2 Resources English Learners, Academic Literacy and Thinking by Pauline Gibbons (2009) Building Academic Language by Jeff Zwiers (2008) Content Area Conversations by Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey, and Carol Rothenberg (2008) WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards
3 What is Academic Language?
4 Everyday vs. Academic Language (Gibbons 2009) A lot of artists at that time painted pictures of everyday life. Magnets attract metal that contain iron. There was no food and many people starved and died.
5 Everyday vs. Academic Language (Gibbons 2009) A lot of artists at that time painted pictures of everyday life. Urban scenes were popular among artists of the area. Magnets attract metal that contain iron. Magnetic attraction occurs between magnets and ferrous materials. There was no food and many people starved and died. Famine caused mass starvation.
6 Social Language Proficiency Academic Achievement Academic Language Proficiency Gottlieb (2003)
7 Academic Language Proficiency Language-based Reflective of the varying stages of second language acquisition Representative of social and academic language contexts Tied to a states English language proficiency standards (WIDA) Academic Achievement Content-based Reflective of conceptual development Representative of the schools academic curriculum Tied to a states academic content standards
8 Register (Halliday and Hasan  and Gee ) Field - topic Tenor - Relationship between speaker and listener or reader and writer Mode - the channel of communication (spoken or written)
Using appropriate terminology is integral to the concepts being learned. Understanding concepts isnt simply a question of learning new vocabulary. Academic literacy means being able to express more concisely and precisely the complex ideas and concepts that are embedded in the context of a subject. (Gibbons 2009)
Academic language proficiency refers to the abilities to construct meaning from oral and written language, relate complex ideas and information, recognize features of different genres, and use various linguistic strategies to communicate. Dutro &Moran (2003)
11 WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards
12 Five WIDA ELP Standards Standard 1 – SIL: English language learners communicate for SOCIAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL purposes within the school setting. Standard 2 – LoLA: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of LANGUAGE ARTS. Standard 3 – LoMA: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of MATHEMATICS. Standard 4 – LoSC: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SCIENCE. Standard 5 – LoSS: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SOCIAL STUDIES.
13 Four Language Domains Listening process, understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situations Speaking engage in oral communication in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and audiences Reading process, interpret, and evaluate written language, symbols, and text with understanding and fluency Writing engage in written communication in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences
14 Criteria for Performance Definitions ENTERINGBEGINNINGDEVELOPINGEXPANDING BRIDGING REACHINGREACHING Linguistic Complexity: Expectations of the quantity and organization of the students verbal response Vocabulary Usage: Expectations of the students use of appropriate vocabulary for grade level and proficiency level; refers to language quality Language Control: Expectations of the students control of English grammar, word choice in context, and the English sound system; refers to language quality
15 Linguistic Complexity (Level 1) What is this? Who is this? What are they doing? A cake. A cookie. Baking. Expectation: Single words (Level 2) What is happening in this picture? They are cooking. They are making a cake. Expectation: Short phrases or sentences (Level 3) How are cookies and cakes similar/different? They are both sweet, but cookies are usually smaller than cakes. Expectation: Simple conjoined sentences with descriptors use of cohesion.
16 Vocabulary Usage The Language of Social Studies General Language: people Specific Language: population Technical Language: demographics The Language of Language Arts General Language: person Specific Language: character Technical Language: protagonist
17 Navel Orange
18 The navel orange is one of the few remaining staples in the produce bins that remains untouched by globalization. (New York Times Jan 21,2007 Kim Severson) The navel orange is one of the few remaining staples in the produce bins that remains untouched by globalization.
19 The _______ is one of the few remaining _________ in the ______________that remains untouched by _______________. The Ginkgo is one of the few remaining trees in the United States that remains untouched by gypsy moths.
20 When an animal hibernates, it breathes very slowly, its heart beat slows down, and its body gets colder. (Click Magazine Dec. 2010) When an animal exercises, it breathes very quickly, its heart beat increases, and its body gets warmer.
21 What does it mean to be Concise and Precise? Vocabulary Usage We want energy that will be there for us when we want it. Fossil fuels are a resource that will not last forever.
22 What does it mean to be Concise and Precise? Vocabulary Usage We want energy that will be there for us when we want it. We want reliable energy sources. Fossil fuels are a resource that will not last forever. Fossil fuels are a finite resource.
23 Linguistic Complexity We use large amounts of oil. We will be without oil in 30 to 40 years. Alternative energy is our best solution. Alternative energy can meet our future energy needs.
24 Linguistic Complexity We use large amounts of oil. We will be without oil in 30 to 40 years. If we use large amounts of oil, we will be without oil in 30 to 40 years. Alternative energy is our best solution. Alternative energy can meet our future energy needs. Alternative energy is our best solution and can meet our future energy needs.
25 Language Control (How well do you control the use of academic English? Does one idea connect to another idea? Do you use the appropriate work in the correct manner?) Using transitions to connect and organize ideas (furthermore, as a result, however) Taking risks with language (good v. nutritious) Correct word forms (significant/significance, contribute/contribution)
27 Elements of Model Performance Indicators The Model Performance Indicator (MPI) consists of three elements: The language function describes how students use language to demonstrate their proficiency The example topic specifies the context for language instruction, derived from state content standards The support includes instructional strategies or tools used to assist students in accessing content necessary for communication; can be sensory, graphic, or interactive
28 Grade 9-12 Reading Science Level 3 BiomeClimateTemperatureSoil Tundradry-20º - 40º FMainly frozen Taigaaverage-10º - 55º FRocky Temperate Forest average0º - 80º FRich and deep Tropical Forest wet45º - 95º FPoor and thin Based on the information from the table, which biome has the widest temperature range? (A) Tundra (B) Taiga (C) Temperate Forest (D) Tropical Rain Forest (MPI: Extract information on the use of data presented in text and tables)
29 Additional Features of Academic Language Collocations (to commit a crime) Polysemous words: multiple meanings (table) Nominalization/Nominal Groups
30 When people clear land for houses and roads they change the environment. They destroy the forest and bush and then many animals lose their homes. More houses and roads will pollute the environment even more. Some animals have become extinct because their homes have been destroyed. Clearing and development of land often results in the destruction of the natural habitat of many local species. It may also increase the level of pollution. Loss of habitat has already led to the extinction of many species of animals.
