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Don Bouchard Maine Department of Education ESL Professional Development Thursday, April 2, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Don Bouchard Maine Department of Education ESL Professional Development Thursday, April 2, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Don Bouchard Maine Department of Education ESL Professional Development Thursday, April 2, 2009

2 1. To become familiar with aspects of academic language for delivering comprehensible content instruction to English Language Learners (ELLs). 2. To understand some of the complexities of English print regarding academic use. 3. To learn some of the ways to scaffold academic language.

3 ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE

4 A man walks into the doctors office and says Doc, I have a pain in my shoulder.

5 The doctor examines him and says, You have acute inflammation of the anterior bursa and have developed severe bursitis.

6 Patient: Oh, what does that mean? Doctor: You have a pain in your shoulder!

7 . Хората имат два крака. Кучетата и котките имат четири крака, а насекомите имат шест. Но насекомите имат различни видове крака. Някои крака са за скачане. Други са за катерене, хващане, тичане, или плуване. 1. Колко крака имат хората? 2. Колко крака имат насекомите? 3. Как използват краката си насекомите?

8 Tib neeg muaj ob txhais ceg. Aub thiab miv muaj plaub txhais ceg--kab thaib yoov muaj rau txhais ceg. Tiamsis, kab thaib yoov co ceg tsis zoo tibyam. Ib co ceg zoo rau txoj kev dhia. Ib co ceg zoo heev rau txoj kev, nce ntoo, vuag khoom, khiav, los yog ua luam dej. 1. Tib neeg muaj pestsawg txhais ceg? 2. Kab thaib yoov muaj pestsawg txhai ceg? 3. Kab thaib yoov siv lawv co ceg ua dabtsi?

9 Tib neeg muaj ob txhais ceg. Aub thiab miv muaj plaub txhais ceg--kab thaib yoov muaj rau txhais ceg. Tiamsis, kab thaib yoov co ceg tsis zoo tibyam. Ib co ceg zoo rau txoj kev dhia. Ib co ceg zoo heev rau txoj kev, nce ntoo, vuag khoom, khiav, los yog ua luam dej. 1. Tib neeg muaj pestsawg txhais ceg? 2. Kab thaib yoov muaj pestsawg txhai ceg? 3. Kab thaib yoov siv lawv co ceg ua dabtsi?

10 People have two legs. Dogs and cats have four legsand insects have six. But not all insect legs are the same. Some legs are good for jumping. Others are perfect for climbing, grabbing, running or swimming. 1. How many legs do people have? 2. How many legs do insects have? 3. How do insects use their legs?

11 Learning in school is done primarily through language. Yet the language of school is seldom explicitly discussed or taught in schools. - Schleppegrell, 2004

12 Academic language is the language of school used to require new/deeper understanding of content subjects. Academic language involves a variety of aspects: -word level: vocabulary -sentence level: grammar -extended level: discourse

13 Word level: Vocabulary Non-specialized: pain General academic: inflammation Content specific academic: bursitis

14 Sentence level: Grammar Language patterns and grammatical structures specific to the content areas. You have acute inflammation of the anterior bursa. Complex textbook sentences

15 Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae of the synovial fluid of the body. The bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone and become inflamed. (source: Wikipedia)

16 More Spoken LikeMore Written Like -conversation -Texting a friend -Academic Discussion -Academic Lecture -Newspaper article -Academic Journal Article

17 Conversational Anglo-Saxon based words Concrete, situated in here & now More immediate, current

18 Academic Recorded, in the past Latin-Greek based words Detached style More abstract, not tied to specific settings

19 A genre is a type of text used in schools. 1. Personal genres – personal experiences recounts, accounts, narratives 2. Factual genres – facts procedures, recounts, reports 3. Analytical genres – analyze events or argue for certain interpretations accounts, explanations, expositions

20 RECOUNT What I did on my vacation ACCOUNT Why I got into trouble at school NARRATIVE Why I didnt know about the quiz after lunch

21 PROCEDURES How to dissect a frog RECOUNT Steps to take to obtain a drivers license HISTORICAL Major events in War War II

22 ACCOUNTS The events leading up to the Iraq war EXPLANATIONS How to find the area of a cylinder EXPOSITIONS The South deserved to become independent

23 Personal genres are typically used at the elementary level; ELLs must quickly adjust to factual and analytical genres to learn the complex, cognitively demanding uses of academic language in the various content areas.

24 Print is the basis of academic language; however, oral communication in the form of: Discussion Question posing/response Lecture is also important to cultivate along with reading and writing.

