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Reschly RTI1 RTI in Behavior and Emotional Regulation Across General, Remedial, and Special Education Daniel J. Reschly 615-708-7910.

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Presentation on theme: "Reschly RTI1 RTI in Behavior and Emotional Regulation Across General, Remedial, and Special Education Daniel J. Reschly 615-708-7910."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reschly RTI1 RTI in Behavior and Emotional Regulation Across General, Remedial, and Special Education Daniel J. Reschly Delaware Department of Education May 8, 2007

2 Reschly RTI2 Six Chapters in this Presentation Overview of RTI in academics and behavior including multi-tiered systems in both Tier I Behavior: General Education: All Students: Positive Behavior Supports and Classroom Organization and Management Tier II Behavior: Intensive individualized problem solving through stages, graphing, etc., evaluation of success, need for sustained interventions Special education eligibility determination Special education programming

3 Reschly RTI3 What To Do With Egbert?? 1st Grade, falling behind in reading Slow progress compared to peers Likely to miss benchmarks related to passing 3 rd Grade reading test Distractible, inattentive, disruptive, non- compliant, aggressive Sound Familiar WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? Driven by Federal Legislation Consider NCLB and IDEIA

4 Reschly RTI4 What To Do With Egbert?? 9 th Grade, failing 3 of 5 classes at first 9 weeks Attendance is declining Homework non completion Poor performance on weekly or unit tests Defiant, distractible, inattentive, disruptive, non-compliant Sound Familiar WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? Driven by Federal Legislation Consider NCLB and IDEIA

5 5 PROBLEM SOLVING CHART Does the *%$# thing work? Dont mess with it! You Idiot! Did you mess with it? Does anyone else know? Will you catch hell? Hide it! You poor slob! Ignore it Can you blame somebody else? NO PROBLEM Yes No

6 Reschly RTI6 What Is Response to Intervention (RTI)? Scientifically-based instruction/interventions matched to student needs Formative evaluation including frequent progress monitoring in relation to benchmarks, with decision rules applied Decisions driven by student RTI, including genl ed instruction/intervention, remedial services/individual interventions, sp ed eligibility, placement, annual review and exit Implementation requires: Allocating (aligning) resources to deliver effective interventions that produce improved child outcomes

7 Reschly RTI7 RTI Model Differences Restricted vs Comprehensive System Wide LD Identification Do Tiers I and II, then traditional evaluation Or Use RTI in eligibility determination and in the design, implementation, and evaluation of IEPs Academic only or Academic and Behavior False dichotomies: Standard Protocol vs Problem Solving vs Recognition of Both Choices determined by nature of problem Use of both in many situations

8 Reschly RTI8 RESPONSE TO Intervention POLICY CONSIDERATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION Order at: Cost: $15 with discounts for large orders

9 Reschly RTI9 Purpose of the RTI Process Improve results in academic, behavioral, and emotional regulation domains, through High quality interventions Formative evaluation Student results drive decisions about needs and intensity of interventions Improve, eliminate disproportionate representation Identification of disabilities through procedures that are valid and connected to effective special ed interventions Improve special education results and increase exit from sp ed Prevention and early identification-intervention

10 Reschly RTI10 Special Education Placement Effects: High Incidence Disabilities Treatment/Intervention a Effect Size EMR/Special Classes (IQ 60-75) -.14 Special Classes (IQ 75-90) -.34 Resource for SLD and E/BD +.29 Traditional Placement Practices Have Weak Relationships to Outcomes Special Education as a Solution? Note: Effect size is expressed in SD units, analogous to a z-score

11 Reschly RTI11 Meaningfulness of Special Education High Incidence Categories ( Table 1-13, retrieved Category Prevalence Range Factor ofNotes MR: 0.4% (NJ) to 3.0% (WV) 7Xs (9 at 0.4) ED: 0.2% (AR) to 2.4% (DC) 12Xs (VT=2.0) LD: 2.2% (KY) to 7.7% (OK) 3Xs Sp/L: 0.5% (HI) to 4.3% (WV) 8Xs OHI: 0.5% (CA) to 2.4% (RI) 5Xs All: 8.9% (CO) to 15.9% (RI) 1.8Xs Notes: Child disability count as a percentage of the 6-17 population.

12 Reschly RTI12 Some things do not make sense

13 Reschly RTI13 Progression of Research, Policy, and Legal Requirements RESEARCH: Scientific research with practice demonstrations leading to POLICY: Multiple policy analyses in presented in prestigious reports leading to FEDERAL LAW: Multiple layers of Federal legal requirements leading to STATE LAW: Changes in state rules leading to SCALING UP: Scaling up efforts in states

14 Reschly RTI14 What Works? See Kavale (2005), Learning Disabilities, 13, and other sources TreatmentEffect Size Applied Behavior Analysis CBM+Graphing+Formative Evaluation + reinforcement Explicit Instruction and Problem Solving +.70 to 1.50 Comprehension Strategies Math Interventions +.60 to 1.10 Writing Interventions +.50 to.85

15 Reschly RTI15 Behavior Interventions Effect Sizes TreatmentEffect Size Applied Behavior Analysis Beh. Assessment+Graphing+Formative Evaluation + reinforcement Reinforcement +.7 to 1.50 DRO Group Contingencies Reinforcement + Response Cost +1.00

16 Reschly RTI16 Prevention-Early Intervention: Legal Requirements LEA can use 15% of federal IDEA funds to support prevention and early identification- treatment Purpose: minimize over-identification and unnecessary sp ed referrals Provide academic and behavioral supports; and professional development re: early literacy and behavior MUST use the 15% if LEA has significant disproportionality

17 Reschly RTI17 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 5-10% 10-15% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual and Small Groups Intense, Prolonged Intervention Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual and Small Groups Intense, Prolonged Interventions Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) Standard protocol reading interventions Targeted Small Group or Individual Interventions Some students (at-risk) Targeted Individual Behavior Interventions 80-85% Universal Interventions Effective Academic In- struction Universal Interventions School-wide positive Behavior Effective classroom and Behavior management Multiple Tiers Implemented Through Progress Monitoring and Formative Evaluation (Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002) Enter a School-Wide Systems for Student Success

18 Reschly RTI18 Multi-Tiered Academic Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision Tier I: General Education: All students; Effective instruction, 80-85% at benchmarks Tier II: Standard Protocol and Problem Solving: (about 10 to 20 weeks) Small group and individualized interventions Decision Making: Continue Program, Modifications, Comprehensive Evaluation?? Tier III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction in General and/or Special education Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation

