2 Agenda The Shift The 3 Tiers Common Core Expectations Publishers’ CriteriaUse of Word ListsElementary vs. SecondaryStrategy InstructionPreparing for the Modules
3 Anticipation Guide Statement Yes No YesNoThe majority of vocabulary instruction should be spent on Tier 2 words.Vocabulary instruction goes beyond defining words in text.Word lists are a useful way to teach vocabulary.Students must learn to evaluate the word alone, not necessarily the impact of the word choice.Teaching academic vocabulary will cause a shift in attention on the part of the teacher.Distribute the anticipation guide to participants to complete. Review responses with participants giving thumbs up or thumbs down to each statement. Yes= thumbs up No= thumbs down
4 6 Shifts PK-5, Balance of informational and literary text 6-12, Building knowledge in the disciplinesText-based answersWriting to/from sourcesStaircase of complexityAcademic vocabularyThis slide is just a brief review of the 6 shifts for instruction when switching to the Common Core State Standards. Quickly share each of the shifts pointing out that today’s session will focus primarily on Academic Vocabulary.Some of the audience may be familiar with the shifts while this may be the first time others have seen or even have heard about them. It is important for participants to know that these shifts are the major shifts in the mindset and instruction provided by educators. Teaching to these shifts will assure that students are being instructed in the way of the expectations of the Common Core Standards. The Delaware State Standards do not address this level of rigor or demand of knowledge.
5 Shift 6: Academic Vocabulary Rationale: Teachers need to spend more time on academic vocabulary(Tier 2).Implications for Instruction:Tier 2 vocabulary (or academic vocabulary) exposes students to multi-meaning words that transcend all content areas.Tier 3 vocabulary is domain or discipline-specific and should be encountered in the content-area classroom in an authentic context.Talk to this slide with participants. Point out that teachers need to focus their vocabulary instruction on Tier 2 words, rather than Tier 1 or 3.In the past, educators have chosen words to teach to their students that are content specific words, words that they “thought” that their students should know, or because they were “big” words that they believed would cause their students difficulty. When students come across a word in the text that is perceived to be a difficult word, but does not meet the Tier 2 requirements, the teacher can merely tell students what the word means and move on.
6 Why Teach Vocabulary?strong correlation to overall reading achievementdeficiencies are a primary cause of academic failure in Grades 3–12strong vocabularies are essential to college and career readinessLearning is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge.Vocabulary knowledge is highly correlated with overall reading achievement.Vocabulary deficiencies are a primary cause of academic failure in Grades 3–12.Vocabulary knowledge affects a student’s ability to participate fully in both social and academic activities.Significant disparities exist in word knowledge among students.Read the slide to the participants.These are just facts surrounding the instruction of academic vocabulary.
7 Words Heard in a 100-Hour Week Words Heard in a 5,200 Hour Year Why Students Struggle With Vocabulary Meaningful Differences (Hart & Risley, 1995)Words Heard per HourWords Heard in a 100-Hour WeekWords Heard in a 5,200 Hour YearWords Heard in 4 YearsWelfare61662,0003 million13 millionWorking Class1,251125,0006 million26 millionProfessional2,153215,00011 million45 millionSignificant disparities exist in word knowledge among students.Learning is dependent on vocabulary knowledge.Show slide. Have participants turn to their shoulder partners and discuss the statistics. (1 minute) Then, have participants share out comments to the whole group.
8 All words are not created equal… From Appendix A:Beck, McKeown, & Kucan (2002, 2008) describe three levels, or tiers, of words in terms of the words’ commonality (more to less frequently occurring) and applicability (broader to narrower).p. 33Read to participants
9 Engage NY Video Shift 6: Academic Vocabulary As you watch the video, jot down notes related to these questions:What challenges will this present in the classroom?What changes might need to be made instructionally?What is one take away from the video?Play video for participants. Have participants jot down responses to the three questions on small post-it notes. (One per idea)At the completion of the video, have the participants share their post-it’s with a small group or partner. Sort responses into similar categories. Choose one speaker who will share their groups’ findings with the rest of the group.This video will provide participants with a general but thorough description of academic vocabulary.
