2APRIL 12, 1861 Fort Sumter, SC Fort in Charleston Harbor Lincoln in a bindGen. P.G.T Beauregard—CSAMajor Anderson-UnionFort surrenders-no casualties!Fort Sumter is in Charleston Harbor, SC. Blocks the entrance to a major southern port.Under U.S. Army control. Running out of supplies. South Carolina warns Lincoln not to re-supply. Lincoln stuck-Pull out and look weak; stay/re-supply and provoke a war. Lincoln pretty much chooses the latter.Major Anderson was a former Artillery instructor at West Point. Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard was a former student.Bombardment lasts all day. The only battle death was a union mule! Fort Surrenders. Immediately Lincoln and the north calls for volunteers to put down this rebellion. South calls for volunteers to defend their honor and country
3Call for Volunteers-Both sides predict a quick war! The South has:1. Better Military Leaders2. Southern Sons went to West Point in greater numbers3. Farm boys shoot better!The North has:Sheer numbers in populationBetter and more weaponsStronger industry and more miles of R.R. trackNotes speak for themselves. The South sent more of their sons to West Point and other military academies than the North did. The military was seen as a honorable duty and the mark of a gentleman. Because of this the number of trained officers was significantly higher in the South at the beginning of the war and will be the primary reason for the South’s dominance in the first years of the war. They will eventually be overcome by the North’s sheer advantage in population and industry. They can replace what they lose the South can’t.
4North: Anaconda PlanControl the Mississippi River-Cut off Texas from the rest of the SouthBlockade all Southern PortsTake the war to the South—Capture Richmond, VA—The CapitalGeneral Winfield Scott, 75 years old, overwieght cannot lead the Union Army but does come up with the overall strategy to defeat the South. In essence, squeeze the South like an Anaconda. Capture the South’s capital in Richmond, VA just 100 miles from Washington, D.C., Control the Mississippi river which will not only cut off Texas from the South, with all their food and other supplies, but also not allow southern river traffic move much needed cotton out of the South for sale in Europe for money and weapons. The Union Navy will attempt to seal off the ports further cutting down commerce and therefore crippling the southern ability to trade.
5The South’s strategy was to play an aggressive defense The South’s strategy was to play an aggressive defense. Those who are defending their homes fight harder and have more to die for. This makes for a tougher enemy to defeat. The goal is to wear down the Union/North to a point that they will grow weary of this war and will then talk about a peace which will create two Americas—One Northern and free, and one Southern and slave.
6Battle of Bull Run/Manasses July 1861 Mr. McLean’s HouseWashington VisitorsThomas (Stonewall) JacksonTraffic JamMistakesJuly 21, Union Army under command of Gen. Irwin McDowell moves south from D.C. towards the important railway town of Manassas Junction, VA. It is in the direct path towards Richmond. An important railway center it controls the movement of trains throughout VA. The southern Army lead by Gen. Johnston will meet the Union army there. Early in the morning a knock came upon the door of Mr. McLean’s house in Manassas Junction. He was told to move his family out immediately as a fight was to take place in that valley. They didn’t get out in time and hid in the cellar of the house as the battle raged around them. The Union Army arrived on the field along with wagons and carriages of important Washington society who planned to have a picnic on a hillside overlooking the battlefield. Just something fun to do on a nice, hot, summer day. As the battle gets underway the Union is almost achieving a rout but Thomas Jackson rallies the South as they were retreating prompting an officer to say” There stands Jackson like a Stonewall, Rally around the Virginians boys. The tide of battle shifts at that moment and it now turns into a southern rout. The Union breaks and starts a unorganized retreat back toward D.C. some 25 miles away. To make matters worse the road is clogged with the panicked sightseers thus putting the entire Union army at risk of total defeat.First major mistake of the war: Had the South pursued in an organized effort that day they probably could have marched straight into Washington D.C. and the war most likely would have ended that day or the next. Instead it will go on for almost 4 years.Battles are often name differently depending on which side you are on. The North (Union Army) tended to name the battles after landmarks of the area such as creeks, rivers, hills/Mts whereas the South (Confederate Army) tended to name the battles after the nearest towns—Manassas Junction etc…