19 Reschly RTI19 Multi-Tiered Behavior Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision Level I: General Education : School wide positive discipline and effective classroom organization and management Level II: Individualized Problem Solving re: Behavior: Targeted individual interventions in general education Decision Making? Continue Program, Modifications, Comprehensive Evaluation Level III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction in General or Special education Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation

20 Reschly RTI20 Formative Evaluation Frequent assessment of progress Referenced to goals based on benchmarks toward passing state tests Decision rules regarding modification of goals or instructional programs All decisions about student needs and instructional intensity are based on child RTI

21 Reschly RTI21 Characteristics of Effective Formative Evaluation Measures Direct measures of skills Natural settings Efficient re: costs and time required Sensitive to small increments of growth in relevant skills Results can be graphed in relation to goals Reliable in terms of stability Valid re: relationship to broad indicators of competence Example: Behavior Assessment and CBM oral reading fluency and reading comprehension

22 Reschly RTI22 Chapter 1 Conclusions Strong support for RTI-note key components Policy and legal requirements support RTI in academics and behavior Prevention, early identification-early treatment emphasis Ensure special education is last rather than first resort Progress monitoring and formative evaluation principles: Change it if not working

23 Reschly RTI23 Tier I: General Education, Universal Stage, Primary Prevention Academics and Behavior Scientifically-based Explicit instruction in academics and behavior Systematic intervention Inter-related, reciprocal relationships, mutually supported Discuss separately here, but acknowledge the essential inter-relationship of academics and behavior

24 Reschly RTI24 Tier I: General Education Universal screening of all students in early grades Positive Behavior Supports Effective classroom organization and behavior management Teacher support teams

25 Reschly RTI25 Teacher Preparation in Classroom Behavior Management Interview faculty: Yes, we cover it! Interview new teachers: No, I was not prepared. Current study of IHEs preparation in classroom behavioral management Most do not prepare teachers in the area Preparation is not thorough or at the right time Mentoring, assistance in classroom management is effective

26 Reschly RTI26 Behavioral Assessment and CBM Measures Focused on determination of change Formative evaluation critical Tied to effective practices and better outcomes Applications in general, remedial, and special education Identification of disabilities-integrates identification with treatment

27 Reschly RTI27 Why Behavior Assessment (including CBM) Determine current levels in academics and behavior; degree of need Monitor progress, assess change Foundation for formative evaluation- improving interventions Determine success of interventions Decisions based in child response to interventions

28 Reschly RTI28 Tier I: Screening for Behavior Problems Early indications of later serious behavior problems appear by age 3-5 Early identification-treatment more effective than later interventions, especially with aggression Behavior referrals often occur too late for maximum effect of interventions Identification as ED and Sp Ed placement most often occur at age 10, 11, or older when interventions are less effective and more resistant

29 Reschly RTI29 Tier I Assessment of Behavior Focus on classroom and individuals Screen all children for behavior Aggressive behaviors-identify and treat at young ages Treat through age 8; Manage after age 8 Early intervention much more effective than later Social isolation Bullying Classroom related social skills (or academic enablers

30 Reschly RTI30 Multiple Gating Procedures (Walker & Severson, 1995) Sopris West Teacher Ranking of Children ( 3 highest ranked) on Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors Teacher Rating (Exceeds Norms) Direct Observations and Parental Questionnaire Focused Interventions

31 Reschly RTI31 Behavioral Earthquakes Critical Behavioral Events High impact-great intensity-low frequency behaviors: Behavioral Earthquakes Fire setting, cruelty, extreme aggressiveness, suicide threats/attempts, physical confrontation, use of weapons, etc. Should provoke immediate referral School Archival Records Search (SARS)-Sopris

32 Reschly RTI32 Tier I Prevention School-wide Positive Behavior Supports National Technical Assistance Center at PBS is a broad range of systemic & individualized strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all students.

33 Reschly RTI33 PBS Strategies Continuum of behavioral support Prevention through common set of behavioral expectations, taught to all students in system, reinforced by all adults and students Applied through multiple tiers Focus on problematic areas, hallways, cafeteria, assemblies, etc. Must include individual and group interventions as well

34 Reschly RTI34 PBIS Messages 1. Successful Individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or schools that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable (Zins & Ponti, 1990) 2. Learning & teaching environments must be redesigned to increase the likelihood of behavior intervention plan success

35 Reschly RTI35 School-wide Support procedures and processes intended for all students, staff, and settings must have a building-wide team that oversees all development, implementation, modification, and evaluation activities

36 Reschly RTI36 Characteristics of Support 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline 2.Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation

37 Reschly RTI37 Tier I: Classroom Organization and Behavior Management Classrooms vary significantly in organization and management Influences engaged time and academic productivity Influences incidence of behavior problems Discipline issues: major cause for teacher attrition Most new teachers to not believe they are adequately prepared, especially for classrooms with culturally diverse, economically disadvantaged students Teacher preparation vs teacher needs

38 Reschly RTI38 Principles of Strong Classroom Organization and Management: Engaging Instruction First and most important principle Use a variety of instructional methods Direct instruction, teacher led, frequent responding, frequent feedback Program high rate of success Teaching at childs/students instructional level

39 Reschly RTI39 Principles of Strong Classroom Organization and Management: Structuring the Environment Clearly communicating expectations for each activity (red, yellow, green sign procedure) Manage instructional time (large group, small group, individual assistance) efficiently Transitioning from activity to activity (major issue), particularly for boys and distractible kids Communicate expectations at beginning of class

40 Reschly RTI40 Principles cont.: Monitoring Behavior and Academic Engagement Scanning and moving around the room in unpredictable patterns Close proximity to students off task, nonverbal Praise and reprimands: Quiet, specific, directed to person 80% should be actively engaged React quickly to off task behavior Active engagement incompatible with disruptive behavior (DRI) High rates of response Praise/encouragement of appropriate behavior

41 Reschly RTI41 Principles cont: Classroom Rules and Behavioral Routines Establish and teach behavioral rules and routines Teach in first two weeks of school State in terms of positive behavior Link to school wide expectations (e.g., same language) Teach explicitly, Provide examples and non-examples, reinforce compliance Be respectful (raise hand, listen to others, kind to others, wait turn, how to seek help, etc.) Routines (bathroom, transitions between activities, turning in homework, large group, small group, free time)

42 Reschly RTI42 Principles cont.: Encourage and Reinforce Appropriate Behavior Focus on maintaining and increasing appropriate behaviors, academic and social Identify what children are supposed to do, what they can do, not just what they cannot do Ratio of positive to negative comments Misbehavior is a behavioral error, re-teach and reinforce appropriate behavior