31 The Talking to Writing Continuum (Gibbons 2009) (1) Face to Face Interactions Look, its making them move. Thats not going. Those ones are going fast.
32 (2) Oral Retelling We found out the pins stuck on the magnet and so did the iron filings. Then we tried the pencil but it didnt stick.
33 (3) Written Summary Our experiment was to find out what a magnet attracted. We discovered that a magnet attracts some kinds of metal. It attracted the iron filings and the pins, but not the pencil.
34 (4) Academic Text The magnet is a piece of metal that is surrounded by an invisible field of force which affects any magnetic material within it. It is able to attract a piece of iron or steel because it is magnetic field flows into the metal, turning it into a temporary magnet. Magnetic attraction occurs only between ferrous materials.
35 Because we are immersed in an ocean of academic language daily, its hard to notice the habits we automatically engage in to comprehend such language…When we become aware of our own habits and strategies, we can model them and make them available to our students. (Jeff Zwiers 2008) Engaging students in more explicit language production creates a bridge between the everyday language and the more abstract and formal language associated with academic literacy.
36 Instructional Implications Go from the everyday, familiar, and concrete to the subject specific, unfamiliar and abstract Link students real world experiences to school experiences Sequence teaching and learning activities to move towards the specialized language of written texts, rather than starting with the written texts Structure classroom discourse and interaction so that it bridges to written texts
37 Increasing Interaction to Build Fluency Model the language and the interaction Have students process information individually Have students process information in pairs Have students process information in small groups Compare/Contrast information to source (reading) Apply information to a new task (writing)
38 Building Background Knowledge Marzano (2004) Effective processing of information depends on … The number of times information is processed The detail that is added The associations that are made with other information
39 Instructional Strategies to Build Academic Language
40 Amplify language rather than simplify.
41 Thinking Sheets ProcedureFocusMath Problem Example Structured prompts that help students articulate their thinking to a group while engaged in cognitive tasks such as solving a problem, planning how to do something, or working out an explanation using precise language. Requires students to make their reasoning visible by talking aloud. Through talk, students clarify the questions, suggest alternative ways of solving problems and justifying a decision. Oral rehearsal of language What are the key words in this question? Write down another way of saying the same thing. What mathematical processes will you need to use? Solve the problem as a group. Write down the steps you followed as you were finding the answer.
44 (-2, -3) and (2, 6)
47 A flag is a ________. a) person b) placec) thing
48 Concept Sort ProcedureFocusLinguistic Frames Students sort single words, phrases, or sentences into categories that relate to the concept they are studying. Sorting may be open or closed (eg. category, sequence, characteristics) Manipulating cards is a physical response that can enhance language learning Students make deeper connections with concepts and language Keep records of sorts for reference (written/digitally) I think ___ belongs in this category because ___. I dont think ___ belongs in this category because it doesnt ___. ___ should be (first, second, next) because These belong in the same category because_____ What is the difference between ___ and ___?
50 Flexibility The ability of joints to move through their full range of motion.
51 Flexibility The ability of _____ to move through their full range of motion.
52 Flexibility The ability of _____ to ____ through their full range of motion.
53 Flexibility The ability of _____ to ____ through their ____ range of motion.
54 Flexibility The ability of _____ to ____ through their ____ range of _____.
55 Flexibility ___ ability of _____ to ____ through their ____ range of _____.
56 Flexibility ___ ability of _____ to ____ through ____ ____ range of _____.
57 Flexibility ___ ability of _____ to ____ through ____ ____ _____ of _____.
58 Flexibility ___ _____ of _____ to ____ through ____ ____ _____ of _____.
59 Flexibility ___ _____ of _____ to ____ _____ ____ ____ _____ of _____.
60 Flexibility ___ _____ ___ _____ to ____ _____ ____ ____ _____ of _____.
61 Vanishing Cloze ProcedureFocus Example Write a sentence on a key item of knowledge students need to practice. Students read text together. Erase one word from the text. Students read the whole text again, supplying the missing word. Repeat the process with another word. Repeated readings of complex grammatical structures and vocabulary to build fluency A strategy to build student autonomy Flexibility is the ability of joints to move through their full range of motion. Flexibility is the ability of joints to _______through their full range of motion. Flexibility is the ability of joints to _______ through their full range of _________. Flexibility is the ability of _____ to ____through their full range of ______.
School General academic language for knowing, thinking, reading, writing and visualizing Language of Music Language of Mathematics Language of Science Language of Language Arts Language of Social Studies Student Learner assets, home and community language, and cultural factors Researched Based Teaching Strategies and Instructional Activities Formative and Summative Assessment of English Language Proficiency Adapted from Jeff Zwiers (2008) and WIDA
63 Thank you for your interest in this webinar. Maine Department of Education ESL/Bilingual Programs