7Lincoln’s Troubles Fires Gen. Irwin McDowell Hires Gen. George McClellanArmy of the PotomacTrains and waitsLincoln asks to “borrow the Army”Loses in the Peninsula CampaignSouth’s new heroes: General Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson and Jeb StuartLincoln’s many troubles now begin. He needs to find a General who can inspire not just the troops but the North as well. Fires McDowell and hires him with dashing 34 yrold Gen. George McClellan. He forms the Army of the Potomac and is a master at organization and training which is exactly what this army needs. The men love “lil Mac” as he is called. But all he does is train and train. All fall and winter. He is over cautious. Lincoln is very frustrated. His General is not fighting and it is late winter when he pays a visit to McClellan’s headquarters. McClellan did not like Lincoln and it showed. When Lincoln asked the General’s aide to see the General he was told that the General was busy in an important meeting. Lincoln said fine, I’ll wait. And wait and wait.—Can you believe the arrogance of this General? Finally Lincoln will leave after a short meeting with McClellan. In a later comment which gets leaked to the press Lincoln will say. “Dear General if you are not planning to use the army, might I borrow it?”Finally McClellan decides to move his entire army by barge to the Peninsula in VA where he will then march up the Peninsula on to Richmond. The southern General in charge is very ill so General Robert E. Lee is put in charge of the defense of Richmond. Over the next month or so the south great outnumbered defeats the much larger Union army time after time. McClellan ever so cautious loses advantage on several occaisions as he keeps requesting for more troops from Washington. Lee knew this about McClellan and exploited this weakness by having his chief cavalry officer Jeb Stuart continually ride the ridges creating dust making it look like there are more southern soldiers than there actually was!! McClellan fell for this and will eventually pull out in another devastating loss for the North
8South’s New HeroesLee, Jackson and Stuart All Virginians fighting for their beloved state and home. The best way to win this war was shared by all three men. “Kill them, Kill them all!” Thomas Jackson
92nd Bull Run/Manassas August 28-29 1862 Lincoln fires McClellan!Hires Gen. John PopeJeb Stuart Pays a visitPope defeated!After the Peninsula Campaign, Lincoln has no choice but to fire McClellan. Appoints Gen. John Pope. He decides to attack back down through Manassas Junction like one year earlier. Lee predicts this and moves his army to face this new threat. Legend has it that Jeb Stuart came upon General Pope’s Camp while on a scouting mission for Lee. (Lee’s “eyes and ears, for without you General Stuart I am blind” Robert E. Lee) Stuart claims that the camp was completely empty allowing Stuart to ride into the camp and walk right into Pope’s Tent where he discovered the battle plans for the upcoming battle. Stuart took the plans and as walking out of the tent saw Pope’s ‘great coat”, a heavy, warm, wool, winter trench coat in the corner. He decided to take it as winter was coming. He left a note to Pope “I stopped by for a visit but you were not in. Thank you for the use of your “great coat” I shall return it when we win the war” yours truly, J.E.B. Stuart. Wheter or not it is true is up for debate but Lee made every correct move during the 2nd Battle of Bull Run/Manassas and was able to counter every move by Pope, thereby handily defeating again a much larger army.
10Lee’s New Plan No more defense Take the War to the North Beliefs: 1. Win in Maryland and turn state to the South2. Make Washington D.C. an Island in the Confederacy3. Demoralize the NorthIt is now late August Lee convinces Jefferson Davis (President of the Confederate States of America) that he can defeat the Union army by invading Maryland. By doing so he could convince Maryland, a border state, a slave state that did not leave the Union, to join the Confederacy and thus completely surrounding Washington D.C. Lincoln would either have to evacuate or surrender!