43 Reschly RTI43 Principles cont.: Behavior Reduction Strategies Responding to misbehavior Continuum of consequences established Consider misbehavior as a behavioral error: Treat like an academic skills error Re-teach appropriate behavior Respond consistently and efficiently Observe the effects of behavior reduction strategy Punishment??? Behavior increases?? Respond early: avoid escalation, prolonged existence

44 Reschly RTI44 Behavior Reduction Strategies, cont. Stimulus control (cues, directions) Differential reinforcement (DRI or DRO) Response cost Group contingencies (e.g., Good Behavior Game) Self-monitoring, self management Extinction (ignore behavior, reinforce incompatible behavior, prepare for response burst) Punishment

45 Reschly RTI45 Effects of Temper Tantrums: Negative Reinforcement Trap Teacher presents task Student refuses, teacher persists, student has temper tantrum, teacher gives in Function of temper tantrum? Escape task demands Teacher giving in removes negative stimulus and thereby reinforces escape behavior Soooo, some brilliant psychologists says, Ignore the behavior. Will that work? Eventually, yes, but slow and problematic

46 Reschly RTI46 Temper Tantrums per Day Number Days Initiate Extinction Procedure

47 Reschly RTI47 Initiate Extinction Procedure DRO Added

48 Reschly RTI48 Effects of Extinction (Ignoring Previously Reinforced Behavior) Some behaviors cannot and should not be ignored Initial effect may be a response burst (higher and more intense expressions of behavior) Combine extinction with other strategies such as DRO and DRI Extinction alone often works slowly Avoid intermittent reinforcement with extinction Add response cost and reinforcement for appropriate behavior

49 Reschly RTI49 Tier I: Importance of Classroom Organization and Behavior Management Kellam, Baltimore Schools Students randomly assigned to 1 st grade teachers, then classroom was the unit of analysis Classrooms observed during first 9 wks., high rates of disruptive behavior and aggression, large differences across classrooms Classrooms randomly assigned to, Experimental condition: Good Behavior Game (Barrish, et al, 1969; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991) vs. Control condition of in-service on general curriculum issues

50 Reschly RTI50 Kellam Research: Classroom Organization and Management Good Behavior Game (Barrish, et al., 1969) Group contingency Two groups formed into teams Define rules and positive behaviors Teams compete for positive consequences Team with highest rate of appropriate behaviors earn rewards Lining up first, Help teacher pick-up classroom, free time, etc.

51 Reschly RTI51 Kellam Research: Effects of Good Behavior Game Were Statistically Significant Aggression and disruptive behavior continued in control classrooms Marked reduction in experimental condition Experimental classrooms had higher academic productivity and achievement Aggressive students in both conditions followed through 6 th grade and first grade classroom effects persisted First grade experience sets academic and behavioral trajectory

52 Reschly RTI52 Baseline Good Behavior Game

53 Reschly RTI53 Tier I: Implications of Behavior Classroom organization and behavior management are crucial to student success Teachers skills at classroom management were then critical to childrens socialization, particularly in the face of family poverty. (Kellam, et al., 1998a, p. 182) Teacher training typically does not provide effective methods and experience in classroom behavior management. (Kellam, et al., 1998, p. 182). Relatively simple, cost effective interventions can produce large and persistent effects

54 Reschly RTI54 Principles: Secondary Level (Sprick, R.S. (2006). Discipline in the secondary classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.) ( ) Selected chapter titles Basic behavioral strategies, Key concepts Instructional design and evaluation systems Prepare for routines and procedures Expectations: Teach students to be successful Rules and consequences, responding to misbehavior Motivation: Enhancing desire to succeed Proactive planning for misbehavior

55 Reschly RTI55 Teacher Support Teams For students who need additional support and intervention (1% to 5% of students) Classroom based, teacher and/or team develops One or two session problem solving Minimal data requirements Attempts over 3-4 weeks Produce changes, then must sustain Apply basic problem solving procedures

56 Reschly RTI56 Implement Plan (Treatment Integrity) Carry out the intervention Evaluate (Progress Monitoring Assessment) Did our plan work? Define the Problem (Screening and Diagnostic Assessments) What is the problem and why is it happening? Develop a Plan (Goal Setting and Planning) What are we going to do ? Basic Problem Solving (Teachers and School Teams) (Heartland Area Education Agency, Johnston, IA)

57 Reschly RTI57 Tier I: Teacher Support Team Analysis What is student doing and why is it a problem When is student successful and less likely to misbehave? When is student less successful and more likely to misbehave Why does behavior occur, what is student getting from the behavior What other factors contribute to the behavior Consider attention, escape, etc.

58 Reschly RTI58 Resources for Tier I Behavior strategies: Positive Behavior Supports Challenging behavior with young children K-6 prevention curriculum re aggression, acting out PATHS.pdf PATHS.pdf Classroom management

59 Reschly RTI59 Resources for Tier I, continued Classroom Structure See Paine, S.C., Radicci, J., Rosellini, L.C., Deutchman, L. & Darch, C.B. (1983). Structuring your classroom for academic success. Champaign, IL: Research Press. (for beginning tchrs) Monitoring student behavior Student engagement and motivation well.doc

60 Reschly RTI60 Resources cont. Classroom rules and routines ces/Career+and+Technical+Education/Establishing+Clas sroom+Rules.htm ces/Career+and+Technical+Education/Establishing+Clas sroom+Rules.htm Positive reinforcement ehavior/tipsheets/posrein.htm ken.pdf ehavior/tipsheets/posrein.htm ken.pdf

61 Reschly RTI61 Resources cont. Defining consequences ksheet.pdf ksheet.pdf Time out (extinction) Good Behavior Game ns/classroom/gbg.php ading/GBGManual.pdf ns/classroom/gbg.php ading/GBGManual.pdf

62 Reschly RTI62 Summary of Tier I Universal level, all students Program for highly effective academics AND behavior Greater intensity and increased measurement precision for students below benchmark trajectories and expectations in behavior and academics Behavior in classrooms can markedly affect academic outcomes and vice versa

63 Reschly RTI63 Moving from Tier I to Tier II in Behavior Good behavior management Observation confirms critical elements in place 80+% are on task in structured situations Clear differences between target child and other students confirmed by observations Teacher has used appropriate individually focused interventions Progress and level of behavior are not sufficient

64 Reschly RTI64 Tier II Behavior: Targeted Individual Behavior Interventions in General Education Targeted individual interventions in classrooms and in standard protocol academic settings Application of problem solving steps and criteria Behavior problem solving High success rates if implemented Improved behavior often is crucial to persistence of academic interventions effects over time and generalization to classroom settings

65 Reschly RTI65 Tier II Behavior Problem Solving Multi-stage process, with decisions driven by data. Interview outlines markedly assist in this process Prompts for covering essential information Natural conversational methods to define problems, gather a record, design interventions, implement interventions, and evaluate outcomes Establishes basis for more intense interventions if needed Source: Bergan, J. R., (1977). Behavior consultation. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.