10 Three Tiers of Words Academic Vocabulary Tier 3: Domain-specific wordsTier 2: General academic wordsTier 1: Words of everyday speechAcademicVocabularyExplain that this three-tiered model of vocabulary categorizes words based on their frequency in texts (more to less frequently occurring) and applicability (broader to narrower) as you progress up the triangle.For instance, the facilitator might say,“The Common Core State Standards refer to a model that describes three tiers of words, categorized by their frequency in texts (more to less frequently occurring) and applicability (broader to narrower) from bottom to top.Tier 1 (at the bottom) consists of the basic words that most students at a particular grade level will know. These are the everyday words of conversation, and most of them are learned from the speech of peers and adults around them. They are not considered a challenge to the average native speaker and comprise the bulk of words students know.Tier 2 (in the middle) consists of general academic words and is our focus today. These are the words that have utility across a wide range of topics and in many curriculum areas. Students will encounter and learn most of these words through reading text, rather than in conversation, and through explicit classroom instruction. They are especially important because building a strong academic vocabulary is key to comprehending academic text.Tier 3 (at the top) consists of the highly specific disciplinary vocabulary that lack generalization – low-frequency words needed to understand the concept under study.” (Domain/Content Specific)
11 Tier 2 - Academic Words are critical to understanding texts are highly generalizable across all content areasrequire deliberate effort to learn, unlike Tier 1 wordsare far more likely to appear in written texts than in speechrepresent subtle or precise ways to say otherwise relatively simple thingsare seldom heavily scaffold by authors or teachers, unlike Tier 3 wordsBeck, et alDefine for group the key concepts in Academic WordsExplain that it is important to explicitly teach key academic words because students are unlikely to pick them up from spoken language, in contrast to Tier 1 words; and authors are unlikely to define them within the text or include them in a glossary, in contrast to Tier 3 words.This is about full concept knowledge – knowledge of Greek and Latin roots, affixes, and multiple word meanings, ability to discriminate between similar words, can extend the definition to related concepts. This relates to the video ideas of synonyms, webs of words, antonyms for use of internalization. The purpose would be that if you teach these ideas you would then increase the word knowledge capacity.For instance, the facilitator might say,“Because Tier 3 words are obviously unfamiliar to most students, contain the ideas necessary to a new topic, and are recognized as both important and specific to the subject area in which they are instructing students, teachers often define Tier 3 words prior to students encountering them in a text, and then reinforce their acquisition throughout a lesson. Unfortunately, this is not typically the case with Tier 2 words, which by definition are not unique to a particular discipline and as a result are not the clear responsibility of a particular content area teacher.What is more, many Tier 2 words are far less well defined by contextual clues in the texts in which they appear and are far less likely to be defined explicitly within a text than are Tier 3 words. Yet Tier Two words are frequently encountered in complex written texts and are particularly powerful because of their wide applicability to many sorts of reading.The Catch 22 is that since most of these words are acquired through reading, struggling readers don’t acquire them at the same rate as proficient readers. Then, their lack of knowledge of these words, in turn, discourages them even more from reading grade-appropriate material.So, teachers need to be alert to the presence of key Tier 2 words and determine which ones need careful attention.”
12 Possible Identification of Tier 3 Words Plate tectonics (the study of the movement of the sections of Earth’s crust) adds to Earth’s story….In 1975, he coined the term fractal for shapes that repeat themselves within an object.The carpenters then installed pieces of wood, called lagging, ….Strict laws—called “Jim Crow” laws—enforced a system of white supremacy ….OregonParticipants are shown examples of how to identify Tier 3 wordsPartial Concept Knowledge – deeper level of understanding, may require explicit strategies, may use graphic organizers to extend understanding
13 How do I determine that a word is TIER 2? Is this a generally useful word?Does the word relate to other words and ideas that students know or have been learning?Is the word useful in helping students understand text?If you answer yes to all three questions, it is a tier 2 word. If not, it is probably a tier 3 word.tsunamidisplacedTier 3NoYesYesFirst the facilitator uses the tool to analyze the words tsunami and displaced- ask the group is tsunami a generally useful word- on the click, the red no will come up in the box. Next the facilitator will ask- Does the word relate to other words and ideas that students know or have been learning? On the click a Yes will show in the box. Next, ask if the word is useful in helping students understand text? The next click brings up a yes in the box. Finally, decide if it is a Tier 2 or 3 word using all of the questions. Repeat the process for displaced. Then teachers find two or three words from the text and use the tool to analyze the words.YesYesYesTier 2
14 Tsunami Activity: Categorize Vocabulary Tier 3 wordsImportant to the concept under studyUnlikely to appear in texts on other subjectsTier 2 wordsUnfamiliar to most students at this levelLikely to appear in texts on other subjectsMay have multiple meaningsCan be grouped with other known ideas, words for instructionTier 1 wordsFamiliar to most students at this level, but likely to require attention for ELLInvite participants to work with partners or in small groups to identify Tier 3 and Tier 2 words, as well as a few Tier 1 words that may require additional instruction for non-native speakersFor instance, the facilitator might say,“ Read the following selection entitled, Tsunami. Identify multiple Tier 2 and Tier 3 words. Give teachers three colors of highlighters or have them star Tier 1, Circle Tier 2 and underline Tier 3 words.
