2Agenda The Shift The 3 Tiers Common Core Expectations Publishers’ CriteriaUse of Word ListsStrategy InstructionAssessment
3Shift: Academic Vocabulary Rationale: Teachers need to spend more time on academic vocabulary(Tier 2).Implications for Instruction:Tier 2 vocabulary (or academic vocabulary) exposes students to words that transcend all content areas, including multi-meaning words.Tier 3 vocabulary is domain- or discipline-specific and should be encountered in the content-area classroom in an authentic context.Be sure to have a thorough discussion to differentiate between tier 2 and tier 3 words.
4Engage NY Video Shift : Academic Vocabulary http://vimeo.com/27077248 As you watch the video, think about the implications for this shift.What does it mean to teachers in grades 3-5?Grab 2 Post It notes to capture your thoughtsShare/categorize themes in your groupOn chart paper, place post-its together based on category. For example, low income student and gifted students go together on a chart under “who benefits” and academic vocabulary and domain specific vocabulary could be together under “types of words.”Mention that categorizing words is a good vocabulary strategy to do with students.
5Why We Should Teach Vocabulary Learning is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge.Vocabulary knowledge is highly correlated with overall reading achievement.Vocabulary deficiencies are a primary cause of academic failure in Grades 3–12.Vocabulary knowledge affects a student’s ability to participate fully in both social and academic activities.Significant disparities exist in word knowledge among students.Access Center
6The Matthew Effect (Stanovich, 1986) They read lessthan their peerswho are strongerreaders.They do notexpand theirvocabulariesand backgroundknowledge.Their limitedinterferewith theircomprehension.Childrenwho fail at earlyreading, begin todislike reading.comprehensioncontributes toreading failure.“The rich get richer and the poor get poorer.”
7Words Heard in a 100-Hour Week Words Heard in a 5,200 Hour Year Why Students Struggle With Vocabulary Meaningful Differences (Hart & Risley, 1995)Words Heard per HourWords Heard in a 100-Hour WeekWords Heard in a 5,200 Hour YearWords Heard in 4 YearsWelfare61662,0003 million13 millionWorking Class1,251125,0006 million26 millionProfessional2,153215,00011 million45 million
8All words are not created equal… From Appendix A, CCSS:Beck, McKeown, & Kucan (2002, 2008) describe three levels, or tiers, of words in terms of the words’ commonality (more to less frequently occurring) and applicability (broader to narrower). p. 33Source clarification: Appendix A page 33 in the Common Core State Standards.
9Beck & McKeown (1985) – 3 Tiered System for Selecting Target Words Tier 3 – domain- specific, content area words – (i.e. simile, metaphor, photosynthesis, peninsula)Tier 2 – including multi-meaning, but not only multi-meaning words; tier two refers to words that are useful in understanding a variety of texts across contents(i.e. examine, inquire, solution, protection, temporary)Tier 1- everyday words (big, house, mother)
10Selection Criteria for Instructional Vocabulary Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3DescriptionBasic words that most children know before entering schoolWords that appear frequently in texts and for which students already have conceptual understandingUncommon words that are typically associated with a specific domainExamplesclock, baby, happysinister, fortunate, adaptisotope, peninsula, bucolic(Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, 2008)
11Tier 3 words are often defined in the texts Plate tectonics (the study of the movement of the sections of Earth’s crust) adds to Earth’s story….In 1975, he coined the term fractal for shapes that repeat themselves within an object.The carpenters then installed pieces of wood, called lagging, ….Strict laws—called “Jim Crow” laws—enforced a system of white supremacy ….Oregon DOEThese are words that students may work with in content areas to develop deeper understanding, but they are still considered tier three.
12Tier 2 (CCSS/Academic) Words: Are critical to understanding academic texts, both literary and informationalAppear in all sorts of texts and are highly generalizableRequire deliberate effort to learn, unlike Tier 1 wordsAre far more likely to appear in written texts than in speech.Often represent subtle or precise ways to say otherwise relatively simple thingsAre seldom heavily scaffold by authors or teachers, unlike Tier 3 wordsBeck, et alFull concept knowledge – knowledge of word families and multiple word meanings, ability to discriminate between similar words, can extend the definition to related concepts.From Oregon:Explain that it is important to explicitly teach key academic words because students are unlikely to pick them up from spoken language, in contrast to Tier 1 words; and authors are unlikely to define them within the text or include them in a glossary, in contrast to Tier 3 words.For instance, the facilitator might say,“Because Tier 3 words are obviously unfamiliar to most students, contain the ideas necessary to a new topic, and are recognized as both important and specific to the subject area in which they are instructing students, teachers often define Tier 3 words prior to students encountering them in a text, and then reinforce their acquisition throughout a lesson. Unfortunately, this is not typically the case with Tier 2 words, which by definition are not unique to a particular discipline and as a result are not the clear responsibility of a particular content area teacher.What is more, many Tier 2 words are far less well defined by contextual clues in the texts in which they appear and are far less likely to be defined explicitly within a text than are Tier 3 words. Yet Tier Two words are frequently encountered in complex written texts and are particularly powerful because of their wide applicability to many sorts of reading.The Catch 22 is that since most of these words are acquired through reading, struggling readers don’t acquire them at the same rate as proficient readers. Then, their lack of knowledge of these words, in turn, discourages them even more from reading grade-appropriate material.So, teachers need to be alert to the presence of key Tier 2 words and determine which ones need careful attention.”
