Presentation on theme: "Reschly RTI1 Response to Intervention in General, Remedial, and Special Education Daniel J. Reschly 615-708-7910 Delaware Department."— Presentation transcript:
Reschly RTI1 Response to Intervention in General, Remedial, and Special Education Daniel J. Reschly Delaware Department of Education May 7, 2007
Reschly RTI2 What To Do With Egbert?? 1st Grade, falling behind in reading Slow progress compared to peers Likely to miss benchmarks related to passing 3 rd Grade reading test Distractible, inattentive, disruptive, non- compliant Sound Familiar WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? Driven by Federal Legislation Consider NCLB and IDEIA
Reschly RTI3 What To Do With Egbert?? 9 th Grade, failing 3 of 5 classes at first 9 weeks Attendance is declining Homework non completion Poor performance on weekly or unit tests Defiant, distractible, inattentive, disruptive, non-compliant Sound Familiar WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? Driven by Federal Legislation Consider NCLB and IDEIA
Reschly RTI4 Egbert in the Traditional System Refer Egbert Preferral intervention (check a box) Comprehensive Evaluation-Battery of Tests, common battery? Assessment largely outside of the natural context Dubious generalizations from test behavior to classroom Eligibility assessment unrelated to intervention Team decision-making SLD diagnoses often inaccurate
5 PROBLEM SOLVING CHART Does the *%$# thing work? Dont mess with it! You Idiot! Did you mess with it? Does anyone else know? Will you catch hell? Hide it! You poor slob! Ignore it Can you blame somebody else? NO PROBLEM Yes No
Reschly RTI6 What Is Response to Intervention (RTI)? Scientifically-based instruction/interventions matched to student needs Formative evaluation including frequent progress monitoring in relation to benchmarks, with decision rules applied Decisions driven by student RTI, including genl ed instruction/intervention, remedial services/individual interventions, sp ed eligibility, placement, annual review and exit Implementation requires: Allocating (aligning) resources to deliver effective interventions that produce improved child outcomes
Reschly RTI7 RTI Model Differences Restricted vs Comprehensive System Wide LD Identification Do Tiers I and II, then traditional evaluation Or Use RTI in eligibility determination and in the design, implementation, and evaluation of IEPs Academic only or Academic and Behavior False dichotomies: Standard Protocol vs Problem Solving vs Recognition of Both Choices determined by nature of problem Use of both in many situations
Reschly RTI8 RESPONSE TO Intervention POLICY CONSIDERATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION Order at: Cost: $15 with discounts for large orders
Reschly RTI9 Purpose of the RTI Process Improve results in academic, behavioral, and emotional regulation domains, through High quality interventions Formative evaluation Student results drive decisions about needs and intensity of interventions Improve, eliminate disproportionate representation Identification of disabilities through procedures that are valid and connected to effective special ed interventions Improve special education results and increase exit from sp ed Prevention and early identification-intervention
Reschly RTI10 Why RTI? Dissatisfaction with ach. results Expensive programs with undocumented benefits, General Ed. Title I and Sp Ed Poor overall outcomes re: benchmark tests, graduate rates, early adult outcomes Overrepresentation in sp ed Disjointed programs across general, remedial and special ed.-compromised outcomes and wasted resources
Reschly RTI12 Special Education Placement Effects: High Incidence Disabilities Treatment/Intervention a Effect Size EMR/Special Classes (IQ 60-75) -.14 Special Classes (IQ 75-90) -.34 Resource for SLD and E/BD +.29 Traditional Placement Practices Have Weak Relationships to Outcomes Special Education as a Solution? Note: Effect size is expressed in SD units, analogous to a z-score
Reschly RTI13 Old Assumptions re: High Incidence Disabilities (SLD, MMR, E/BD) Disabilities Inherent in Individual?-BUT, Context and prevention are crucial Identify and Treat Underlying Causes-BUT, Failure of process training Prescribe Methods that Capitalize on Strengths and Avoid Weaknesses-BUT, Failure of Aptitude by Treatment Interaction in Research and Practice
Reschly RTI14 Old Assumptions, cont. Unique Treatment Methods and Teacher Training by Disability But, Same methods work for virtually all High Incidence I SWD, LD, ED, EMR IQ Essential to Accurate Classification-BUT Same kids found with problem solving processes and measures Identifying Disability and Sp Ed Placement Solves Problem Dubious Effects of Special Education
Reschly RTI15 Meaningfulness of Special Education High Incidence Categories (www.ideadata.org) Table 1-13, retrieved www.ideadata.org Category Prevalence Range Factor ofNotes MR: 0.4% (NJ) to 3.0% (WV) 7Xs (9 at 0.4) ED: 0.2% (AR) to 2.4% (DC) 12Xs (VT=2.0) LD: 2.2% (KY) to 7.7% (OK) 3Xs Sp/L: 0.5% (HI) to 4.3% (WV) 8Xs OHI: 0.5% (CA) to 2.4% (RI) 5Xs All: 8.9% (CO) to 15.9% (RI) 1.8Xs Notes: Child disability count as a percentage of the 6-17 population.