66 Reschly RTI66 Tier II Behavior Stages of Problem Solving (Targeted Individual Behavioral Interventions) 4 Stages with multiple goals in each Accomplish goals in the 4 stages produces.80 probability of success Continuing education and interview protocols are sufficient plus Knowledge of behavior change principles and powerful instructional interventions

67 Reschly RTI67 Problem Identification Define Target Data Collection Tentative Goal Behavior Problem Analysis Data Goals Evidence-BasedIntervention InterventionPlan Intervention Implementation Graph/ Fidelity Progress Decision Goals Checks Monitoring Rules Evaluation Data GoalDecisions Attainment

68 Reschly RTI68 Tier II Behavior Overview of Problem Solving Self-correcting methodology Varies in intensity Fundamental steps of define, measure, intervene, and evaluate Applicable to general education interventions and to special education programs Note overlap with positive behavior supports

69 Reschly RTI69 Tier II Behavior: Stage I: Problem Definition and Measurement-Goals Identify problem in observable, behavioral terms Identify the setting, expectations, and estimate the frequency of the behavior, Develop a realistic, applicable measure of the behavior that can be applied in the classroom/school

70 Reschly RTI70 Tier II Behavior Problem Problem Definition and Measurement-Goals continued Determine tentative goal for change Collect data Establish timeline for interventions, progress monitoring checks, consideration of intervention changes, etc Detect irrational ideas (rare occurrence)

71 Reschly RTI71 Tier II Behavior Problem Identification Interview Outline Behavior (see interview protocol) Questions: Describe behavior Questions: Ask for examples Questions: Where, When, What doing, Expectations Summarize, confirm or revise

72 Reschly RTI72 Problem Identification Interview Outline cont. Conditions around behavior Questions: Prior learning and setting events Questions: Setting conditions Questions: Consequences/effects of behavior Summarize conditions around the behavior

73 Reschly RTI73 Problem Identification Interview cont. Tentative Goals and Assets Questions: Estimate current status Questions: Estimate goal Questions: Assets question Questions: Current approaches to teaching or behavior management Summarize and confirm

74 Reschly RTI74 Problem Identification Interview cont. Assessment Questions about record of behavior Questions: Kind of measure consideration (see later) Summarize and confirm Wrap Up: Written summary Behavior Assessment procedures Assessment materials, requirements Time/Date for next appointment

75 Reschly RTI75 Selection and Definition of Problem Behaviors Significant influence on data collection Considerations Physical danger to student and others Importance to development and later opportunities Relationship to other behaviors Social validation-importance Negative consequences of existing behavior

76 Reschly RTI76 Collateral Effects Change behaviors that likely have positive effects on other behaviors Academic productivity on disruptive behavior On-task behavior on disruptive behavior and academic success

77 Reschly RTI77 Positive vs Negative Target Behaviors Acceleration vs deceleration targets Stopping, discontinuing behavior does not teach or improve skills Acceleration targetsskill building More interventions for increasing than decreasing behaviors Nature of interventions to decrease behaviors Accelerate, if possible, positive incompatible behaviors

78 Reschly RTI78 Nature of the Problem Definition Dn must be objective meaning that it is observable, Define behaviors for unobservable targets such as self-concept Must be identified by tangible characteristics Dn must be clear so that other persons can apply it and accurately report it, that is inter-judge agreement Complete so that occurrence and non-occurrence are readily apparent

79 Reschly RTI79 Operational Definitions Exercise 1 Develop a specific, behavioral DN of the following: Jeff is always messing around in study hall. He never works like he is supposed to Operational DN

80 Reschly RTI80 Operational Definitions Exercise 2 Develop a specific, behavioral DN of the following: Danny misses many classes, is often tardy, does not complete work, and is failing tests. Operational DN

81 Reschly RTI81 Problem Solving Practice Group activity: Implement a problem solving protocol to accomplish the goals regarding one of the problems in the prior slides

82 Reschly RTI82 What to do with Egbert? Parent Involvement Inform Describe subsequent steps and procedures Invite participation Involve parent, at their discretion, in problem solving Schedule meeting

83 Reschly RTI83 Egbert: Problem Solving: Problem Statement in Behavior Egbert is off task (how much?) Egbert initiates disruptive behavior that violates classroom rules (how often compared to peers?) Egbert does not complete classroom work Poor reading skills compared to peers and benchmarks (academics and behavior) Non-compliant behaviordoes not follow directions and direct requests, i.e., when asked, Egbert ignores requests

84 Reschly RTI84 Definition and Measurement: Kinds of Measures Accurate quantification of difference between current and desired levels, Direct, Match setting and domain, Frequent and repeated measurement Efficient Sensitive to growth in academic and/or behavioral skills Related to important general outcomes Results can be graphed

85 Reschly RTI85 Why Data Collection?? Validate the existence of the problem Nature Severity Develop a realistic perspective (move away from always or never) Determine degree of difference with expectations Assess progress and apply changes during the intervention Assess effectiveness of the intervention Prompt focus on ABCs of behavior

86 Reschly RTI86 Data Collection Principles Maximize simplicity and minimize intrusiveness Match to frequency and severity of the problem Increase complexity as needed Severity of the problem Degree of student limitations Available resources Sufficient data to estimate strength and evaluate success Teacher or parent involvement with design Provision of materials, prompts, props

87 Reschly RTI87 Data Collection: Permanent Product Naturally occurring permanent products Attendance, work completion, percent correct, grades, Usually most convenient and least intrusive Fosters maintenance and generalization Most acceptable to teachers, parents, and others Often can use a permanent product along with other measures of the behavior Most positive changes will also have a collateral effect on one or more permanent products Examples of permanent products???

