3 Enduring Understandings Participants willLearn about different formats of sheltered programs that focus on academic content and academic language for ELLs.Discuss the benefits and constraints of each sheltered model.Have an opportunity to ask questions about implementing sheltered programs for their ELL students.
4 Reading Passage“The Batsmen were merciless against the Bowlers. The Bowlers placed their men in slips and covers. But to no avail. The Batsmen hit one four after another along with an occasional six. Not once did their balls hit their stumps or get caught.”(Daniels,Subjects Matter, 2004)
5 Comprehension Questions Who were merciless against the Bowlers?Where did the Bowlers place their men?Was this strategy successful?Who hit an occasional six?How many times did the Batsmen’s balls hit a stump?
6 Building BackgroundI can answer the questions, but I really don’t understand it!!! There’s no deep understanding; can sometimes pass tests on concepts that I really don’t grasp.Prior Knowledge is the main determinant of comprehension.Students need to activate this prior knowledge or schema to understand new material. Sometimes students need to “shift” or revise an old schema to make the new one work.
7 Would this picture have helped you with the reading?
9 What Makes Content Difficult for English Language Learners?
10 Middle School Students’ Comments Regarding Science Class (December, 2005) “Many of the other students learned the words and the materials before. I didn’t learn it so I have no idea what she is talking about.”“I have no idea what all the words mean. When she talked about the cylinders and the triple beam balance, I didn’t know what they were for.”“My class is manageable for me because if I don’t understand, I ask questions.”
11 “In science I don’t understand the vocabulary they are using and I can’t understand even if I try to understand. Use easy words for all of us. If you have to use hard words, then tell us what is that mean.”“My science class is difficult for me because I always get confused and I have language problem with all those words in the book I never know.”
12 What Makes Content Areas Difficult for ELLs? Complexity of questionsReading level of textAssignments without modeling expectationsAcademic vocabularyLanguage structures for each content areaLack of background experiencesDifferent teaching styles
13 Distinction between BICS and CALPS Jim Cummins:BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communicative SkillsCALP: Cognitive Academic Language ProficiencyStephen Krashen:Sheltered Instruction as a way to use second language acquisition strategies while teaching content area instruction. Sheltered instruction provides refuge from the linguistic demands of mainstream instruction which is beyond the comprehension of ELLs.Input+1 hypothesisAffective filter
14 Research on ELLs Collier and Thomas: 6 months -2 years to develop oral language proficiency but 4-7 years to gain academic competency and can be as long as 7-10 years with students with very limited schoolingThe strongest predictor for second language achievement is the amount of formal primary language schooling. The more primary language schooling, the higher the second language achievement.
17 What makes effective sheltered instruction? Adaptation of academic content to the language proficiency of the studentsEmphasis on key vocabulary and academic concepts to understand new contentUse of supplementary materials that are at students’ instructional reading levelsTeacher speech (slower, clearly enunciated, shorter sentences, simple syntax) that makes information comprehensible to studentsLots of opportunities for students to engage in listening, speaking, reading and writingTeacher modeling of learning strategies
18 Content Teachers and Reading (Jeffrey Wilhelm in Strategic Reading, 2001) As content teachers, we need to “disrupt our own reading in some way to gain awareness of how we proceed as we read or make meaning with text. These disruptions in turn can help us think of how to help students.”Teachers need to do more than assign; they need to guide students’ understanding with questions that will help them to think more effectively. Students need to develop “ a sense of competence” that they have the strategies to complete the reading assignments, thus helping them to become engaged readers.
19 Designing Instruction for ELLs in Content Classes
20 Writing Samples Look at the four samples. Rank them from least to most proficient.What do these papers tell you about the language acquisition process?What type of instruction would meet each paper’s academic needs?
21 ESL Sheltered Content Models: Not “static models” because of changing needs of ELLs. Schools try to continually “tweak” model to implement effective and efficient instruction for ELLs.Model 1: Integrated Language and Content classes delivered by ESL teachers.Model 2: Sheltered “Content Concepts” classes delivered by state endorsed content teachers or content trained ESL teachers.Model 3: Collaborative Content Model: ESL and content teacher plan and co-teach together.Model 4: Full Year Sheltered Content Classes for Credit (at high school level only)
22 Model 1: Integrated ESL Language/Content For newly arrived studentsTaught by an ESL teacherBasic Social Studies,Science and Math concepts (e.g. branches of government, different weather forces, math operations) and vocabulary (president, congress, court, hurricane, tornado, volcano, multiplication, remainder, fractions, percents).Which paper would benefit from this type of instruction?Are students ready to participate successfully in grade level content classes at the end of these courses?What does this model look like for elementary and secondary students?Show models of Social Studies projects
23 What does this model look like? Northern Virginia Schools: Arlington , Fairfax, Alexandria,,Manassas City Public SchoolsArlington ESOL/HILT Program ( sheltered HILT classes for Level 1)Fairfax County ESOL Program (sheltered ESOL classes for Level 1, some Level 2) Developed FAST Math to accelerate students’ math skills.Elementary ESL students are generally in sheltered classes for shorter amounts of time each day for language arts and then return to grade level classes.Winchester Public SchoolsElementary ESL Program (2 hours language arts with ESL teacher)Middle and high school ESL language arts and content classes for Level 1 students.Rockingham County Public SchoolsMiddle and high school Level 1 students attend Dayton Learning Center for ESL classes and then return to base school for electives.Harrisonburg City Public SchoolsElementary Newcomers’ Center Program ( one semester and then return to home school.)Middle and high school ESL language and content classes for Level 1 students taught by ESL teachers.