Reschly RTI16 Some things do not make sense
Reschly RTI17 Progression of Research, Policy, and Legal Requirements RESEARCH: Scientific research with practice demonstrations leading to POLICY: Multiple policy analyses in presented in prestigious reports leading to FEDERAL LAW: Multiple layers of Federal legal requirements leading to STATE LAW: Changes in state rules leading to SCALING UP: Scaling up efforts in states
Reschly RTI18 What Works? See Kavale (2005), Learning Disabilities, 13, and other sources TreatmentEffect Size Applied Behavior Analysis CBM+Graphing+Formative Evaluation + reinforcement Explicit Instruction and Problem Solving +.70 to 1.50 Comprehension Strategies Math Interventions +.60 to 1.10 Writing Interventions +.50 to.85
Reschly RTI19 Policy and Legal Influences NICHD LD Studies Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S. & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Panel Report LD Summit Researchers Recommendations (Bradley et al., 2002) Presidents Commission on Excellence in Special Education (2002) report, eports.html
Reschly RTI20 Commonalties in Policy Recommendations Accountability-Improved results for all students and better results are possible!! (Gloeckler) Integration of general, remedial, and sp ed through multiple tiers of intervention Scientifically-based interventions with problem solving Progress monitoring with formative evaluation Decisions at all levels driven by child response to intervention Abandon IQ-Achievement discrepancy in LD Identification
Reschly RTI21 Progression of Federal General and Special Education Legislation s To2000s Assistance Results [__________________________________________] ESEAEHA NCLB/ Rdg 1 st IDEA 2004 Procedures Outcomes Number Served Improvement
Reschly RTI22 Major Legal Themes (NCLB, IDEA) Scientifically-based instruction More frequent assessment, progress monitoring, formative evaluation Well integrated multiple tiers of Intervention Decisions driven by child responses to instruction-intervention in general, remedial, and special education Alignment of resources to enhance positive outcomes
Reschly RTI23 Changes in Legal Requirements IDEA (2004) (A) IN GENERAL.Notwithstanding section 607(b), when determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in section 602, a local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading comprehension, mathematical calculation, or mathematical reasoning.
Reschly RTI24 Response to Intervention (IDEA, 2004) (B) ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY.In deter- mining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as a part of the evaluation procedures described in paragraphs (2) and (3). Does response to intervention appear in the law?
Reschly RTI25 Final Regulation NEW AND SIGNIFICANT: (b must consider, as part of the evaluation described data that demonstrates that (1) Prior to, or as a part of the referral process, the child was provided appropriate high-quality, research-based instruction in regular education settings, consistent with section 1111(b)(8)(D) and (E) of the ESEA, including that the instruction was delivered by qualified personnel; and (2) Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, was provided to the child's parents.
Reschly RTI26 Prevention-Early Intervention LEA can use 15% of federal IDEA funds to support prevention and early identification- treatment Purpose: minimize over-identification and unnecessary sp ed referrals Provide academic and behavioral supports; and professional development re: early literacy and behavior MUST use the 15% if LEA has significant disproportionality
Reschly RTI27 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 5-10% 10-15% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual and Small Groups Intense, Prolonged Intervention Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual and Small Groups Intense, Prolonged Interventions Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) Standard protocol reading interventions Targeted Small Group or Individual Interventions Some students (at-risk) Targeted Individual Behavior Interventions 80-85% Universal Interventions Effective Academic In- struction Universal Interventions School-wide positive Behavior Effective classroom and Behavior management Multiple Tiers Implemented Through Progress Monitoring and Formative Evaluation (Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002) Enter a School-Wide Systems for Student Success
Reschly RTI28 Multi-Tiered Academic Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision Tier I: General Education: All students; Effective instruction, 80-85% at benchmarks Tier II: Standard Protocol and Problem Solving: (about 10 to 20 weeks) Small group and individualized interventions Decision Making: Continue Program, Modifications, Comprehensive Evaluation?? Tier III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction in General and/or Special education Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation
Reschly RTI29 Multi-Tiered Behavior Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision Level I: General Education : School wide positive discipline, effective classroom organization and management, teacher assistance teams Level II: Individualized Problem Solving re: Behavior: Targeted, intense individual interventions in general education Decision Making? Continue Program, Modifications, Comprehensive Evaluation Level III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction in General or Special education Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation
Reschly RTI30 Formative Evaluation Frequent assessment of progress Referenced to goals based on benchmarks toward passing state tests Decision rules regarding modification of goals or instructional programs All decisions about student needs and instructional intensity are based on child RTI
Reschly RTI31 Characteristics of Effective Formative Evaluation Measures Direct measures of skills Natural settings Efficient re: costs and time required Sensitive to small increments of growth in relevant skills Results can be graphed in relation to goals Reliable in terms of stability Valid re: relationship to broad indicators of competence Example: CBM oral reading fluency and reading comprehension