15 Selection Criteria for Instructional Vocabulary Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3General Examplesargument, season, injuryhypothetical, convert, adaptisotope, peninsula, alliterationExamplesocean, seriesdisplaced, translatetsunami, meteoriteReview and discuss these examples for selection criteriaRead first paragraph of tsunami together and discuss words.Examples middle school specific- injury, apologize, nation, education, seriousSmarter balanced list Tier 2– relative, principle, innovation, function, potential, styleTier 3 –mitochondria, amoeba,
16 Selection Criteria for Instructional Vocabulary Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3General Examplesargument, season, injuryhypothetical, convert, adaptisotope, peninsula, alliteration“Tsunami” Examplesimpact, immense, relativelypower, local, motionwavelengths, latitude, harbor waveHave groups share their selections for each type of word. Then show the examples provided.Examples middle school specific- injury, apologize, nation, education, seriousSmarter balanced list Tier 2– relative, principle, innovation, function, potential, styleTier 3 –mitochondria, amoeba,Presenter should have a copy of the text prior to the workshop with several examples highlighted already.
17 Publishers’ Criteria 3-12 Excerpt (Tier 2 words): Often, curricula ______ these words and pay attention only to the _________ words that are unique to a discipline. Materials aligned with the CCSS should help students acquire _________ of general academic vocabulary because these are the words that will help them _____ a wide range of complex texts.ignoretechnicalknowledgeAs a choral read, the group will fill in the blanks of this cloze passage based on the Publisher’s CriteriaIgnore, technical, knowledge, accessYour audience may not know the answers to fill in the blanks, so you may have to read through it slowly having participants guess at the missing word, revealing the correct answer as you go along.Tip: you may want to display this cloze and have teachers discuss possible answers in small groups and then share out as a whole.access
18 Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Bands Review the grade bands and associated Lexile levels with the groupLexile levels have raised and in some cases considerably. Students need to fall somewhere in that exile for their grade level.The Common Core Standards advocate a "staircase" of increasing text complexity, beginning in grade 2, so that students can develop their reading skills and apply them to more difficult texts. At the lowest grade in each band, students focus on reading texts within that text complexity band. In the subsequent grade or grades within a band, students must "stretch" to read a certain proportion of texts from the next higher text complexity band. This pattern repeats itself throughout the grades so that students can both build on earlier literacy gains and challenge themselves with texts at a higher complexity level. Lexile measures and the Lexile ranges above help to determine what text is appropriate for each grade band and what should be considered "stretch" text. [This table reflects the Lexile Bands from the Revised Appendix A.]
19 Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium on Vocabulary: Linking Assessment and Instruction Take a look at the Smarter Balanced ELA Item and Task Specifications sheet.What understandings are confirmed linking the instruction and assessment of Tiered words?Smarter Balanced Item and Task Specifications ActivityThis activity gives participants an opportunity to view the definitions of the 3 tiers of vocabulary and a partial list of Tier 2 words for grade level bands 3-5, 6-8, and 9-11.Participants should have copies of pages 69 and 70 of Appendix C Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Item and Task Specifications.Explain to the participants what Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium is if they are not familiar with how this will impact teachers and students in the near future.Participants will read and discuss how this connects to previous information shared about vocabulary and the links between instruction and assessment.Debrief on findings/questions as a whole group.