24 ConstraintsStudents do not study with grade level peers for part or all of day.ESL teacher totally responsible for students’ instructional and emotional needs.Students generally do not study grade level curriculum.Need for language and content materials at students’ instructional levels. What specific content will be addressed?May need to be multi-graded if not enough students at one grade level.Sometimes instruction is not at school but at ESL Center.Cost factor: small student teacher ratio and may need additional teachers for other grades.New arrival students enter throughout the semester.BenefitsInstruction that focuses on language and content needs for beginning level students. Tries to introduce students to important content concepts often from prior grades.Opportunity for students to learn communicative and academic language.Welcoming environment/low anxiety.Can provide some native language support.Introduces students to academic expectations.
25 Model 2: Sheltered Content Concepts Classes (1) Generally taught by a state certified content teacher as an elective credit class or ESL teacher who has been trained to teach content.Teaches grade level content using adapted materials that are appropriate for students’ instructional reading level.Objective is to provide basic understanding of key concepts and vocabulary that prepare students for future grade level classes. May not be as comprehensive as a state required course.
26 Model 2: Sheltered Content Concepts Classes (2) Teaches students to apply science and social studies strategies to textbook reading, note-taking and other content specific activities such as labs or projects.Which paper would benefit from this type of instruction?Are students ready to take the state exam at the end of these courses?What does this model look like for elementary and secondary students?
27 Examples of Language Objectives for a Content Class Students will read about Coastal Indians with a partner and then list five important facts about this group.Students will read the text about the North and South before the Civil War and complete a Venn Diagram that shows the similarities and differences between these two sections of the U.S.Students will learn the names of the planets and draw the planets and their relationship to the sun.
28 What does this model look like? Arlington Public Schools:Level 2 students enroll in sheltered HILT content classes with an ESL teacher using prescribed curriculum that prepares students for grade level content classes.Harrisonburg City:Level 2 high school students enroll in Sheltered Content Concepts classes prior to an SOL content class taught by a content teacher. Students receive elective credit but have background knowledge before SOL course.High school Level 2 students enroll in Transitional English 1 (sheltered English class for credit) with English teacher. May need to enroll in Transitional English 2 if more time is needed to improve reading and writing. Can receive English credit for this class.Middle school Level 2 students receive grade level sheltered language arts and content from content teacher.Elementary LEAP Program ( Language Enrichment for Academic Progress) – Level 1 students at specific grade level taught by an elementary teacher with support from ESL and literacy specialist. Provides language arts instruction at students’ instructional levels as well as grade level content concepts.
29 ConstraintsContent teacher is not always prepared to work on language needs of ELLs during content instruction.Limited number of ESL teachers so content teachers take on responsibility of teaching ELLs.Recognize that Level 2 students still need a lot of linguistic support to understand content.Level 2 students are generally not ready to take high school end-of-course tests.BenefitsStudents can receive grade level content from endorsed content teacher.Sometimes the students in sheltered classes are part of grade level teams and students can easily be moved to mainstream class when ready.Language and content are continually integrated to help students progress in English acquisition.Students can earn required credit for high school courses such as Transitional English (taught by highly qualified teacher).
30 Model 3: Collaborative Model The ESL teacher and content teacher plan instruction so that the ESL teacher can provide additional language, reading and writing support for ELLs in the class.ESL teacher finds appropriate reading materials at students’ instructional reading levels; designs writing activities for students’ linguistic abilities; may model reading, writing, vocabulary strategies for all students in class.Delivery can be in general education or sheltered class.Which paper would benefit from this model?What does this model look like for elementaryand secondary students?Which paper would benefit from this model?
31 Writing Content and Language Objectives VA SOL 3.8 The student will solve problems involving the sum or difference of two whole numbers, each 9,999 or less, with or without regrouping…Content ObjectiveLanguage ObjectiveStudents will develop and share their own addition story problems.Students will write addition story problems using key vocabulary: first, then, together, plus, and equals.Students will state the equation for the story problem accurately.
32 Writing Content and Language Objectives LS.2 The student will investigate and understand that all living things are composed of cells. Key concepts include cell structure and organelles (cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, vacuole, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and chloroplast); similarities and differences between plant and animal cells; development of cell theory; and cell division (mitosis and meiosis).Content ObjectiveLanguage ObjectiveStudents will differentiate the characteristics of animal and plant cells by making models of each.Students will be able to discuss cells and organelles in small groupsStudents will negotiate designs for building a model of the cells.