Reschly RTI32 Tier I: General Education, Universal Stage, Primary Prevention Academics and Behavior Scientifically-based Explicit instruction Systematic intervention Inter-related, reciprocal relationships, mutually supported Discuss separately here, but acknowledge the essential inter-relationship of academics and behavior
Reschly RTI33 Tier I: Academic Interventions Scientifically-based instruction in reading Curricula-content-Big ideas, e.g., reading Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic principles Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Study of IHEs pre-service preparation in rdg 14 of 72 taught all 5 components and many taught none, see
34 15% 11% 7% 11% 13% 43% IHEs and SBRR Five Components Sample N=72 5 Components 1.Phonemic 2.Alphabetic 3.Fluency 4.Vocabulary 5.Compre- hension Source N=11 N=8 N=5 N=8N=9 N=31 Components
Reschly RTI35 Tier I: Academic Interventions Teaching Methodology Explicit Instruction Modeling, guided practice, practice to automaticity, integration; You do it with feedback, You do it independently, You do it automatically Frequent responding with feedback, Brisk pace Systematic Instruction Sequential, Hierarchical Include all reading components each day Beat the odds teachers: _Kindergarten_Teachers.html _Kindergarten_Teachers.html
Reschly RTI36 Tier I: Assessment: Academics Routine Assessment of Progress Screen all students, begin in kindergarten; 3 times per year with appropriate early literacy measures More intense instruction and monitoring within classroom for students below trajectories toward passing state benchmark tests Grouping, instructional materials, time, paraprofessionals Pat Vadasy at U of WA Increase assessment to 2 Xs per month
Reschly RTI37 Reading Benchmarks (DIBELS) Age/GradeMeasure Fluency (FL)Criterion Winter KTGLetter Naming Fl Initial Sound Fl 25 sounds per minute (pm) Spring KTGPhoneme Seg35 sounds pm Winter 1 st gr. Spring 1 st gr. Spring 2 nd gr. Spring 3 rd gr. Nonsense WD Oral Rdg Fluency Oral Reg Fluency 50 sounds pm 40 wds pm 90 wds pm 110 wds pm
Reschly RTI38 KTG: Initial Sound Fluency Fall to January Yr. Benchmark: Winter KTG 25 sounds correct/min. New KTG Teacher and Traditional Instruction
Reschly RTI39 KTG: Initial Sound Fluency Fall to January Yr. Benchmark: Winter KTG 25 sounds correct/min. Experienced Teacher Direct Instruction
Reschly RTI40 Phoneme Seg. Fluency: Jan to May Yr. Benchmark: 35 correct New KTG Teacher and Traditional Instruction
Reschly RTI41 Phoneme Seg. Fluency: Jan to May Yr. Benchmark: May 35 per minute Experienced Teacher Direct Instruction
Reschly RTI42 Nonsense Word Fluency: Jan to May Yr. Benchmark: 25 correct per minute New KTG Teacher and Traditional Instruction
Reschly RTI43 Nonsense Word Fluency: Jan to May Yr. Benchmark: 25 correct per minute Experienced Teacher Direct Instruction
Reschly RTI44 KTG: Initial Sound Fluency Fall to January Yr. Benchmark: Winter KTG 25 sounds correct/min. Students needing greater Genl Ed monitoring and Interventions
Reschly RTI45 1 st Gr. Nonsense Word Fluency Benchmark: Winter First Grade 50 Words Per Minute ??
Reschly RTI46 Second Grade Oral Reading Fluency Benchmark: End of 1 st =42 WCM Winter=71 WCM End of 2 nd =100 WCM ??
Reschly RTI47 Behavioral Assessment and CBM Measures Focused on determination of change Formative evaluation critical Tied to effective practices and better outcomes Applications in general, remedial, and special education Identification of disabilities-integrates identification with treatment
Reschly RTI48 Why Behavior Assessment (including CBM ) Determine current levels in academics and behavior; degree of need Monitor progress, assess change Foundation for formative evaluation- improving interventions Determine success of interventions Decisions based in child response to interventions
Reschly RTI49 Foundations of CBM Deno & Mirkin (1977) Breakthrough Brief samples of behavior Use of oral reading fluency samples Production per unit of time Fluency and accuracy combined Words read correct per minute Math-digits correct Spelling-letters correct
Reschly RTI50 Prior Barriers to CBM Use Cumbersome for practitioners, developing own passages Conceptual issues: Passages from curriculum or generic passages? Teachers concerns about comprehension: Word calling?? Inertia; satisfaction with current practices IDEA: assessment of change not required
Reschly RTI51 Reading CBM Combines fluency (speed) and accuracy Broad range of competencies including Letter naming (Ktg) Sound identification (Ktg) Nonsense words or real word identification (Ktg to first grade) Oral reading fluency (mid first to high school Comprehension (maze, other methods)
Reschly RTI52 Importance of Standardized CBM Procedures Standardized meaning uniformity in administration, scoring, interpretation Prerequisite to use of data in Determining risk status within classroom or school Measuring change for individuals or groups Predicting later performance
Reschly RTI53 Oral Reading Fluency What is it? Reading aloud fluently and accurately from text. Why do it? Indicator of proficiency in reading that is sensitive to growth Highly correlated with performance on standardized tests and tests of comprehension Provides information that may be used to evaluate effects of instruction Word Calling Myth
Reschly RTI54 Administering Oral Reading Passages Essential Items -One student copy -One administration copy -Timer or stopwatch (make sure to time exactly 1 min) -Administration script
Reschly RTI55 Instructions to Child When I say please begin start reading aloud at the top of this page. Read across the page. [Demonstrate by pointing] Try to read each word. If you come to a word you dont know, Ill tell it to you. If you get to the end of the page, start over. Be sure to do your best reading. Are there any questions? [Pause] Please begin.
Reschly RTI56 Examiners Administration Rules After reading instructions to students, Start timer. If the student fails to say the first word of the passage after 3 sec., tell him/her the word and mark it incorrect. If the student stops or struggles with a word for 3 seconds, tell the student the word and mark it incorrect. If the student reaches the end of the page and does not continue, point to the first word and ask the student to start over. At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket after the last word and say, please stop.