88 Reschly RTI88 Data Collection: Event Recording Events: ideal for high impact, low frequency events. Examples: Encopresis, swearing, temper tantrums, non-compliance Simple recording on counter, 3x5 card Cannot use if frequency is high, too much recording and too little teaching

89 Reschly RTI89 Interval Recording Time period specified (10 seconds, 30 minutes) Record behavior if it occurs at any time during the interval Requires timing device and observer Intrusive for teachers, especially if intervals are short and/or the behavior occurs frequently Normative comparisons

90 Reschly RTI90 Time Sampling Record behavior only if it occurs at the end of the interval Example, 10 seconds, 2 minutes, 5 minutes, observe at end of interval, behavior recorded if it is occurring at the end of the interval Also intrusive on teacher time, especially if intervals are short Requires timing device and observer Normative comparisons

91 Reschly RTI91 Latency Time elapsed between request or other cue/prompt and the initiation or onset of the behavior. Get ready! Response I am BUT NO MOVEMENT Time required for child to comply to teacher or child response Intrusive, requires timing device Not applicable to many problems

92 Reschly RTI92 Duration Time associated with a behavior or event---- length of the behavior Appropriate for some behaviors such as length of temper tantrums, teen-ager whining, length of phone calls Requires timing and vigilance regarding beginning and end

93 Reschly RTI93 Data Collection Decisions A 4 th grade teacher asks you to observe in a classroom. The teachers describes a girl, Nancy, as wandering around the room, asking the teacher for an excessive amount of help, and as completing few seatwork assignments What 2 behaviors would you record and why?

94 Reschly RTI94 Data Collection Decisions A 10th grade teacher complains, Danny misses many classes, is often tardy, does not complete work, and is failing tests. What 2 behaviors and why?

95 Reschly RTI95 Methods to Collect Information RReview records IInterview significant others OObserve in relevant situations TTest, Structured rating scales See application later

96 Reschly RTI96 Behavior and Academic Skills Measures Kind of measure continued Reliable Results can be graphed Sensitive to changes in skills Feasible for use by teachers or paraprofessionals

97 Reschly RTI97 Behavior and Academic Skills Measures Why are standardized achievement tests inappropriate for progress monitoring Weak sensitivity to gains in skills Do not cover important areas of educational performance Cannot be repeated frequently, administered frequently Cannot be graphed to evaluate an intervention that is a few weeks or a couple of months in duration

98 Reschly RTI98 Behavior and Academic Skills Measures Why is graphing important? Ensures that data will be considered Often easily to interpret Tangible reflection of program effects Provides the basis for changing programs if results miss goals Graphing + program changes produces best effects; + reinforcement=1.0 SD effect size

99 Reschly RTI99 Behavior Observation Scheme Review PABIS Protocol Momentary Time Sampling (15 sec intervals) Record behaviors Attending Inappropriate location Noisy Physically negative ?? Additional behaviors as defined with teacher

100 Reschly RTI100 PABIS Observation Schedule Peer Referenced Behavior Observation Target peer, every other interval Same sex peers, every other interval Observe multiple peers Compare target to peers Overall class scores low on attending and high on behaviors: implications Is Target significantly different from peers

101 Reschly RTI101 Setting/ Behavior AttendingNoisyPhysically Negative Inappro Locale Gen Ed Classroom P=82% Eg=35% P=5% Eg=10% P=5% Eg=25% P=10% Eg=25 % TutoringP=91% Eg=60% P=5% Eg=20% P=0% Eg=5% P=0% Eg=5% Peer Referenced Behavior Observation: Momentary Time Sampling 15 second intervals: Egbert vs Peers

102 Reschly RTI102 Systematic Data Collection Results Work completion-Gen Ed Classroom Egbert=40%; Peers=90% Work completion-Tutoring Egbert=60%; Peers=95% Non-Compliance (event recording) General classroom=5 per day Tutoring=2 per day Parents=5 per day

103 Reschly RTI103 Egbert: PS Discrepancies and Goals Educationally Relevant Discrepancies? Reading-ORF and Decoding Classroom and Tutoring, interfering behaviors Non-compliance-observed in general classroom, tutoring, and home Is There Justification for Intense Interventions?

104 Reschly RTI104 Stage II Analysis of Problem and Intervention Development Goals Determine goal for change in educational performance, including academic skills or behavior Analyze the conditions related to the behavior Skills vs. Performance Problem, or both Develop an instructional or behavioral intervention to address the behavior Determine the requirements for the intervention

105 Reschly RTI105 Nature of Problem: Skills, Performance or Both? Skills problems, cannot do Never observed to do the behavior Lacks prerequisite skills Motivation seems strong, is trying Must teach behaviors Modeling Teacher and student(s) perform behavior Student performs with feedback Student prompted and reinforced in natural environment

106 Reschly RTI106 Nature of Problem: Skills, Performance or Both? Performance problems can do but wont or does not Variable performance levels, does sometimes Clearly knows the behavior Motivation seems low Consequences (reinforcement, response cost) Enhance reinforcement for appropriate beh Eliminate reinforcement for non-compliance Ehance cues that prompt appropriate behavior

107 Reschly RTI107 Nature of Problem: Skills, Performance or Both? Emotional Regulation Problems Often accompanied by strong emotions Triggers Full behavioral sequence occurs once triggered Instruction and Performance Awareness of triggers Skill alternatives, alternative methods to cope Modeling, self-modeling, practice alternatives Cognitive behavioral counseling

108 Reschly RTI108 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals Confirm problem and set goal(s) Questions: Analyze data with a graph or table Questions: Goals for change based on peer, developmental norms, setting requirements Questions: Realistic but challenging goals Effects of ambitious goals Summary statement and confirmation

109 Reschly RTI109 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals Analysis of Conditions Questions: Setting, notice anything? Questions: Setting, what is being done? Teaching? Questions: Consequences, what happened? Questions: Skills vs Performance Problems Can do but wont do Cannot do Summary and confirmation

110 Reschly RTI110 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals Intervention development Questions: Intervention strategy (principle on which intervention is developed) Questions: Intervention tactics (how intervention is implemented in a real setting Questions: Practical matters about the intervention Summarize and confirm

111 Reschly RTI111 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals Plan implementation and support Questions: Practical requirements Questions: Procedural matters Questions: Continued data collection (graph, support) Questions: Fidelity of intervention implementation Follow-up arrangements and trouble shooting (phone, )

112 Reschly RTI112 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals Group activity: Implement a problem solving protocol to accomplish the goals regarding problem analysis and intervention. (see interview schedule)

113 Reschly RTI113 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals Activity: Three per group Initial concerns Danny misses many classes, is often tardy, does not complete work, and is failing tests.