13Criteria for selecting words to teach Importance of the word for understanding the textWhat does the word choice bring to the meaning of the text? (E.g., precision, specificity?)General utility of the wordIs it a word that students are likely to see often in other texts? Are there multiple meanings?Will it be of use to students in their own writing?Students’ prior knowledge of the word and the concept(s) to which it relatesHow does the word relate to other words, ideas, or experiences that the students know or have been learning?Are there opportunities for grouping words together to enhance understanding of a concept?Beck, et alExplain that these criteria can help teachers select academic words to include in explicit instruction.For instance, the facilitator might say,“So many words – so little time! Here are several criteria to help teachers select high-value words on which to focus instructional time.The first consideration is the importance or centrality of the word to understanding a text under study. What does it convey that another, similar word would not? Precision? Specificity? A nuanced description?For instance, the piece about fractals excerpted in Slide 6 has many academic words one could teach in addition to the domain-specific words. So, the teacher will want to select the general terms that are most central to this particular text. Words like structure, pattern, generate, and infinite are more important to understanding this text than are "IBM fellow" or conceived.The second consideration is how useful this word will be to the readers or writers as they approach other texts and other contexts. Is it a word likely to appear frequently across content areas and subjects? Does it have multiple meanings, and are students likely to encounter it used differently than it is here? For instance, the word structure refers here to the arrangement of parts of physical objects in nature, but we can predict that students will encounter it as it is applied to the organization of any complex system. Students are likely to encounter the concept of structure across the curriculum -- in language and literature, biological and physical sciences, social sciences.”The third consideration is whether the word holds the instructional promise of rich connections, both to the students’ experiences and prior knowledge and to other key concepts or groups of words. It might in this case be an opportunity to look at roots and prefixes, for instance, using students’ knowledge of construct to extend to construe, Reconstruction, obstruct, and others.”
14How do I determine that a word is TIER 2? Is this a generally useful word?Does the word relate to other words and ideas that students know or have been learning?Is the word useful in helping students understand text?If you answer yes to all three questions, it is a Tier 2 word. If not, it is probably a Tier 3 word.Explain chart for activity that comes next. Chart from Beck et al as seen on a previous slide
15Try out time… Read through the text, then choose: 3 – domain-specific words (Tier 3)2 – general academic (Tier 2)1 – question/concernUse Hibernation text and the Tier 2 determination chart (on the previous slide) to complete the tasks on this slide.Strategy The audience will be finding 3 Tier 3 words, 2 Tier 2 words and 1 question or concerns on a separate piece of paper or presenter can create an organizer.Document Number: BX
16Practice time… Read the excerpt from Volcanoes on the following slide. With a partner, use the Tier 2 determination chart to identify examples of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words.Volcanoes, Grades 4-5 Text Complexity Band, from Appendix A, ppRead volcanoes excerpt on following slide.Use the Tier 2 determination chart to decide which words you would teach students.Work in partners.
17In early times, no one knew how volcanoes formed or why they spouted red-hot molten rock. In modern times, scientists began to study volcanoes. They still don’t know all the answers, but they know much about how a volcano works. Our planet is made up of many layers of rock. The top layers of solid rock are called the crust. Deep beneath the crust is the mantle, where it is so hot that some rock melts. The melted, or molten, rock is called magma. Volcanoes are formed when magma pushes its way up through the crack in the Earth’s crust. This is called a volcanic eruption. When magma pours forth on the surface, it is called lava.You may want to copy this slide for participants.DO NOT ADVANCE TO NEXT SLIDE UNTIL PARTICIPANTS HAVE FOUND TIER TWO WORDS.
18Tier 2 WordsIn early times, no one knew how volcanoes formed or why they spouted red-hot molten rock. In modern times, scientists began to study volcanoes. They still don’t know all the answers, but they know much about how a volcano works.Our planet is made up of many layers of rock. The top layers of solid rock are called the crust. Deep beneath the crust is the mantle, where it is so hot that some rock melts. The melted, or molten, rock is called magma.Volcanoes are formed when magma pushes its way up through the crack in the Earth’s crust. This is called a volcanic eruption. When magma pours forth on the surface, it is called lava.These are the possible tier two words.Tier two words are in red.DO NOT ADVANCE TO NEXT SLIDE UNTIL PARTICPANTS HAVE FOUND TIER THREE WORDS.
19Tier 2 and Tier 3 WordsIn early times, no one knew how volcanoes formed or why they spouted red-hot molten rock. In modern times, scientists began to study volcanoes. They still don’t know all the answers, but they know much about how a volcano works.Our planet is made up of many layers of rock. The top layers of solid rock are called the crust. Deep beneath the crust is the mantle, where it is so hot that some rock melts. The melted, or molten, rock is called magma.Volcanoes are formed when magma pushes its way up through the crack in the Earth’s crust. This is called a volcanic eruption. When magma pours forth on the surface, it is called lava.Tier Three words are in green.
