 5 In grade 5, students will integrate decimal fractions more fully into the place value system (5.NBT.1– 4). By thinking about decimals as sums of multiples of base-ten units, students begin to extend algorithms for multi-digit operations to decimals (5.NBT.7). Students use their understanding of fraction equivalence and their skill in generating equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions, including fractions with unlike denominators. 16

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Example from SBA p.16-17 Students apply and extend their previous understanding of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction (5.NF.4). They also learn the relationship between fractions and division, allowing them to divide any whole number by any nonzero whole number and express the answer in the form of a fraction or mixed number (5.NF.3). And they apply and extend their previous understanding of multiplication and division to divide a unit fraction by a whole number or a whole number by a unit fraction.13 17

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Content Emphases by Cluster: Grade Five Key: Major Clusters; Supporting Clusters; Additional Clusters 18

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Examples of Opportunities for Connections among Standards, Clusters or Domains The work that students do in multiplying fractions extends their understanding of the operation of multiplication. For example, to multiply a/b x q (where q is a whole number or a fraction), students can interpret a/b x q as meaning a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts (5.NF.4a). This interpretation of the product leads to a product that is less than, equal to or greater than q depending on whether a/b 1, respectively (5.NF.5). Conversions within the metric system represent an important practical application of the place value system. Students work with these units (5.MD.1) can be connected to their work with place value (5.NBT.1). 19

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20 Task: Matching Clusters and Critical Areas Read through the cluster headings for your grade. Discuss each cluster heading and decide which critical area it falls within. Cut and paste the cluster heading on the page with the appropriate critical area.

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21 Matching Clusters with Critical Areas: Small Group Discussion Were you able to match each cluster heading with one of the critical areas? How did you decide which area to place it under? What challenges did you have? How do the cluster headings help clarify the concepts in the critical areas?

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22 The Standards Find the critical areas for your grade. Find the cluster headings for your grade. Find and read the standards that fall under each cluster heading. Write down two first impressions you have about the standards. Write down two questions you have about the standards.

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23 Reflection Journal How have the cluster headings helped clarify the important mathematical concepts in the critical areas? How will you use this information to guide your curriculum and instruction? What changes will you make? What questions do you still have about the standards?

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Your Assignment Choose one of the critical areas to investigate back in the classroom Find a lesson in your curriculum addressing the critical area What evidence will convince you that students understand this concept? What common misconceptions do students have when studying this critical area? What challenges have you had in teaching these critical area concepts? 24

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Common Core State Standards – The Shifts and What they May Mean for Summer Learning Sandra Alberti, Ed.D. Student Achievement Partners www.achievethecore.org.

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