114 Reschly RTI114 Problem Analysis Interview and Goals Activity: Three per group Change Roles One asks questions and summarizes information One responds One observes, records accomplishment of goals

115 Reschly RTI115 Functional Analysis of Behaviors Strategies (DuPaul, G. J., et al. (1997) Interventions for students with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: One size does not fit all. School Psychology Review, 26, ) Interviewing significant participants Descriptive information, define behaviors, tentative goals Use parents or teachers problem descriptions Behavioral consultation interview protocols Generally effective with most classroom-based disruptive behaviors Less effective with high impact-low intensive behaviors Less effective with severe behavior problems, e.g., self-injurious behaviors

116 Reschly RTI116 Functional Analysis of Behaviors (DuPaul et al. Descriptive Analysis Systematic classroom observation (or other situation) Develop hypotheses about function of behavior Identify variables that seem to occasion and maintain behaviors: Identify antecedent, situational, and consequences of behavior Hypothesis: Student appears to be off task when task demands are more challenging

117 Reschly RTI117 Functional Analysis of Behaviors (DuPaul et al. Experimental Analysis of Behavior Validate hypotheses Systematically change environment and observe effects Common functions of behaviors: Avoid, Escape,

118 Reschly RTI118 Egbert Problem Analysis IF-THEN Statements If this is done, then Egbert will ______. If these conditions are established, then Egbert will ________________. Intervene with each educationally significant discrepancy Implement powerful intervention principles from the instructional design and behavior change literatures

119 Reschly RTI119 Egbert: Problem Solving Problem Analysis Interpretation: Egbert exhibits Skills deficits (poor reading fluency, poor decoding) and Performance problems (inattentive, disruptive classroom behavior, non-compliance at school and home). Emotional regulation is adequate

120 Reschly RTI120 Egbert: Problem Solving Intervention Goals Inattentiveness, physically negative, inappropriate locale, and noisy will improve by 5% per week until peer averages are attained. Non-compliance at school and home will be reduced to no more than 1 per day

121 Reschly RTI121 Egbert Problem Solving: Intervention Plan Development in Classroom Explicit expectations for behavior Sign system designed by psychologist and teacher. 3x5 card at desk with symbols for classroom rules Teacher monitoring with non-verbal cues and appropriately delivered praise and encouragement Teacher awarded points for on task behavior using tick marks on a 3x5 card Activity reinforcers in school and home used to consequate improved behavior Premack Principle Applies to all of us Naturally occurring events that we choose versus those which we avoid or put off

122 Reschly RTI122 Egbert Problem Solving: Intervention Plan Development: Non Compliance Non-compliance defined in school and home Instruction given in appropriate ways to make requests Specific behavior, not several behaviors Clear message Defined wait time School-Home Note, daily exchange, Level of compliance defined Consequences at school and home for compliance Choices regarding consequences

123 Reschly RTI123 Reschlys Favorite Principles #1 Positive reinforcement Defined by its effect on behavior Behavior increases? The event following the behavior is a positive reinforcer Not defined by how it looks or how we judge the consequence Reinforcers differ by individuals, unpredictable Good guesses, but have to check effects

124 Reschly RTI124 Baseline$1000. Incentive Incentives for College Professors Grant Writing

125 Reschly RTI125 Reschlys Favorites Key Principle #2 Contingent Attention, Encouragement, Praise Specific, name behavior (vs. unconditional general comments), focus on behaviors to be maintained or increased Positive body language and non-verbals Ratio in classrooms of 4:1 (elsewhere?) Given individually Given to groups Catch students being good

126 Reschly RTI126 Reschlys Favorites: Principle #3: Procedures for Corrective Feedback Effects of loud and soft reprimands in classroom Delivering reprimands Close proximity Soft voice, devoid of emotion, whisper if possible Name specific behavior to be decreased in matter of fact tone Name specific appropriate behavior to replace inappropriate behavior Encourage change of behavior Reinforce behavior change

127 Reschly RTI127 Reschlys Favorites: Principle #4 Premack Principle (Activity Reinforcers) High probability behaviors serve as reinforcers for low probability behaviors Doing what you need to do can be reinforced by doing what you like to do Finish work Then Socialize Balance checkbook/pay bills Then TV Complete graph Then surf web

128 Reschly RTI128 Reschlys Favorites: Principle #5 Response Cost (requires reinforcers) Withdrawing or removing reinforcers contingent on inappropriate behavior Teen-agers Refuse homeworkLoss of privileges Break curfewGrounded Fail classesLoss of automobile Younger Children Access to TV, Bedtime, etc.

129 Reschly RTI129 Baseline Response Cost RC

130 Reschly RTI130 Reschlys Favorite Principles #6 Modeling Observational learning, vicarious consequences Punishment story Adult models (teacher model appropriate behaviors) Effects of models Peer models Self-modeling via videotape

131 Reschly RTI131 Reschlys Favorite Principles # 7 Progress monitoring with formative evaluation Large effect size Graphs, time series analysis, decisions rules Implement intervention, change it Applicable to individuals, small groups, classrooms, schools, school districts, states, ? Nation ?

132 Reschly RTI132 Reschlys Favorite Principles #8 Behavior Contracts, e.g., Home-School Notes Negotiated among all parties Written If-then statements Focus on increasing positive behaviors Consequences at school and home Most positive reinforcers for middle and high school students are outside of school Depends of competent parents

133 Reschly RTI133 Reschlys Favorite Principles #9 Self-monitoring, self-regulation Define behaviors Method of recording Consequences related to meeting goals Teaches responsibility Many applications (on task, studying, weight control) Depends on effective consequences Self-reinforcement

134 Reschly RTI134 Reschlys Favorite Principles #10 Differential reinforcement of OTHER or INCOMPATIBLE Behaviors Reinforce appropriate replacement behaviors Strengthens behavior as well as weakens inappropriate behavior Teaches appropriate behavior related to developmental tasks Avoids negative consequences

135 Reschly RTI135 Problem Solving Stage III: Intervention Implementation Assist with intervention Prompts and props-whats needed Fidelity checks at least weekly Revisions due to practical exigencies Monitor progress frequently (consider the measure, etc. and graph results) Design and implement changes in the intervention when goals are not met Provide feedback to teacher or parent

136 Reschly RTI136 Graphing Why is graphing important? Ensures that data will be considered Often easily to interpret Tangible reflection of program effects Provides the basis for changing programs if results miss goals Graphing + program changes produces best effects; + reinforcement=1.0 SD effect size

137 Reschly RTI137 What is Fidelity (Treatment Integrity) Degree to which something is implemented as designed, intended, planned: Examples, SLD classification criteria, note options Screening three times per year Delivery of more intense instruction for students not on course to reach benchmarks Progress monitoring with formative evaluation All involve multiple components Can they be implemented with good fidelity, and How

138 Reschly RTI138 Factors Related to Integrity Complexity of treatments Time required to implement treatment Materials and resources required for the treatment Perceived and actual effectiveness of treatment: Credibility Number of treatment agents Expertise of treatment agents Motivation of treatment agents

139 Reschly RTI139 Producing Greater Fidelity Manualized treatments, e.g., Problem solving protocols or 3-Tier Reading Sp Ed is form-driven: Use to improve fidelity Components specified, Operations defined Permanent products generated Comparisons of products to components and operations Formative evaluation procedures implemented with subsequent components, operations, and permanent products specified

140 Reschly RTI140 Determining Fidelity Direct assessment, observation with feedback Noell and Witt data, acceptable to teachers Indirect assessment, permanent products Work completed, work accuracy Accomplishment of goals, progress Progress monitoring indicates success Self-report with a checklist of components

141 Reschly RTI141 Stage IV: Evaluation and Decision Making: Goals Determine success of intervention Analyze trend in results Analyze change from initial levels Analyze changes as a result of changes in the intervention Determine sustainability of change Determine need to address other problems Determine need for further problem solving Consider special education eligibility and need as appropriate

142 Reschly RTI142 Problem Evaluation Interview Determine success Questions: attaining goals (view graph) Questions: trends Questions: what is needed to produce success for this student?