11Lincoln’s Dilemma Lincoln fires Pope Rehires McClellan! McClellan still over cautiousLincoln needs a victory!Wants a moral objective to the warAfter the 2nd Battle of Bull Run Lincoln fires Pope. He really doesn’t have anyone around and L’il’ Mac is still very popular with the men. McClellan is given another crack. He is still McClellan however, pompous and over cautious. He keeps asking Lincoln for more men even thought his army is now reaching about 90,000 to 100,000 men to Lee’s 75,000 or so.Lincoln needs a victory badly. He is getting destroyed in the northern press and many are asking for his head. He has been struggling with making this war more than just holding the United States together, North and South, but wants to turn this into a moral purpose—end slavery. However has the north can’t seem to win a battle in the East he doesn’t really have a position of strength to issue any such statement or order
12Battle of Antietam/Sharpsburg Sept. 17, 1862 Lee invades Maryland by crossing the Potomac RiverLee’s Battle Plans Found! Lil’ Mac does nothing—asks for more men!Three battle phases:1. Morning-Dunker Church & Cornfield2. Midday- Sunken Road3. Afternoon- Burnside’s BridgeLee moves his army across the Potomac river way north of Washington D.C. where it is easier to cross.Union cavalry on advance patrol in northern Maryland startle a Confederate dispatch rider. In his haste to leave he forgets to pick up a pouch. In side the pouch was a bunch of cigars wrapped with some paper. In examining the paper it was Lee’s battle plans for the invasion of Maryland!! It was taken to McClellan who said that this is interesting but it is a fake, a ruse to make me think that this would happen. He does not act upon those plans but instead begs Washington for more troops. It was Lee’s actual plans—another major mistake!The battle will begin near the town of Sharpsburg, Maryland on Sept. 17th Three main phases of the battle. The morning phase saw horrific fighting near the old German Dunker Church and late morning in the cornfield where not a single cornstalk was left standing ---along with the men who were in the field.By mid-day the battle had shifted to the “sunken road” where years of wear on the road had dropped the road below field level giving a natural “trench for Confederate soldiers to protect themselves. The Union army charge the position several times and were cut to pieces. Finally the during another charge a Union flanking manuever was able to move up and shoot right down the road and annilate the Confederates in the road. When this phase was over a Union officer upon viewing the horrible carnage at the sunken road stated that he “could have walked the entire length of the road having not once touched the ground for all the dead bodies” I personally have been there and it is about 300 yard long!!By afternoon General Ambrose Burnside will order an attack against a strong Confederate position across Antietam Creek. While not wide, about feet it was too deep to ford. There was only one bridge in the area and the Confederates had it completely covered. Wave after wave of Union soldiers were mowed down trying to cross this bridge! Finally they will succeed and push the south off the hillside. If it were not for Confederate General A.P. Hill bringing up reinforcements the South might have lost more than just the battle that day. I have also walked this bridge and you can still see the battle scars on the bridge from bullets and such!
13Morning-Dunker Church/Cornfield First time in U.S. History that battlefield photography is used. One pic is real the other is an re-enactment.
15Burnside’s BridgeThen and now. The Confederates held the right side and up the hill to the right.
16“He has the slows” No clear winner but south leaves the field McClellan has advantage but waits more than a week!!Lee escapes across the Potomac RiverLincoln Fires McClellan!Single bloodiest day in United States history23,000 Killed or WoundedA horrific battle. Nothing like this has ever been seen before. Each side lost about the same in Killed, wounded or missing. North can claim victory as the South left the field. Lee needed to get back to the safety of Virginia. He fully expected to be attacked as he retreated but………….McClellan waited more than a week before pursueing! Asked for more men. Had he pushed Lee immediately experts agree that he would have pinned Lee up against the Potomac river and most likely would have wiped Lee out as he was trying to get his entire army across. This delay allowed Lee to escape with the Army of Northern Virginia to fight another day…in fact for 2 ½ more years and 10’s of thousands for more deaths!! Yet another major mistake. Lincoln recognized this huge error and fired McClellan. He was quoted as saying about L’il Mac’ “he has the slows”Antietam goes down as the single bloodiest day in United States history—even to this day. The casualties in this battle are more than all the casualties in the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, and Mexican War combined. No other single day in U.S. history has been as bloody. Other battles covering multiple days, months or weeks will have more but no day will match Antietam.
17Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln needed a victory“…all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”Border States could still keep slavesReality Emancipation Proclamation freed no slaves! But gave moral cause to the war.Lincoln now has his victory to issue his moral justification for the war, The Emancipation Proclamation.While most people believe that this document freed the slaves, in reality it did nothing except make people feel good. It was a great political maneuver but nothing really changed. No slaves were truly freed unless the U.S. Army occupied that southern territory and the North did not occupy much at the time it was issued.It is addressed only to the states in “rebellion” with the United States. Slaves in those states are now free, however, Lincoln had no control over those states as they had formed their own country, therefore they blew this off and did not obey it. Lincoln was very careful not to anger the “Border States” of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland all slave states but who chose not to leave the Union and join the Confederacy. If Lincoln had freed the slaves in these states they would have left the Union and gone to the South. Especially dangerous would have been Maryland thus making D.C. an island in the Confederacy. Therefore Lincoln’s Emancipation freed no one under Union control. It did however stir up the Northern abolitionist and even those who were not as extreme to do “God’s Will’ in freeing the slaves.