Reschly RTI57 Scoring Rules Words must be pronounced correctly to be counted as correct (disregard if mispronunciations due to speech problems or dialect) Ignore inserted or repeated words
Reschly RTI58 ORF Passage: Making Friends (from Deno and Amy Reschly) There once was a little girl named Ann who 9 was very shy. She was too shy to make friends. 19 Ann lived in an apartment building with her mother 28 and brother. Ann liked to play at the playground 37 near her apartment building. 41 One day Ann was playing on the swings when50 Total words read = 49 Words read incorrectly = 3 Words read correctly = 46
Reschly RTI59 What is recorded? Give 3 Passages Record the Median Score Example: If a students scores on the 3 passages were: 24 words read correctly 38 words read correctly 35 words read correctly GO TO VIDEO
Reschly RTI60 Dad and I took a hike in the woods. We walked for a long 14 time and stopped to take a rest. We sat down on a log and had a 30 drink of water. A big hill was nearby. 38 Dad said, "Look, there's an ant hill." 45 I walked up to the hill and took a closer peek. At first it 59 looked just like a dirt hill. Then I noticed a few ants running 72 around. I looked closer. Sample passage from DIBELS, /http://dibels.uoregon.edu / The Ant Hill
Reschly RTI61 The Rainy Day Picnic I was so sad. This was the day we were going to the park for 15 a picnic. I wanted to go to the playground. I wanted to swing. I29 wanted to lay on the grass and look up at the fluffy clouds. But43 that morning it was raining. There were puddles everywhere.52 And we could hear thunder. I started to cry.61 My mother said, "Wait! We will still have the picnic!"71 I cried, "But how? It won't be fun if it's wet!"82 Sample passage from DIBELS,
Reschly RTI62 Sample passage from DIBELS, Visiting Aunt Rose My Aunt Rose invited me to spend the weekend. Aunt Rose11 doesn ' t have kids. She said I could be her kid for two days. She's25 like my big sister.29 I like to go to visit my Aunt Rose's home. She likes to do the44 same things I like. I like to go swimming. So does my Aunt57 Rose. The pool where she goes also has a hot tub. I like to sit in73 the hot tub. So does my Aunt Rose. I always bring my swimming 86
Reschly RTI63 The Robin's Nest There was a robin's nest outside our kitchen window. 'I he10 nest was in a tall bush. The mother robin sat in the nest all day25 long. One day when I was watching, the mother bird flew away.37 I saw the eggs she was sitting on. There were four blue eggs.50 I watched and watched. Pretty soon the eggs started to move.61 I watched some more until the eggs started to crack. Finally-, the 73 eggs hatched. I saw four baby birds. The baby birds opened their 85 beaks wide. I heard them peeping. Soon the mother bird came96 back. Then the mother robin put worms in their mouths.106 Sample passage from DIBELS,
Reschly RTI64 Resources for Reading and Interventions Good & Kaminski: DIBELS Gary Germann and Mark Shinn AIMSWEB ; James Wright Vaughn-Gross Reading Center Florida Reading Center-Torgesen/Wagner
Reschly RTI65 Math CBM Scoring rule: Count the number of correctly written digits in the problems 64 x Answer= __ 46208
Reschly RTI66 Math CBM Scoring rule: Count the number of correctly written digits in the problems 64 x ptsAnswer= pts pts pts
Reschly RTI67 Math CBM Scoring rule: Count the number of correctly written digits in the problems 64 x ptsAnswer= pts pts pts
Reschly RTI68 Tier I Behavior Positive Behavior Supports (www.pbis.org)www.pbis.org Universal screening for behavior in early grades Classroom organization and behavior management Teacher Assistance Teams (many names)
Reschly RTI69 Tier I Prevention School-wide Positive Behavior Supports National Technical Assistance Center at PBS is a broad range of systemic & individualized strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all students.
Reschly RTI70 PBIS: Characteristics of Support 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline 2.Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
Reschly RTI71 Tier I Behavior: Early Screening Focus on classroom and individuals Screen all children for behavior Aggressive behaviors-identify and treat at young ages Treat through age 8; Manage after age 8 Early intervention much more effective than later Social isolation Bullying Classroom related social skills (or academic enablers
Reschly RTI72 Tier I Behavior Importance of Prevention and Early Identification-Early Treatment Walker et al (1995) If antisocial behavior is not changed by the end of grade 3, it should be treated as a chronic condition much like diabetes. That is, it cannot be cured, but managed with the appropriate supports and continuing intervention (p. 6).
Reschly RTI73 Multiple Gating Procedures (Walker & Severson, 1995) Sopris West Teacher Ranking of Children ( 3 highest ranked) on Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors Teacher Rating (Exceeds Norms) Direct Observations and Parental Questionnaire Focused Interventions
Reschly RTI74 Behavioral Earthquakes Critical Behavioral Events High impact-great intensity-low frequency behaviors: Behavioral Earthquakes Fire setting, cruelty, extreme aggressiveness, suicide threats/attempts, physical confrontation, use of weapons, etc. Should provoke immediate referral School Archival Records Search (SARS)-Sopris
Reschly RTI75 Tier I: Behavior cont.: Classroom Organization and Behavior Management ( Kellam, Baltimore Schools Students randomly assigned to 1 st grade teachers, then classroom was the unit of analysis Classrooms observed during first 9 wks., high rates of disruptive behavior and aggression, large differences across classrooms Classrooms randomly assigned to, Experimental condition: Good Behavior Game (Barrish, et al, 1969; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991) vs. Control condition of in-service on general curriculum issues
Reschly RTI76 Kellam Research: Classroom Organization and Management Good Behavior Game (Barrish, et al., 1969) Group contingency Two groups formed into teams Define rules and positive behaviors Teams compete for positive consequences Team with highest rate of appropriate behaviors earn rewards Lining up first, Help teacher pick-up classroom, free time, etc.