143 Reschly RTI143 Problem Evaluation Plan continuation/modification Questions: intervention continuation Questions: data collection/monitoring Questions: Maintenance and generalization Inquire about other problems

144 Reschly RTI144 Availability of General Education Interventions Prior to Referral PrePost 1. Intervention prior to 25% 98% eligibility determination 2. Behavioral definition 22%75% 3. Direct measure-baseline 20% 75% 4. Systematic intervention plan 25% 86% 5. Results compared to Baseline 22% 68% Self-report Data

145 Table 3: Comparisons of Pre and Post Problem Solving Initial Interviews Met/Partially Met Not Met Chi-Square/p Pre Post Pre Post Behavior Definition 42% 75% 58% 25% 10.1** Tentative Strength 30% 89% 70% 11% 32.5** Antecedent Conditions 57% 83% 43% 17% 7.9* Consequent Conditions 60% 89% 40% 11% 21.9** Situational Conditions 63% 92% 37% 8% 15.4** Summary Statements 65% 75% 35% 26% 3.2 Tentative Goal 23% 70% 77% 30% 26.7** Data Collection 37% 86% 63% 14% 39.3** Note: *=p<.05; **=p<.01

146 Table 4: Goal Attainment and Quality Indices During the Plan Development Yes No Examine Baseline Data75% 25% Strength of Behavior and Goal Identified100% 0% Antecedent Conditions Analyzed 50% 50% Situational Conditions Analyzed 59% 41% Consequent Conditions Analyzed 59% 41% Plan Strategy Identified 86% 41% Type of Problem: Skills Only 5% Performance Only 71% Both 24%

147 Table 5: Goal Attainment During the Plan Implementation Stage Yes No 1. Training Provided to the Consultee 41%59% 2. Contacts with Consultee During Plan Implementation 68% 32% 3. Plan Revisions Made 28% 72%

148 Table 6: Goal Attainment and Quality Indices During the Plan Evaluation Stage Yes No Results Compared to Baseline 68% 32% Elements of Plan Continued 63% 37% Consultee Indicated Plan Could be Used with Others 67% 33% Maintenance/Generalization Planning 46% 54%

149 Table 7: Outcomes of Problem Solving Interventions Consultee Judgment Consultee Judgment a Confirmed by Records and Graphs b Goal Status N % N % Goals Met112 53% 94 45% Largely Met 27 13% 24 11% Partially Met 53 25% 34 16% Not Met c 19 9% 59 28% a Consultee judgment results were based on consultees conclusions regarding goal attainment. b Judgment and data results were based on consultees conclusions and the submission of graphs or other records confirming goal attainment status. c Forty cases were re-coded as goals not met because tangible evidence confirming consultee judgment was not submitted with the case records.

150 Table 12: Correlations of Composite Variables and Short-Term Case Outcomes Problem Plan Outcome: Consultee Analysis Implementation Judgment Confirmed Composite Composite by Data Prob Ident. Composite Prob. Anal Composite Plan Implem. Composite.46 Multiple R=.58

151 Table 13: Summary of Long-Term Target Behavior Outcomes Number and Percent OutcomeOf Cases Target Behavior No Longer a Problem10 (12%) Target Behavior Much Improved28 (35%) Target Behavior Somewhat Improved28 (35%) Target Behavior Same as Baseline11 (14%) Target Behavior Somewhat Worse Than Baseline 2 (2%) Target Behavior Much Worse Than Baseline 2 (2%)

152 Table 14: Correlations Among Plan Evaluation, Follow-Up, and Long-Term Outcomes Maintenance/ Follow-upLong-Term Generalization Consultation Outcome 1. Good Data.19.24*.39*** 2. Maintenance/ Generalization.51***.44*** 3. Follow-up Consultation.28* Multiple R=.52

153 Summary and Implications 1. Continuing education in problem solving consultation is needed and should include (a) opportunities to observe skills, (b) procedures to accomplish critical goals of each stage of problem solving, and (c) role playing with feedback 2. Continuing education must have follow-up opportunities to implement problem solving skills, with support and feedback 3. System support, expectations, and demands must be established to ensure the implementation of new skills.

154 Reschly RTI154 Summary and Conclusions, cont. 4. All problem solving stages are important to successful outcomes. Problem identification alone is not sufficient. 5. The variables that are most important to initial case outcome are not significantly related to long-term outcomes. Systematic programming for maintenance and generalization of behavioral change and continuing contracts between the consultant and consultee are predictive of positive long-term outcomes.

155 Intervention Strategies: Key Know Well and Have Used 1. Contingency Contracting61% 2. Positive Reinforcement92% 3. Negative Reinforcement47% 4. DRL 9% 5. DRO12% 6. Extinction36% 7. IRL 3% (Lie item) 8. Fading31%

156 Intervention Strategies: Key Know Well and Have Used 9. Time Out74% 10. Premack Principle32% 11. Modeling67% 12. Cognitive Behavior33% 13. Lorenz Effect 0% (lie item) 14. Negative Practice 6% 15. Overcorrection18% 16. Good Behavior Game13%

157 Intervention Strategies: Key Know Well and Have Used 17. Response Cost33% 18. Systematic Desensitization15% 19. Token Economy61% 20. Reinforcement Bundling 4% (Lie item) 21. Relaxation Training29% 22. Punishment46% 23. Shaping47%

158 Reschly RTI158 Decision Making re Behavior Tier III consideration, perhaps sp ed Trend, continuation of trend, outcomes in relation to classroom and school expectations Gaps compared to peers, development norms, setting requirements Interference with normal classroom/school activities and goals Resources needed to produce success Need for special education: Specify what and why Expected benefits of special education

159 Reschly RTI159 Determining Eligibility for Emotional Disturbance Using RTI Full and individual evaluation that is comprehensive Meet three prongs Eligible according to disability classification criteria Eligible due to adverse impact of disability on attainment of an appropriate education Eligible due to need for special education (specially designed instruction and related services)