25 1. When delivering instruction, think in terms of: I do - you watch; I do – you help; You do – I help; You do – I watch.

26 Focused Lesson Instruction -builds vocabulary -provides practice in fluency -models rhythm, stress, intonation -uses standard grammar -focuses on targeted language structures

27 Guided Instruction -responsibility is shared -focus on challenging aspects of language, such as grammar, mechanics, ideas, comprehension

28 Collaborative Learning -independent, small group focus -linked to the purpose of the lesson -highly organized -varied: partnering, conference focused, interactive

29 Independent Learning -practice and application -employs use of strategies -involves reading and writing

30 2. Use the language of the written register, i.e. model the use of complete sentences & vocabulary with explicit referents. Example: Put the marker on the shelf. Not: Put it over there.

31 Minimize the use of abbreviations, short forms of words, two-word verbs, and idiomatic expressions.

32 3. Minimize teacher talk time; allow for more student talk opportunities through open response questions and elaborated answers.

33 4. Use think - alouds to read aloud content texts. This helps ELLs comprehend text by: -increasing comprehension -inferring-monitoring -summarizing-synthesizing -questioning-connecting

34 5. Display, define, and review the language objective along with the content objective. Content objective: Four ways geography affects climate. Language objective: Read chapter __ on how deserts, mountains, plains, and oceans affect climate.

35 CONTENT OBJECTIVE LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE (academic achievement) (academic language) WHAT YOU WILL LEARN: HOW YOU WILL USE: -Math-Listening -Science-Speaking -Social Studies-Reading -Language Arts-Writing...in your learning

36 6. Use content-related sentence starters for academic writing -openings/introductions-generalization -thesis/topic statements -secondary purpose-closings -organization statements -assertion -comparison/contrast

37 7. Frontload texts by anticipating and teaching to potentially problematical language structures. Vocabulary*Pronouns*Connectors* Clauses*Verb Tenses

38 In order for students to demonstrate academic achievement, they must master academic language.

39 All teachers are language teachers. A teacher who does not know about language is analogous to a doctor who does not know about anatomy.

40 ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC LITERACY

41 Academic literacy is the ability to recognize and use print language in cognitively demanding ways with increasing complexity.

42 With ELLs, learning to read is continuous throughout reading to learn, especially for older learners with low L1 and prior education.

43 General Characteristics (adapted from Fillmore & Snow, 2005) -summarize texts -analyze texts -extract meaning from texts -evaluate evidence and arguments present in texts -recognize and analyze textual conventions -recognize ungrammatical language -condense language into coherently and cohesively -compose and write extended prose -extract precise information from a written text to solve a problem

44 Functions & Features (adapted from Zweirs, 2008) -to describe complexity, higher order thinking & abstraction -figurative expressions -explicitness for distant audiences -detachment -conveying nuances with modals -changing the message with qualifiers -using prosody for emphasis

45 Using Print in Language Arts to... -Connect events or characters of narrative to students lives -Uncover authors messages -Recognize literary devices -Analyze authors craft -Interpret -Persuade -Explain cause & effect

46 Using Print in Social Studies to... -Explain cause & effect -Persuade -Take a perspective

47 Using Print in Science to... -Inquire -Explain cause & effect -Interpret -Compare

48 Using Print in Math to... -Interpret -Problem solve

49 - English print is OPAQUE, i.e., one symbol = many possible sounds. - English has a very complex vowel system. Example: a at(52%)any (22%) angel (8%) all (5%)are (4%) vary (1%)

50 There was once a beautiful bear who sat on a seat near to breaking and read by the hearth about how the earth was created. She smiles beatifically, full of ideas for the realm of her winter dreams. Wolf, Proust and the Squid, p. 128

51 There was once a beautiful bear who sat on a seat near to breaking and read by the hearth about how the earth was created. She smiled beatifically, full of ideas for the realm of her winter dreams.

52 - An ELLs accent will not affect their understanding of words when they read; however, they must be able to aurally discriminate these sounds when they hear them. - ELLs have an inherent skill that native users of English do not have: they consistently (consciously or not) compare & contrast English with their home language.

53 - For ELLs, words are difficult to acquire if they are: a) acoustically similar b) longer c) difficult to pronounce d) not nouns - Engagement with a text is threatened by unknown words; pursuing a definition threatens this engagement.