Reschly RTI77 Kellam Research: Effects of Good Behavior Game Were Statistically Significant Aggression and disruptive behavior continued in control classrooms Marked reduction in experimental condition Experimental classrooms had higher academic productivity and achievement Aggressive students in both conditions followed through 6 th grade and first grade classroom effects persisted First grade experience sets academic and behavioral trajectory
Reschly RTI78 Tier I: Implications of Behavior Classroom organization and behavior management are crucial to student success Teachers skills at classroom management were then critical to childrens socialization, particularly in the face of family poverty. (Kellam, et al., 1998a, p. 182) Teacher training typically does not provide effective methods and experience in classroom behavior management. (Kellam, et al., 1998, p. 182). Relatively simple, cost effective interventions can produce large and persistent effects
Reschly RTI79 Teacher Support Teams For students who need additional support and intervention (1% to 5% of students) Classroom based, teacher and/or team develops One or two session problem solving Minimal data requirements Attempts over 3-4 weeks Produce changes, then must sustain Apply basic problem solving procedures
Reschly RTI80 Implement Plan (Treatment Integrity) Carry out the intervention Evaluate (Progress Monitoring Assessment) Did our plan work? Define the Problem (Screening and Diagnostic Assessments) What is the problem and why is it happening? Develop a Plan (Goal Setting and Planning) What are we going to do ? Basic Problem Solving (Teachers and School Teams) (Heartland Area Education Agency, Johnston, IA)
Reschly RTI81 Tier I: Teacher Support Team Analysis What is student doing and why is it a problem When is student successful and less likely to misbehave? When is student less successful and more likely to misbehave Why does behavior occur, what is student getting from the behavior What other factors contribute to the behavior Consider attention, escape, etc.
Reschly RTI82 Principles: Secondary Level (Sprick, R.S. (2006). Discipline in the secondary classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.) ( ) Basic behavioral strategies, Key concepts Instructional design and evaluation systems Prepare for routines and procedures Expectations: Teach students to be successful Rules and consequences, responding to misbehavior Motivation: Enhancing desire to succeed Proactive planning for misbehavior
Reschly RTI83 Middle and High School RTI Applications Same principles and goals: Improve Results Evidence-based interventions matched to student needs implemented with good fidelity Data-based, progress monitoring with formative evaluation, that is, data on initial status, goals related to benchmarks, progress monitoring against goals, and changes in interventions based on progress Decisions based on student responses to interventions
Reschly RTI84 Middle and High School RTI Applications Frequent Goals at Middle and High School Academic skills deficits Teach skills in basic areas including reading and math See Florida web site for teaching reading to adolescents at CBM used, progress at > 1 word correct growth per week, goals, graphs, formative evaluation, etc. Significant needs for basic instruction
Reschly RTI85 Middle and High School RTI Applications Course Involvement and Completion Learning strategies: Systematic teaching of methods to learn content Taught in context of general education classes, by general education teachers or special education teachers (resource program) Significant effect sizes related to completion of courses, improved grades, and improved content mastery Many students with these needs
Reschly RTI86 Middle and High School RTI Applications Effort and Work Completion Can Do But Wont Do Unintended reinforcement for poor effort and low productivity Interventions do improve both effort and productivity Data are critical!!! Data followed by interventions, etc.
Reschly RTI87 Middle and High School RTI Applications School Involvement and Drop Out Drop out not an event, but a process Encouragement to leave or to stay?? Drop out prevention measures Find at risk kids Ensure teacher encouragement, someone who cares, monitors, encourages Formal programs like Check and Connect
Reschly RTI88 Middle and High School RTI Applications Middle and High School Problem Solving Define problem Determine data, several weeks, months, years depending on the problem Establish goals, Implement interventions, Monitor progress, Change interventions as necessary Evaluate results
Reschly RTI89 Middle and High School RTI Applications Problem Solving Example Drop Out Scientifically-based interventions Identify proxies for drop out to permit early intervention, e. g., school attendance, disciplinary referrals, failing courses, etc. Gather data on current conditions Establish goals Implement interventions Monitor progress and change intervention if results do not meet reasonable goals
Reschly RTI90 Middle and High School RTI Applications Problem Solving Example Failing courses Current status Causes of failure (effort vs skills or both) Goals for improvement (without lowering standards) Interventions (brainstorm) Monitor progress, change interventions as needed Evaluate results
Reschly RTI91 Summary of Tier I Universal level, all students Scientifically-based, right content and direct instruction Greater intensity and increased measurement precision for students below benchmark trajectories Criterion for success? 80% to 85% are at or above benchmarks Assess classrooms, schools, districts Identify students needing additional assistance
Reschly RTI92 Tier II: Academic and Behavioral Interventions Individual behavior interventions in general education that meet all criteria for problem solving Individual or small group academic interventions, following Standard protocol interventions (reading) Individualized academic Evidence based practices.
