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Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 13 The Commonwealth of Byzantium.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 13 The Commonwealth of Byzantium."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 13 The Commonwealth of Byzantium

2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 And therefore I have sailed the seas and come to the holy city of Byzantium. Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 The Crucial Role To the Muslim World: transmitted Greek knowledge Back to Renaissance Italy-Greek, Roman, their own Renaissance Eastern Europe: Orthodox Christianity, Byzantine Imperial Structures

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4 The Early Byzantine Empire Capital: Byzantium On the Bosporus Commercial, strategic value of location Constantine names capital after himself (Constantinople), moves capital there 340 CE 1453 falls to Turks, renamed Istanbul

5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 5 Medieval Constantinople

6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6

7 7

8 8 Golden Horn – 15c map

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9 Hagia Sophia

10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10 Hagia Sophia

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Hagia Sophia

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 Interior of the Church of Hagia Sophia

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 The Later Roman Empire and Byzantium Byzantine Empire inherits Roman Empire after fall of Rome in 5 th c. CE Eastern territories remain major power until 13 th c. CE

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14 The Later Roman Empire Roman infrastructure in place Roads, institutional hierarchies Challenges from strong Persian empire (Sassanid dynasty, CE) Invasions of Germanic peoples

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 Caesaropapism Power centralized in figure of Emperor Christian leader cannot claim divinity, rather divine authority Political rule Involved in Religious rule as well Authority absolute

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 The Byzantine Court Etiquette reinforces authority of Emperor Royal purple Prostration Mechanical devices designed to inspire awe

17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 Justinian ( CE) The sleepless emperor Wife Theodora as advisor Background: circus performer Uses army to contain tax riots, ambitious construction program Hagia Sophia Law Code definitive for centuries Nika Revolt

18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18

19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 Emperor Justinian [r ]

20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 Emperor Justinian [r ]

21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 21 Empress Theodora

22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 22 Byzantine Conquests General Belisarius recaptures much of western Roman Empire under Justinian Unable to consolidate control of territories Withdrew to defend empire from Sassanids, Slavs

23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 23 The Byzantine empire and its neighbors C.E.

24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 24 Islamic Conquests and Byzantine Revival 7 th century Arab Muslim expansion Besieged Byzantium , Defense made possible through use of greek fire

25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 25 Imperial Organization Themes (provinces) under control of generals Military administration Control from central imperial government Soldiers from peasant class, rewarded with land grants

26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 26 Tensions with Western Europe Church Byzantine: Greek; Roman: Latin Conflicts over hierarchical control Fealty of Germanic peoples Roman pope crowns Charlemagne in 800, a challenge to Byzantine authority

27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 27 Byzantine Economy and Society Constantinople largest city in Europe, 5 th -13 th c. Dependent on small landholders, free peasants Earlier large landholdings destroyed by invasions in 6 th -7 th centuries Theme system rewards soldiers with land grants

28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 28 Decline of the Free Peasantry Large landholdings on the increase Reduces tax revenues, recruits to military Last three centuries indicate steady decline of economy

29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 29 Manufacturing and Trade Trade routes bring key technologies, e.g. silk industry Advantage of location causes crafts and industry to expand after 6 th century Tax revenues from silk route Banking services develop

30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 30 Urban Life Aristocrats: palances; artisans: apartments; working poor: communal living spaces Hippodrome Chariot races, greens vs. blues Politically inspired rioting

31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 31 Orthodox Christianity Legacy of Classical Greece Greek replaces Latin after 6 th c. CE; language of New Testament Byzantine education sponsors development of large literate class for state bureaucracy Training in classical canon

32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 32 The Byzantine Church Church and state closely aligned Council of Nicea (325) bans Arian movement Human/divine nature of Jesus Constantine favors Arians, but supports Nicean condemnation Byzantine Emperors appoint Patriarchs Caesaropapism creates dissent in church

33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 33 Iconoclasm Emperor Leo III (r CE) Destruction of icons after 726 Popular protest, rioting Policy abandoned 843

34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 34 Icon of St. Peter

35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 35 Tombstone fragment with monk

36 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 36 Communion of the Apostles

37 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 37 Greek Philosophy and Byzantine Theology Attempt to reconcile Greek philosophy with Judeo-Christianity Constantine establishes school to apply philosophical methods to religious questions

38 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 38 Ascetism Hermit-like existence Celibacy Fasting Prayer St. Simeon Stylite Lived atop pillar for years

39 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 39 Byzantine Monasticism and St. Basil ( CE) Patriarch of Constantinople reforms monasteries Communal living Hierarchical structure Mt. Athos No women, female animals allowed

40 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Mount Athos Monastery 40

41 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Mount Athos 41

42 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 42 Tensions between Eastern and Western Christianity Ritual disputes Beards on clergy Leavened bread for Mass Theological disputes Iconoclasm Nature of the Trinity

43 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 43 Schism Arguments over hierarchy, jurisdiction Autonomy of Patriarchs, or Primacy of Rome? 1054 Patriarch of Constantinople and Pope of Rome excommunicate each other East: Orthodox Church West: Roman Catholic

44 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 44 Social Problems in the Byzantine Empire Generals of themes become allied with local aristocrats Intermarry, create class of elite Occasional rebellions vs. Imperial Rule

45 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 45 Challenges from the West Western European economic development Normans from Scandinavia press on Byzantine territories Crusades of 12 th -13 th centuries rampage through Byzantine territory Constantinople sacked, 1204

46 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 46 Challenges from the East Muslim Saljuqs invade Anatolia Threatens grain supply Defeat Byzantine army in 1071, creates civil conflict Period of steady decline until Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople in 1453 Renamed Istanbul

47 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 47 The Byzantine empire and its neighbors about 1100 C.E.

48 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 48

49 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 49 Golden Horn – 15c map

50 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 50 Influence on Slavic Cultures Relations from 6 th c. CE Bulgaria influenced culturally, politically Saints Cyril and Methodius Create Cyrillic alphabet Slavic lands develop orientation to Byzantium

51 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 51 Kievan Rus Conversion of Prince Vladimir, 989 Byzantine culture influences development of Slavic cultures Distinctively Slavic Orthodox church develops Eventual heir to Byzantium

52 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 52 Fall of Constantinople


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