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Ch 6: Long-Term Memory. Long-term vs. Short-term Memory.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 6: Long-Term Memory. Long-term vs. Short-term Memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 6: Long-Term Memory

2 Long-term vs. Short-term Memory

3 Long-Term Memory  Analogy: “Scrapbook” or “treasure chest”


5 Long-Term Memory Capacity Time stored Coding

6 Types of Long-Term Memory

7 Declarative Memory Semantic Memory Definitions of words Verb tenses Arithmetic facts Historical facts Scientific facts Geography facts

8 Declarative Memory Double Dissociations Two broken TVsFunction 1: SoundFunction 2: Picture TV “A”OKNot working TV “B”Not workingOK MemoryFunction 1: SemanticFunction 2: Episodic GeneOKNot working Italian womanNot workingOK


10 Presentation of one stimulus affects performance on that stimulus when it is presented again  Recognition  Recall Implicit Memory Repetition priming

11  Experiment: recall of spatial layout of a city Implicit Memory Repetition priming



14 Implicit Memory Procedural memory

15 Emotional events remembered more easily and vividly Emotion improves memory, becomes greater with time (may enhance consolidation) Brain activity: amygdala Implicit Memory Memory for Emotional Stimuli

16 Storing Information in LTM Encoding: acquiring information and transforming it into memory Maintenance rehearsal  Maintains information but does not transfer information to LTM Elaborative rehearsal  Transfers information to LTM

17 The Levels-of Processing View Basic assumption: Depth of Analysis  Superficial or shallow encoding  Deeper or semantic encoding

18 The Levels-of Processing View Basic assumption: Depth of Analysis Experiment:Trial 1Trial 2  Capital letters?  Rhyming?  Fit into sentence? BABYmonkey catfish plateocean

19 Information Storage at the Synapse

20 The Fragility of New Memories Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory for events prior to the trauma Anterograde amnesia: cannot form new memories

21 Consolidation Transforms new memories from fragile state to more permanent state  Synaptic consolidation occurs at synapses, happens rapidly  Systems consolidation involves gradual reorganization of circuits in brain

22 Forgetting  Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve

23 Forgetting  Interference Proactive interference Retroactive interference

24 How does interference work?  Retrieval Cue  Fan effect Forgetting

25 The Traditional View of Long-Term Memory Retrieval of Information  Mnemonics Categorization

26 Other Factors that Aid Encoding Imagery Creating connections, cues for remembering

27 Other Factors that Aid Encoding Self-reference effect Generation effect Organizing to-be-remembered information

28  Amount of processing (black:white; black:train)  Environment (context effect)  Physiological state (state-dependent memory) Other Factors that Aid Encoding

29 Encoding Specificity - Context

30 Encoding Specificity - State

31 Encoding Specificity - Mood

32 Improving Learning and Memory Associate what you are learning to what you already know Take breaks  Memory is better for multiple short study sessions  Consolidation

33 Improving Learning and Memory Distributed versus massed practice effect  Difficult to maintain close attention throughout a long study session  Studying after a break gives feedback about what you already know

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