Reschly RTI93 Tier II Behavior: Problem Solving Criteria Behavioral definition of the problem Collection of data reflecting current level of performance Comparison of current level of performance to expectations (peer comparisons, age or grade norms) Development of goals for change in performance Analysis of conditions (including prerequisite and current skills levels)
Reschly RTI94 Tier II Behavior: Problem Solving Criteria cont. Development of an intervention plan that is written, systematic, and based on scientifically-based instructional or behavioral intervention principles Implementation of the plan with treatment fidelity checks
Reschly RTI95 Tier II Behavior: Problem Solving Criteria cont. Progress monitoring data collected frequently, represented graphically, and results compared to goals Changes are made in the intervention based on progress monitoring data Evaluation of results with decisions made to consider more intensive interventions which may be special education
Reschly RTI96 Tier II Academic Interventions (Vaughn et al., 2003 Exceptional Children) Goals: Move performance to benchmark trajectories and, If needed, consider more intensive interventions Example of Tier II academic intervention Small group, N=4-5, pull out, similar needs 30 to 35 minutes per day in addition to classroom instruction Progress monitoring weekly 10 to 20 weeks of instruction 5-component reading interventions, with emphasis on weak components
Reschly RTI97 Tier II: Academics and Behavior Targeted individual interventions in classrooms and in standard protocol academic settings Behavior (attention and on task) predict outcomes of academic interventions) Standard protocol interventions use a point system to prompt and reinforce task engagement Improved behavior often is crucial to persistence of academic interventions effects over time and generalization to classroom settings
Reschly RTI98 Standard Protocol Reading Models for Tier II U Texas, Vaughn Florida State Torgesen Reading five domains taught each day Direct instruction Weekly progress monitoring Individual graphs, progress against goals referenced to benchmarks Decisions determined by student response Fade Tier II and return to general education Consider Tier III based on insufficient response
Reschly RTI99 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Graph Current Status Benchmark=24 Egbert=11
Reschly RTI100 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Determine Goal: Class=1.5 wd growth per week; Egbert Goal: 2 wd growth per week Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line
Reschly RTI101 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Monitor Egberts Progress Relative to Goal Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line
Reschly RTI102 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Formative Evaluation: Change Intervention Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line Change Intervention
Reschly RTI103 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Continue Intervention and Monitor Progress Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line Change Intervention
Reschly RTI104 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Raise Goal to 2.5 WCM Growth Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line Change Intervention Change Goal
Reschly RTI105 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Continue Intervention and Monitor Progress Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line Change Intervention Change Goal Fade Tier II
Reschly RTI106 Decisions Re: Egbert Fade Tier II academic intervention Reduce number of weekly sessions Monitor progress to ensure continued progress Evaluate behavioral intervention (not shown here) Depending on results, consider enhancing, fading, or discontinuing Do NOT consider more intensive interventions
Reschly RTI107 Prevention of Special Education Presidents Commission (2002) Values and Outcomes: Efficacy of special education is not universally documentedlowered expectations, reduced academic press Later educational opportunities typically are better if learning and behavior problems can be resolved in early grades Probable later career opportunities are better if students can complete general education programs Prevention and early intervention enhance positive outcomes and expand educational and career opportunities
Reschly RTI108 Case II: Egberta, Academic Intervention Egberta (Egberts twin sister) Similar performance in reading No behavioral issues, described as quiet, cooperative child who tries hard and does not disrupt the class Would not have been referred by teacher, but discovered through universal screening
Reschly RTI109 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Egberta: Determine Goal: Class=1.5 wd growth per week; Egberta Goal: 2 wd growth per week Class=24 Egberta=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line
Reschly RTI110 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Monitor Egbertas Progress Relative to Goal Class=24 Egberta=11 Benchmark Egberta goal line
Reschly RTI111 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Change Egbertas Intervention Class=24 Egberta=11 Benchmark Egberta goal line Change Intervention
Reschly RTI112 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Implement Revised Intervention and Continue to Monitor Progress Benchmark Egberta goal line Change Intervention
Reschly RTI113 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Implement Second Intervention Revision Benchmark Egberta goal line Change Intervention
Reschly RTI114 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Gap Not Closing: Consider Eligibility and More Intensive Interventions Benchmark Change Intervention Class WCM=54 Egberta WCM=32
Reschly RTI115 Egberta Consideration of Eligibility Levels Difference: Large performance differences compared to peers and benchmark expectations in relevant domains of behavior Rate Difference: Large differences in rate of learning compared to peers and trajectories toward benchmark standards when provided with high quality interventions implemented over a significant period Documented Adverse Impact on Education Documented Need for Special Education Exit Criteria Exclusion Factors: Rule out MR etc.