20Publishers’ Criteria 3-12 Excerpt (Tier 2 words):Often, curricula ignore these words and pay attention only to the technical words that are unique to a discipline. Materials aligned with the Common Core State Standards should help students acquire knowledge of general academic vocabulary because these are the words that will help them access a wide range of complex texts.
21Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges Old LexileLexile Ranges Aligned to CCR ExpectationsK - 1N/A2 - 34 - 56 – 89 - 1011 – CCRStudents need regular practice with complex text and its academic vocabulary. Vocabulary is the key to accessing complex text. Note changes in levels for each grade level.Visit Lexile.com for the latest up to date changes and research.[Grade bands reflect the 2012 Revised Appendix A of the CCSS]
22SBAC on Vocabulary: Linking Assessment and Instruction Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Item Specifications (pp )Developing vocabulary questions in assessments requires a focus on Tier 2 words at all grade levels. The standards have a special focus on the academic vocabulary common to complex texts in all disciplines, and assessments should share that focus in its treatment of vocabulary.Visit the Smarter Balanced website for more information regarding vocabulary.SBAC Specifications
23A Word on Word Lists: Caution Words should not be learned in isolationStudents need to hear them, read them, speak about them, write about them, including writing their own definitionsThey need context (Note: p. 25 CCSS Language Standards)Remember: Lexile levels are being ramped up; therefore, so is vocabularyWord Walls should be used, not just posted.
24Common Core Standards Emphasize Vocabulary Development Excerpt from, “Literacy Implementation Guidance for the ELA CCSS”Emphasis on vocabulary within the CCS is unusual in its placement, and consequently may be confusing with respect to instructional implications.Usually vocabulary teaching is explicitly linked to reading comprehension, but the CCSS provide this explicit emphasis within the Language strand.IRA, 2012Vocabulary will be found in the language strand; teachers should be aware of this and not just use the reading standards to address vocabulary.
25Language Strand: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CCRL4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful words parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.CCRL5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.Where vocabulary is located in the CCSS.
26Language Strand: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CCRL6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.Note: Vocabulary is not just found in the Language Strand but also in reading, writing, speaking, and listening.Depending on audience, further investigation into grade specific standards may be necessary.
27An Integrated Approach CCRR4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.CCRW4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.Writing Standard Four is where the writing process is addressed.Reminder- that these are anchor standards.
28An Integrated Approach – Cont’d. CCRSL1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.Vocabulary use assists in expressing ideas clearly and persuasively, both individually and as a part of a group.
29Careful Selection of Tier 2 Words In school settings, students can be explicitly taught a deep understanding of about 300 words each year.Divided by the range of content students need to know (e.g., math, science, history, literature), of these 300–350 words, roughly 60 words can be taught within one subject area each year.It is reasonable to teach thoroughly about eight to ten words per week.-- more at K-12 Teachers: Building Comprehension in the Common Core (Oregon)Explain that because relatively few vocabulary words will be taught explicitly in a year, the words need to be carefully selected.For instance, the facilitator might say,“Students can learn and retain a deep understanding of relatively few words in a school setting. In addition, instructional time is precious, so carefully selection of which general academic words to invest in is doubly important.”Note: Teaching 8-10 Tier 2 words a week is reasonable, while the students are still learning their Tier 3 content words as well.
30“…ultimately, our students are expected to develop as competent readers, writers, and thinkers in all academic disciplines.”Developing Readers in the Academic Disciplines, Doug Buehl
31Strategies for Tier 3 Words List-Group-Label After watching the video, share out two ways you can use the strategies from this video in the classroom.
32From the New to the Known This word is totally new to me.I’ve heard or seen this word, but I’m not sure what it means.I know one definition for this word. I could use this word in a sentence.I know several ways this word could be used.Words to use for an example: vigilant, crevice, archaic, beneath, dubious
33Best Guess and CheckThis strategy combines prediction and context to help students learn new words. First students guess the meaning. Then using the context in which the word is found, they make another prediction, which they check against the definition provided by you.
34Story ImpressionsUse words from a story to give an impression of some of the aspects of the story, such as setting, characters, etc.Students use the words to write the story as if they were the author.Share as a group.Then read selection to compare to author’s version.Go back to refine and clarify.Blachowicz & Fisher
35$2 Summary Academic Vocabulary Common Core Tier 2 explicit multiple meaninginstruction embedded authenticTier Publishers Criteria wordsword lists acquisitionSmarter BalancedLearning-Focused SolutionsUtilize the words to write a $2 summary.Each word is worth $.10 using some of the words write a summary of what you learned today about Academic Vocabulary.
36Suggested Follow-up Activities Work in grade level teams to analyze anthology vocabulary to categorize into Tier 2/Tier 3 vocabulary.Share identified vocabulary words through cross-grade level articulation.Utilize a vocabulary strategy discussed in this presentation. Share the strategy and results with your grade level team.