20 A Word on Use of Word Lists: Caution It is important to refrain from just handing out a list of words in isolationStudents need to hear words, read them, speak about them, write about them, experiment with them and ultimately understand themA Word on Use of Word ListsEmphasize that words should not be learned in isolation.Discuss effective vocabulary strategies.Page 25 CCSS Language Standards can be used as a reference.Lexiles are being ramped up therefore so is vocabulary.
21 Possible Assessment Stems What is the meaning of ____ in paragraph?Which words help the reader understand the meaning of ____ in paragraph ?Which definition of _____ is used in this text?Possible Assessment StemsRemind participants: when you create your own assessments, keep these stems in mind.With Tsunami text, the facilitator models how to use the question stems.Examples may include: What is the meaning of conversion in paragraph 2?Which words help the reader understand the impact a tsunami may have in paragraphs 5 and 6?Which definition of triggered is used in paragraph 7?Then have the participants identify Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in text that is domain specific/grade level appropriate depending on their teaching assignment. Then the participants can write one of each of the possible assessment stems with their own text.
22 Vocabulary in the CCSSNot a live link.Where is vocabulary in the CCSS anchor standards?Click on website to show what the Public Schools of North Carolina to demonstrate the importance of vocabulary in the CCSS anchor standards. Other words of importance include: Comparing, Media, Research, Evidence, and Organization.Click on the bottom right of the vocabulary box.This is not a live link.
23 Language Strand: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CCRL4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful words parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.CCRL5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.Where is vocabulary in the CCSS Anchor Standards?Optional Slide: can be used to emphasize the importance of vocabulary in the CCSS
24 Language Strand: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CCRL6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.Where is vocabulary in the CCSS Anchor Standards?Optional Slide: can be used to emphasize the importance of vocabulary in the CCSS
25 An Integrated Approach CCRR4: Interpret word and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.CCRW4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.Emphasis on an Integrated ApproachOptional Slide: can be used to emphasize the importance an integrated approach to reading, writing, speaking, and listening in the CCSS
26 An Integrated Approach – Cont’d. CCRSL1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.Emphasis on an Integrated ApproachOptional Slide: can be used to emphasize the importance an integrated approach to reading, writing, speaking, and listening in the CCSS
27 Careful selection of words to teach In school settings, students can be explicitly taught a deep understanding of about 300 words each year.Divided by the range of content students need to know (e.g., math, science, history, literature), of these 300–350 words, roughly 60 words can be taught within one subject area each year.It is reasonable to teach thoroughly about eight to ten words per week.-- more at K-12 Teachers: Building Comprehension in the Common Core (Oregon)Careful Selection of words to teachExplain that because relatively few vocabulary words will be taught explicitly in a year, the words need to be carefully selected. For instance, the facilitator might say,“Students can learn and retain a deep understanding of relatively few words in a school setting. In addition, instructional time is precious, so careful selection of which general academic words to invest in is doubly important.”
28 “…ultimately, our students are expected to develop as competent readers, writers, and thinkers in all academic disciplines.”Developing Readers in the Academic Disciplines,Doug BuehlDeveloping Readers in the Academic Disciplines* Review the quote from Doug Buehl
29 Vocabulary instruction in … Teaching meaning of specific wordsProvide student-friendly definition(s)Read the word in textDiscuss examples and non-examples of the wordCreate semantic mapsTeach multiple meaningsLink new words to words students already know(CCSS Language Standard 5)Teaching word-learning strategiesBy using contextual cuesBy using their existing knowledge of words and word parts(CCSS Language Standard 4)-- more at Oregon K-12 Literacy FrameworkTeaching meaning of Specific Words* Explain that vocabulary instruction should include both instructions on the meaning of words as well as instruction in word-learning strategies.* For instance, you might say,“Selecting words to invest our time in is followed, of course, by the instruction itself.* Vocabulary instruction should include, over time if not in every lesson, instruction both in the meaning of specific words and in word-learning strategies.*In teaching the meaning of specific words, this slide lists several powerful procedures to include during initial instruction.* Many of these are included in ELA Language Standard 5. There is, additionally, one emphasis in the standards that is not reflected in this slide: When using synonyms to teach the meaning of a word and to link it to other known words, it is important to also discuss the nuances, the ‘shades of meaning,’ that distinguish them. For instance, what is the impact of the term intractable versus another term, such as stubborn. Or vastness instead of enormity.* When we look at Language Standard 4, we see that using knowledge of affixes and roots and using context as clues to meaning continues from grade 5 all the way through the 11-CCR levels, since they continue to be strategies relevant to all mature readers.