54 1. When teaching content, give attention to print English works. Pay special attention to minefields: -pronouns and pronoun referents; -sentence connectors -polysemous words -sentence complexity

55 1. Dictations – word, sentence, discourse level after the lesson has been delivered and practiced. 2. Journaling 3. Mortar sentence building

56 2. Read aloud to your students (regardless of content or grade). This is one of the few occasions that ELLs have the opportunity to experience grade level (or above) use of content language.

57 3. Teach vocabulary from the Academic Word List as these grade-appropriate content-related words appear in the content. These words must be learned for academic language achievement.

58 4. Teach affixations, derivations, and collocations. Affixations: prefixes and suffixes Derivations: word forms (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) Collocations: word partnerships

59 5. When teaching vocabulary, focus on 24/48/7/14 (Review after one day; after two days; after one week; after 2 weeks)

60 6. Make students responsible for their own vocabulary learning -Convince them! -Require vocabulary log -Recognition & use in flash reading and flash writing

61 7. Always connect print language with oral language. Read – write - discuss

62 1. Selected reading: have students read the first paragraph. 2. Have students underline the first sentence of following paragraphs. 3. Have students read the last paragraph. 4. Individually or in groups student(s) write a one- sentence interpretation of underlined sentences. 5. Students discuss interpretations. 6. Students read entire selection.

63 8. To help students read a text: (Hinkel, 2009) -Have them read sentence by sentence (skipping unknown words) until they cant understand -Go back one sentence -Begin looking up words

64 9. Remember that literacy is culturally influenced and practiced. ELLs literate in their L1 may know only how to engage with print through recitation and memorization; therefore, reading for meaning will be a struggle.

65 10. Encourage wide reading The man who does not read... has no advantage over someone who cant read.... -Mark Twain

66 1. Provide attractive reading materials 2. Provide time for reading in class. 3. Read interesting material to students 4. Find out what students like to read and why. 5. Provide incentives 6. Allow for take-home reading 7. Talk about what you read 8. Have students share and recommend

67 SCAFFOLDING ACADEMIC LANGUAGE

68 SCAFFOLDING IS THE SUPPORT NECESSARY TO ASSIST ELLS ACCORDING TO THEIR LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY.

69 1. SLOW DOWN the exchanges with specific gambits: Can you say that again? Tell me a little more. Etc.

70 2. Re: oral language -increase wait time -allow more turns before recasting what the learner has said; -respond to the meaning

71 Re: Reading Engage students in flash reading, i.e, alternate paired oral reading of a familiar passage for 30-second intervals three times (Grabe & Stoeller, 2009)

72 4. Re: Writing Encourage journaling through question prompts; Engage learners in Flash Writing.

73 5. Use graphic organizers: websflow chartshigh- outlinesdiagramslighted text chartsmapstables equationstimelines symbols calendarspicturesetc.

74 Strategic scaffolding designed to meet individual ELL proficiency levels in listening, speaking, reading, and writing is accomplished by aligning them with the WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards...

75 ...and using a variety of support modalities: -visuals (graphic organizers) -aural/oral (peer groupings) -tactile-kinesthetic (objects and/or body movement)

76 Time alone, i.e., simply being exposed to English at school, does not ensure academic English learning. ELLs need explicit support.

77 ELLs in a school... Can also be... A catalyst for the kind of [academic] language focused curriculum that will be of benefit to all children. -Gibbons (2002), p. 11.

78 Children... Learn language in the process of using it. They learn through language when they use it to construct knowledge across all areas of the curriculum....

79 ... and they learn about language when there is a focus on language. -Gibbons, p. 138

80 CERTAINTY LEADS TO CREATIVITY - Hinkel 2009

81 Academic Word List: Birch, B. (2006). English L2 Reading: Getting to the Bottom. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, 2 nd edition. Dutro, S. & Moran, C. (2003). Rethinking English Language Instruction. In Garcia (ed.), English learners: Reaching the highest level of English literacy (pp ). Newark, NJ.: International Reading Association. Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. & Short, D. (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners. Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon, 3 rd Edition. _______ (2008). 99 Ideas and Activities for Teaching English Language Learners. Boston: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.

82 Freeman, D. & Freeman, Y. (2009). Academic Language for English Language Learners and Struggling Readers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Gibbons, P. (2002). Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Scarcella, R. (2003). Accelerating Academic English: Focusing on the English Language Learner. Irvine, CA: University of California, Irvine. Wilhelm, J. (2001). Improving Comprehension with Think- Aloud Strategies. New York: Scholastic. Zweirs, J. (2008). Building Academic Language. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

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