Reschly RTI116 What is a Comprehensive Evaluation Note Federal Regulation, (g) The child is assessed in all areas related to the suspected disability, including, if appropriate, health, vision, hearing, social and emotional status, general intelligence, academic performance, communicative status, and motor abilities. (34 C.F.R Meaning? Note if appropriate
Reschly RTI117 Federal Requirements Multiple domains must be considered Screening in multiple domains followed by, if appropriate, …… If potential educationally related deficits are suggested by screening, THEN In depth assessment in the domain Principle: If screening suggests adequate functioning, then in depth assessment is wasteful and irrelevant
Reschly RTI118 Comprehensive Evaluation: After Tier II DomainScreeningIf depth, if appropriate Possible Decision HealthNurse, records Referral MD Eval Medical condition VisionNurse, records OphthalmologyVisual Impairment HearingNurse, records Otological, Audiologist Hearing Impairment IntelligenceRecords, Tch ratings, ach. tests Psychologist, Genl Intell Functioning (GIF) Sig subaverage GIF, possible MR, possible sp ed
Reschly RTI119 DomainScreeningIn Depth, If Appropriate Possible Decision ReadingClass work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed MathClass work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed Adaptive Behavior Records, Tch checklist Observations Parent interview Possible eligibility for MR Written Language Class work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed Comprehensive Evaluation: After Tier II
Reschly RTI120 DomainScreeningIn depth, if appropriate Possible Decision CommunicationTchr Observations, Sp/L screening Sp/L eval, tests, obs. Sp/Lang need, therapy BehaviorTchr judgment, checklists, nomination Observation, Interview, Indiv intervention Emotional Regulation Tchr judgment, checklists, nomination Observation, Interview, Indiv intervention More intense intervention, possible sp ed MotorPhysical, Tch, PE observations Medical evaluation More intense intervention, possible sp ed Comprehensive Evaluation: Post Tier II
Reschly RTI121 Special Education Eligibility Determination Using RTI Recall problems with current system Integrate identificaton with treatment Level of skills Pattern of skills, deficits and strengths Evaluation of progress Evaluation of outcomes Enhance effectiveness of special education
Reschly RTI122 Old Models of SLD Identification Problems with severe discrepancy criteria Unreliable (especially stability of discrepancy scores) Invalid (IQ discrepant poor readers do NOT respond better than IQ non-discrepant poor readers to reading instruction) Causes Harm (Wait to Fail)
Reschly RTI123 Old Models of SLD continued Cognitive processing option ?? Scatter is normal, virtually all children will show significant strengths and weaknesses Pattern of cognitive processes unrelated to More accurate SLD identification Improved instruction Improved child outcomes No scientifically-based studies showing benefits of designing instruction from cognitive profiles Vested interests? and Burden of proof
Reschly RTI124 Cognitive Processing Strengths and Weaknesses ALL children have strengths and weaknesses Normal readers? Not referred despite cognitive strengths and weaknesses Poor readers? May be referred and, if so, cognitive strengths and weaknesses will be found So what?? Improve accuracy of identification? Improve interventions? Cash validity is not sufficient
Reschly RTI125 Cognitive Processing and Interventions: ATI or Matching Strengths Effects Treatment/Intervention Effect Size Modality Matched Instr. (Aud.)+.03 Modality Matched Instr. (Vis.)+.04 Simultaneous/Successive.?? Right Brain/Left Brain.?? Cultural Leaning Style.00 NOTHING FOR KIDS FEEL GOOD ASSESSMENT
Reschly RTI126 Results of ATI Research King of England describing his Danish brother-in- law: There is nothing there. Cronbach, (1975). Once we attend to interactions, we enter a hall of mirrors that extends to infinity. (p. 119) Kavale (1999) No supportive data, but cannot kill Phoenix-like processing claims Vaughn and Linan-Thompson (2003), There is no empirical support for the use of modality-matched instruction or learning styles as a means to enhance outcomes for students with LD. (p. 142).
Reschly RTI127 Challenge to Cognitive Processing Advocates in SLD Show the field one scientifically-based study confirming a statistically significant interaction between cognitive processing pattern and teaching methodology OR Document how cognitive processing can be used by practitioners to make reliable and valid SLD diagnoses, using the joint APA- AERA-NCME Test Standards?
Reschly RTI128 Digression: Neuropsychology and Neuroscience Distinguish between neuropsychology and neuroscience Neuropsychology is dependent on psychometric profiles Difference scores are less reliable Scatter is normal Base rates for profile variations Flat profiles are atypical Nearly all have profile variations
Reschly RTI129 Neuroscience Findings Instruction in decoding changes brain functioning on fMRI Neuroscience findings generally refute traditional neuropsychology with learning problems Neurological functioning more dynamic, less static Little practical application of fMRI to current school psychology practice No unique LD markers!!
Reschly RTI130 Digression: fMRI Studies Science article: fMRIs of boys and girls engaged in decoding-Girls used both hemispheres, boys one Implications?? Do fMRI to find real LD? Abandon IQ and go to fMRIs Trade the hatchback for an 18 wheeler Cost issues: $3m per machine, plus maintenance
Reschly RTI131 More fMRI Implications Delay reading until both hemispheres work for males simultaneously So that is going to happen? Equity issue---restrict girls to one hemisphere; hemispherectomy Hey, fair is fair Improve male-female communication if females could use only one hemisphere at a time Wait until I tell Krisann
Reschly RTI132 Disproportionality Legal Requirements § Overidentification and disproportionality States must collect data on to determine if significant disproportionality by race exists re: Identification of students with disabilities by category Placement options used, i.e., LRE profile Incidence and kind of disciplinary actions including suspensions and expulsions
Reschly RTI133 Disproportionality Legal Requirements § Overidentification and disproportionality continued If significant disproportionality exists, the state must Review and, if appropriate, revise the policies, procedures, and practices used in identification or placement Allocate 15% of IDEA funds to EIS, especially focusing on children significantly overidentified Require the LEA to publicly report on the revision of policies, practices, and procedures described under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
Reschly RTI134 NRC Overrepresentation Panel: Digression: Disproportionality What were the real issues? Was IQ the issue? Did an IQ test ban resolve disproportionality or improve outcomes Reschly (1980) Right problem-Wrong Solution
Reschly RTI135 NRC Report: Causes of Overrepresentation Biological factors Social factors General education experiences Special education system
Reschly RTI136 Centrality of Outcomes in Disproportionality Judge Peckham commenting on the 1979 Trial Opinion ban on IQ tests, … clearly limited to the use of IQ tests in the assessment and placement of African- American students in dead end programs such as MMR. (Crawford and Larry P., 1992, p. 15).