30 Explicit instruction checklist Set a purpose for learningIdentify critical details that define the new conceptUse highly specific examples and non-examplesConnect new concepts to previously learned material-- more at Oregon K-12 Literacy FrameworkChecklist for Explicit InstructionSet a purpose for learning- these are not necessarily the words identified by the book*Learn that in science phenomena are observable events or facts, no matter how common, while in general use, it refers only to remarkable occurrences or people.* Identify critical details that define the new concept* Science – can be perceived by the senses* General use – exceptional, outstanding, unusual, extraordinary*Use highly specific examples and non-examples-Science – combustion, gravity, respiration, light/ philosophy, sadness*General use – a genius, a record-setting athletic performance/ gravity* Connect new concepts to previously learned material*Decisions on the words to teach are not easy and should be part of a group effort. One example would be to use PLC time for grade level teachers within a department to determine common essential Tier 2 words. In your own text- are there any Tier 2 words you feel could be cross curricular? Revisit the text you brought reading with a new lens
31 The Five Box Word Analysis Matrix MeaningDescription and ExamplePicture/ Graphic RepresentationRelated Words/ Nuances/ Connotation/ Shades of meaningThe Five Box Word Analysis Matrix* The next (4) slides are examples of graphic organizers that can be utilized in the classroom to help with direct vocabulary instruction.
32 Concept Definition Map What is it?DisasterFactsWhat is it not?Concept Definition MapExamples
33 Tier 2 Strategies: Linear Arrays Shades of Meaning miserableunhappyfirstpreliminaryneveralwaysShades of Meaning(Linear Arrays)This Graphic Organizer can be utilized several different ways:* Explain that - Unhappy- sad- grumpy- irritable- miserable- there is no correct way to get the different shades, but we are looking for a progression of agreed upon or common definitions.First- beginning, early, initial, preliminary- this progression shows from general to more specific terms. The key here is students should understand and be able to explain whatever linear relationship is being expressed.hardcomplicated
34 Prefixes Graphic Organizer Base/Root WordSuffixNew WordMeaningGraphic Organizer for Prefixes
35 The Matthew Effect (Stanovich, 1986) They read lessthan their peerswho are strongerreaders.They do notexpand theirvocabulariesand backgroundknowledge.Their limitedinterferewith theircomprehension.Childrenwho fail at earlyreading, begin todislike reading.comprehensioncontributes toreading failure.The Matthew EffectExplain the Matthew effectThe "Matthew Effect" is a term coined by Keith Stanovich, a psychologist who has done extensive research on reading and language disabilities. The "Matthew Effect" refers to the idea that in reading (as in other areas of life), the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.When children fail at early reading and writing, they begin to dislike reading. They read less than their classmates who are stronger readers. And when children with disabilities do not receive adequate remediation, they read less – and learn less from reading - than non-disabled children. As a consequence, they do not gain vocabulary, background knowledge, and information about how reading material is structured. In short, the word-rich get richer, while the word-poor get poorer. This is called "The Matthew Effect".
36 Anticipation Guide Statement Yes No YesNoThe majority of vocabulary instruction should be spent on Tier 2 words.Vocabulary instruction goes beyond defining words in text.Word lists are a useful way to teach vocabulary.Students must learn to evaluate the word alone, not necessarily the impact of the word choice.Teaching academic vocabulary will cause a shift in attention on the part of the teacher.Anticipation Guide* Refer back to the anticipation guide* Use it as an interactive checklist to summarize the main points / main ideas learned during the presentation of this module.
37 Final Thoughts on Academic Vocabulary “When our teaching is at its best, our students take what they’ve learned inside our classrooms to their outside lives. Vocabulary doesn’t exist between the school bells - it is carried with each learner for the rest of their lives.”Doug Fisher and Nancy FreyFinal Thoughts on Academic Vocabulary* Discuss quote by Doug Fisher and Nancy Frey
38 “….ultimately, our students are expected to develop as competent readers, writers, and thinkers in all academic disciplines”Developing Readers in the Academic DisciplinesDoug BuehlDeveloping Readers in the Academic Disciplines* Review the quote from Doug Buehl