160 Reschly RTI160 What is a Comprehensive Evaluation Note Federal Regulation, (g) The child is assessed in all areas related to the suspected disability, including, if appropriate, health, vision, hearing, social and emotional status, general intelligence, academic performance, communicative status, and motor abilities. (34 C.F.R Meaning? Note if appropriate

161 Reschly RTI161 Federal Requirements Multiple domains must be considered Screening in multiple domains followed by, if appropriate, …… If potential educationally related deficits are suggested by screening, THEN In depth assessment in the domain Principle: If screening suggests adequate functioning, then in depth assessment is wasteful and irrelevant

162 Reschly RTI162 Comprehensive Evaluation: After Tier II DomainScreeningIf depth, if appropriate Possible Decision HealthNurse, recordsReferral MD Eval Medical condition VisionNurse, recordsOphthalmologyVisual Impairment HearingNurse, recordsOtological, Audiologist Hearing Impairment IntelligenceRecords, Tch ratings, ach. tests Psychologist, Genl Intell Functioning (GIF) Sig subaverage GIF, possible MR, possible sp ed

163 Reschly RTI163 DomainScreeningIn Depth, If Appropriate Possible Decision ReadingClass work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed MathClass work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed Adaptive Behavior Records, Tch checklist Observations Parent interview Possible eligibility for MR Written LanguageClass work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed Comprehensive Evaluation: After Tier II

164 Reschly RTI164 DomainScreeningIn depth, if appropriate Possible Decision CommunicationTchr Observations, Sp/L screening Sp/L eval, tests, obs. Sp/Lang need, therapy BehaviorTchr judgment, checklists, nomination Observation, Interview, Indiv intervention Emotional Regulation Tchr judgment, checklists, nomination Observation, Interview, Indiv intervention More intense intervention, possible sp ed MotorPhysical, Tch, PE observations Medical evaluation More intense intervention, possible sp ed Comprehensive Evaluation: Post Tier II

165 Reschly RTI165 Emotional disturbance is defined as follows: 34 C.F.R (a)(4) (IDEA, 2006) (i) Emotional disturbance means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a childs educational performance: (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. (ii) Emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section.

166 Reschly RTI166 Mental Health Needs vs Educational Disabilities Overlap, but are not the same: statistical fallacies Consider the 3 prongs of eligibility Anxiety disorders and depression, Adverse impact on education? Need for specially designed instruction? Needs for mental health services not same as need for special education Consider, anxious or depressed kids in typical classroom for E/BD?

167 Reschly RTI167 DSM-IV TR and IDEA ED Eligibility DSM concepts inform but do not drive IDEA DSM diagnosis does not automatically mean IDEA eligibility Reported Prevalence of Mental Health Problems Depends on: Definition DurationChronic vs. Temporary Kind of Need-counseling, behavior supports, sp ed program

168 Reschly RTI168 Kinds of ED Recognized in DSM IV Externalizing Problems (Under controlled behavior) Internalizing Problems (Over controlled behavior) Special Syndromes (Autism)

169 Reschly RTI169 Focus of Programs School Programs focus on externalizing disorders Oppositional Defiant Disorder Conduct Disorder Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Community Mental Health Greater emphasis on internalizing problems Schools need greater attention to internalizing problems

170 Reschly RTI170 Principles in ED Decision-Making RTI: Unresponsive or insufficiently responsive to high quality interventions, etc. Multiple methods of data collection. RIOT Multiple settings, school settings, home, playground Multiple informants, child, teacher(s), peers, parents Persistence over time Convergent validity Explanations for inconsistent evidence

171 Reschly RTI171 Convergent Validity Principle Consider broad data from different sources, settings, and methods Overcome biases of single method, source, or setting Include all relevant data Consistent results vs Inconsistent results Inconsistent: Seek further data, reconcile differences Consistent: More confidence in decision Match decision to convergence of the data

172 Reschly RTI172 Data Collection for Eligibility Decision Making RIOT Principle Multiple Informants Multiple Settings Convergent Validity Principle

173 Reschly RTI173 Data Collection Methods: RIOT Principle Review records (what to review, how, possible outcomes Interview relevant participants (child, parent, teacher) Observe behavior (based on referral questions and key settings) Test, i. e., present tasks directly to the student and interpret performance See later activity

174 Reschly RTI174 Data Collection: Sources of Information Child Teachers and other school officials Parent Peers (sometimes)

175 Reschly RTI175 Data Collection: Relevant Settings Classrooms Outside of school, e.g., adaptive behavior and MR Other school settings

176 Reschly RTI176 Applying RIOT Principle BehaviorReviewInterviewObserveTest Aggress- ive Behav Depress- ion

177 Reschly RTI177 Prevention of Special Education Presidents Commission (2002) Values and Outcomes: Efficacy of special education is not universally documentedlowered expectations, reduced academic press Later educational opportunities typically are better if learning and behavior problems can be resolved in early grades Probable later career opportunities are better if students can complete general education programs Prevention and early intervention enhance positive outcomes and expand educational and career opportunities

178 Reschly RTI178 RTI in Special Education Programs Special education programs should be, Scientifically based Matched to student need Progress monitoring against goals (exit criteria) Formative evaluation Goal of passing benchmark tests, exiting Current special education programs???? Progress monitoring graphs????

179 Reschly RTI179 Improving IEPs Connect individual evaluation with IEP with Special Education Interventions Critical IEP Components (relevant to the intervention) (not an exhaustive list) Present Levels of Educational and Behavioral Performance Measurable Annual Goals Specifically designed instruction provided by qualified personnel Participation in the general education curriculum and state wide assessments

180 Reschly RTI180 Measurable Annual Goals Goals are described in objective, measurable terms Goals are stated in terms of the general education curriculum Rate of progress specified, graphed Skills specified Progress compared to goals Interventions changed or goals changed depending on progress

181 Reschly RTI181 Specially Designed Instruction Uniqueness of special education is NOT in different methodologies BUT IS IN Intensity, frequency of progress monitoring and formative evaluation, precision of goals, and specificity of instruction Intensity involves time, group size Specificity of instruction, thoroughness of skills specification, intentional teaching, integration with other skills Application of explicit, systematic instructional methods

182 Reschly RTI182 Special Education Final Remarks Special education can be effective Set of services brought to students, not a place Integrated with general education curriculum Strong accountability Implementation of scientifically based interventions with Specification of goals Frequent progress monitoring Formative evaluation Exit criteria

183 Reschly RTI183 Summary Moving from where we are to where we need to be is a huge challenge for the new century BUT I Believe The Best Is Yet To Be

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