Reschly RTI137 Centrality of Outcomes in Disproportionality, cont. Despite the Defendants attempts to characterize the courts 1979 order as a referendum on the discriminatory nature of IQ testing, this courts review of the decision reveals that the decision was largely concerned with the harm to African- American children resulting from improper placement in dead-end educational programs. (Crawford and Larry P., 1992, p.23).
Reschly RTI138 Overrepresentation Panel NRC Recommendations Universal early screening for academic and behavioral problems (Ktg-Grade2) Early identification-interventions Multi-tiered academic and behavioral interventions RtI for eligibility-eliminate IQ for LD Eligibility: non-categorical for high incidence disabilities OR change current classification criteria for LD
Reschly RTI139 Overall Conclusion There is substantial evidence with regard to both behavior and achievement that early identification and intervention is more effective than later identification and intervention. Executive Summary, p. 5 Efficacy of special education with reading problems after grade 3?
Reschly RTI140 Solutions to Significant Disproportionality Prevention, especially improving reading ~60% of 4 th grade black students read below basic; inexcusable! Eligibility determination procedures and decision making Focus on RTI and needs, consider alternatives to sp ed Intensive interventions and special education exit for ~20% to 40% Torgesen et al. studies
Reschly RTI141 Overrepresentation Panel NRC Recommendations cont. …. no IQ test would be required, and the results of an IQ test would not be a primary criterion on which eligibility rests. Because of the irreducible importance of context in the recognition and nurturance of achievement, the committee regards the effort to assess students decontextualized potential or ability as inappropriate and scientifically invalid. (p. 313).
Reschly RTI142 RTI in Special Education Programs Special education programs should be, Scientifically based Matched to student need Progress monitoring against goals (exit criteria) Formative evaluation Goal of passing benchmark tests, exiting Current special education programs????
Reschly RTI143 Special Education for Students with High Incidence Disabilities High Incidence Disabilities Mild Mental Retardation Emotional Disturbance Specific Learning Disability Other Health Impaired-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rate is 1% or more of the general student population
Reschly RTI144 High Incidence Disabilities School age identification Usually not identified as adults Teacher referral due to poor achievement plus, for many, disruptive behavior No identifiable biological anomaly, normal appearance Reading is a major concern for most (70%- 80%)
Reschly RTI145 Improving IEPs Connect individual evaluation with IEP with Special Education Interventions Critical IEP Components (relevant to the intervention) (not an exhaustive list) Present Levels of Educational Performance Measurable Annual Goals Specifically designed instruction provided by qualified personnel Participation in the general education curriculum and state wide assessments
Reschly RTI146 Present Levels of Educational Performance Must be related to the full and individual evaluation Desirable Stated in terms of the school curriculum Specification of gaps between current performance and trajectories toward reaching benchmarks Exit criteria for special education dismissal
Reschly RTI147 Measurable Annual Goals Goals are described in objective, measurable terms Goals are stated in terms of the general education curriculum Rate of progress specified, graphed Skills specified Progress compared to goals Interventions changed or goals changed depending on progress
Reschly RTI148 Specially Designed Instruction Uniqueness of special education is NOT in different methodologies BUT IS IN Intensity, frequency of progress monitoring and formative evaluation, precision of goals, and specificity of instruction Intensity involves time, group size Specificity of instruction, thoroughness of skills specification, intentional teaching, integration with other skills Application of explicit, systematic instructional methods
Reschly RTI149 Special Education Final Remarks Special education can be effective Set of services brought to students, not a place Integrated with general education curriculum Strong accountability Implementation of scientifically based interventions with Specification of goals Frequent progress monitoring Formative evaluation Exit criteria
Reschly RTI150 Critical Skills/Competencies Problem solving-interviewing skills Behavior assessment including CBM Powerful instructional interventions Powerful behavior change interventions Relationship skills Tailoring assessment to referral concerns
Reschly RTI151 Continuing Education: Problem solving and system design Reschly, D. J., Tilly, W. D. III, & Grimes, J. P. (Eds.). (1999). Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Bergan, J. R., & Kratochwill, T. R. (1990). Behavioral consultation and therapy. New York: Plenum. Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. New York: Guilford Press.
Reschly RTI152 Continuing Education: CBM, CBE, Behavioral Assessment Shinn, M. R. (Ed.) (1998). Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement: New York: Guilford Press. Shapiro, E. S. (Ed.) (1996). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Shapiro, E. S., & Kratochwill, T. R. (Eds.). (2000). Behavioral assessment in schools: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Reschly RTI153 Continuing Education: Academic and Behavioral Interventions Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Mayer, G. R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart, Winston. Howell, K. & Nolet, V. (2000). Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making (3rd Ed.). Atlanta, GA: Wadsworth. Shinn, M.R., Walker, H.M., & Stoner, G. (2002). Interventions for academic and behaviors problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches. Bethesda, MD: NASP
Reschly RTI154 Summary Moving from where we are to where we need to be is a huge challenge for the new century BUT I Believe The Best Is Yet To Be