33 What does this model look like? Elementary Programs that use “ESL Push-in Model”ESL teacher supports ELLs (Levels 2-3) in grade level classes especially in math and content.Winchester Public Schools:High School Level 2 (high proficient) and Level 3 students are integrated in grade level content Earth Science and World History classes with ESL teacher’s support.( Inclusion Content Model)Manassas City Public Schools:Grades 5-8: Content and ESL teacher provide grade level instruction for Level 2 and some Level 3 students. ESL teacher has students for an additional ESL resource class to reinforce English language development.
34 ConstraintsExpensive since two teachers are working with approximately students.Content and ESL teachers don’t always have common preparation time to plan lessons.Sometimes the ESL teacher is given non-teaching tasks like copying materials, walking around room to help students, etc.Need for staff development so content and ESL teachers know specific teaching responsibilitiesBenefitsStudents receive ESL support while they learn grade level content.ESL teacher works with content teacher to provide linguistic support (reading and writing) to daily lessons to help students access content.ESL students are expected to take grade level end-of-course tests.
35 Model 4: Full Year and Double Block High School Credit Classes Adaptation of sheltered Content Concepts class (Model 2) with ESL students or ESL and general education students who will take end-of-course tests.Double Block provides twice as much time to cover the same material as a regular state required course.Which paper would benefit from this type of instruction?Are students ready to take the state exam at the end of these courses?
36 What does this model look like? Arlington Public Schools:High school Levels 3 and 4 students enroll in HILTEX Biology/World History/U.S. History taught by a content teacher. Students take end-of-course SOL test for high school credit. Levels 3 and 4 students take additional ESL reading/language class for support.Prince William Public Schools:High school Levels 3 and 4 students enroll in ESL content classes with content teacher. ESOL teacher provides one period to review and supplement sheltered content classes.Harrisonburg City Public Schools:Full year high school World History, English 11( two semesters on 4x4 block schedule.)Seems to be more problematic for schools on 4 x4 semester schedule when students need more than one semester to master content for end-of-course tests.
37 BenefitsClass is for Intermediate/Advanced ESL students who still need support.ESL students have more time to master content before taking end-of-course test.(4x4 block)More time to integrate language and content instruction for students especially with reading and writing.( 4x4 blocESL Content Courses provide sheltered instruction for Levels 3 and 4 students- can pace instruction to meet their needs and students are more likely to pass end-of-course tests.ConstraintsLimits the number of courses that students can take.( 4x4 block)Must determine which teacher will teach full-year course for school schedule.Generally fewer students are enrolled in this course so other classes might have increased student numbers.Staff development for content teachers to understand the linguistic needs of students in these classes.
38 What is SIOP? (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) SIOP is a model of sheltered instruction that guides teachers in how to use effective practice systematically and to give teachers a tool for reflection and improving instruction. (Echevarria, Vogt and Short , 2000, 2004)
39 Components of Effective Instruction (link to slide on what makes content difficult for ELLs) PreparationBuild BackgroundComprehensible InputStrategiesInteractionPractice/ApplicationReview/Assessment
40 What is differentiation? Differentiation does not advocate “individualization.” Classroom teachers can work to the benefit of many more students by implementing patterns of instruction likely to serve multiple needs.( Tomlinson and McTighe, 2006) but educators need to know what the most effective instructional practices are for beginning/intermediate level English language learners.
41 Staff DevelopmentClassroom teachers need to have training on either incorporating SIOP elements or Marzano’s Classroom Instruction for English Language Learners so that they address the linguistic needs of different proficiency levels of ELLs.Need to plan a systematic approach that can be used within a school to help ELLs progress in both language and content learning.
43 Some Last Thoughts Focus on key concepts and language. Modify your own language.Provide multiple opportunities to practice both language and content concepts.Validate students’ prior knowledge.Encourage hands-on learning and collaborative learning.Ask questions at students’ level of English.
44 Some Last ThoughtsBuild Supportive Relationships: Show that you care about reading and your students’ ability to succeed.Model, model, model strategies.Provide materials that students can read successfully and that are at their instructional reading levels.
45 Key Interventions for Instructing ELLs Important role of Background KnowledgeThematic InstructionModel strategy instructionScaffold key concepts and informationVocabulary Instruction
46 We can’t wait forever…Reflecting on what you’ve heard today, what kinds of changes would you consider making in your instructional program for English Language Learners at your school?Either a brief, general think-pair-share or group participants into school groups & have them list 3 things that could be put into place that would make a significant difference for ELLs. Depending on time, groups could share.
47 Presenter: Barbara Fagan ( M. A Presenter: Barbara Fagan ( M.A. in Teaching English as a Second Language)Classroom teacher and former Secondary ESL Coordinator for Arlington Public Schools ( )Currently an Adjunct ESL Instructor for James Madison University and George Mason UniversityESL Consultant to Virginia Department of Education and school systems implementing ESL programs.PO Box 569Basye, Virginia 22810(540)