18Battle of Fredericksburg December 11-15 1862 Lincoln fires McClellan!!Lincoln hires Gen. Ambrose BurnsideLee controls Marye’s HeightsSeries of Union attacks all unsuccessfulMen know they will die“Northern Lights ““Angel of Marye’s Heights”Burnside has very unusual facial hair. This is where the term “sideburns” come from.He too is very cautious and does not take the initiative. He has 138,000 men but does not move rapidly enough on Lee who is able to get the ‘high ground” west of Fredericksburg, VA. Lee has only half as many men but will completely obliterate Burnside during this battle. Burnside orders attack after attack up the same hillside. It is a slaughter each time. By the third charge the men are seen writing their names and where they are from on paper or anything they can find and pinning it to their backs so that when they are killed their family can be told!The night of the first day brought a very unusual sight. The Northern Lights were seen on a very cold and clear night. Very unusual to see the northern lights this far south and was not see as a positive sign from God. During lull in the battle the next day a Confederate Sgt. Hopped the wall from where he was firing and took water to comfort the brave wounded Union soldiers on the field. He will not be fired upon by the Union and will be forever known as the “Angel of Marye’s Heights”
19Battle of Chancellorsville April 30-May 6 1863 Lincoln fires Burnsides!Lincoln hires “Fightin’ Joe Hooker”138,000 Union forcesLee has about half as manyStonewall Jackson makes a “grand manuever”Stonewall accidently shot by own troopsAfter the debacle at Fredericksburg Burnside is fired and replace by Fighting Joe Hooker. Known to be a good subordinate general he will soon prove to be another indecisive Union General in charge. (On a side note: Throughout history it was not unusual for prostitutes to follow along behind the armies as they moved from place to place setting up camp just a little ways away from the army camps. This happened in the Civil War as well. The rumor has it that as Union Army was on a march a person noted that “there goes the army and there goes Hooker’s girls!” Thus some same this is where “hookers” got their name. Other claim that their name came from “Hook’s Point, NY where the “working girls” worked.)The Union army is back up to 138,000 men after Fredericksburg and Hooker is on the move. He plans a small attack on Fredericksburg but moves the bulk of the army north and west across the Rappahannock River towards the town of Chancellorsville. Lee counters but with only half as many men. Hooker is winning throughout the morning but then gets nervous and stops the attack. Jackson told Lee of a bold plan where he would march his men around the flank and attack the Union army almost from behind. This will leave Lee with even less men and Jackson’s army to make about a mile march to get into position with about 7-10,000 men. Jackson was to leave before daybreak but delays kept him from leaving until almost 9. Jackson is furious!! It will prove costly. It is a brilliant maneuver and is still taught at West Point today. Jackson finally gets into position to attack without no being seen by about 3:30 in the afteroon. He catches the Union flank completely off guard and pushes them way back. Total confusion now racks Hooker’s command. However nightfall comes and the attack must stop till daylight. Jackson in a need to know what is out in front of him goes out at dusk with a few officers on horseback to check the lay of the land. They are in “no man’s land” between the Confederate and Union lines. As dark settles upon them an officer suggests to Jackson that it is not safe to be out there and that they should move back to their own line. They got a little lost and did not come back through the way they came, where the soldiers knew not to shoot. Nervous Confederate soldiers hearing horses coming from the direction of the Union lines fired in dark in the direction of the noise. Jackson was hit in the right hand but also badly wounded in the upper left arm. He is taken to his surgeon where he is told it must be amputated. When Lee is told of this he is said to reply “Jackson may have lost his left arm, but I have lost my right”. This is how important Jackson was to the Confederate Army. He was their best, by far, field commander, and Lee had come to depend on him for every difficult job. Jackson actually starts to recover but within a week he is dead. Most likely from a blood clot which travel into his lungs and heart. The south has lost a very important leader and one that they will never be able to replace. This will truly be seen in the next battle.
20Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3 1863 Lee moves north again to put fear in the North and hopefully end the war.Lincoln fires Hooker hires Gen. George MeadeShoes? Gen. Buford’s DelayChamberlain’s Pinwheel ChargePickett’s Charge43,000 Killed, wounded or missing—25,000 from the south—will never recoverGettysburg is the turning point of the war!Again Lee believes that if the North was scared they might want to end this war. What Lee also knows is that now is the time because the writing is on the wall for the South. It is getting harder and harder to replace men and material lost in the war, not to mention feed and clothe them let alone the suffering of the southern people as well. There must be a decisive battle which will allow him to destroy the Union Army. He also knows that Lincoln is in trouble with the North and that he is losing support. Something major like this could run Lincoln out for good.Lincoln fires Hooker and replaces him with Gen. George Meade on June 27th. Only for days before the Battle of Gettysburg. Lee will actually come into this town from the north. He did not want to start a fight yet but advance elements of his army ran into advance elements of the Union army on the outskirts of town. Story has it that the southern soldiers wanted to get to Gettysburg to get a supply of shoes since many were without. This is what caused the first skirmish, the one Lee was not ready to fight. The success of Lee had always been because Lee dictated when and where the battle would be thus always giving the advantage to the South. Gettysburg would be different. Union Cavalry General John Buford, dismounted his troops to delay any Confederate advance into Gettysburg from the north. He held on long enough to bring General Reynolds (one of the best Union Generals) division up from south of town . They held long enough to gain control and dig in on the high ground south of town, thus taking away Lee’s advantage. Reynolds will be killed on this day.Day two, July 2nd 1863 brings a new plan of attack. Lee orders General Longstreet (replaced Jackson as right hand of Lee) to attack the right flank of the Union Army on a hill called Little Round Top. This was the extreme edge, end of the Union line. If they could get around here they could attack the entire backside of the Union Army. Left to defend this hill was a former college professor who joined the army to do his part and learned every battle tactic he could from books. Col. Joshua Chamberlain will be credited with “saving the Union that day” As the Confederates charged up the hill, through “Devil’s Den” a killing zone for Confederate soldiers, time after time they were repulsed by the 20th Maine Regiment led by Chamberlain. As the 20th Maine was nearly out of ammunition and men Chamberlain will make a maneuver which will go down in history. He will pull every third man off the line in order to extend the line. He will then place them in a right angle position away from the hill. Once South attacks and gets close he order a “right pinwheel charge” down the hill from the right angle in the line. “like a swinging gate.” This worked and completely destroyed the final Confederate charge. Chamberlain and the 20th main was later ordered off the like to a “safe” position in back of the center of the Union line to refit and recover.While this is going on Lee is furious that J.E.B Stuart has been no where to be found. When he finally arrives on the night of the second day Lee rips into Stuart and tells him that his work is to be the “eyes and ears” of the army and that his lack of contact for almost two weeks has left Lee blind! And that this is why he is in this fight.During the night Lee brings in Longstreet and tells him that they will attack where the Union will be week. The Center of the Union line. Longstreet protests and suggests that they pull back and get into the hills south of Gettysburg between the Union Army and Washington D.C. By doing this the Union Army will be force to attack Lee on the ground that Lee chooses in order to save Washington D.C. Lee refuses to listen and orders the attack. Gen. George Pickett will lead the attack over almost two miles of open farmland up a slight hill. Lee’s cannons are expected to soften up the Union’s cannons and line but they do not do their job. Picketts’s men are cut to shreds from Union cannon and rifle fire. Two split rail fences about 4-5 feet tall stall the attack while they try to cross them. This delay will only bring more intense fire upon the Confederates. As Pickett retreats Lee sees that the battle is lost and orders Pickett to organize his men for a defensive retreat. Pickett will reply “Men? Why General I have no more men” and refuses the order.
222nd Day- Chamberlain saves the Union Army The day establishes the famous Union “fishhook” line on the ridge south of Gettysburg. The line was supposed to be higher in the south but General Sickles screwed up and did not place his men in the proper position. It would be very costly in and devestating in the “Peach Orchard” for both sides. Could it be that Sickles was nuts? Well could be. He killed his wife’s lover in 1859 in Washington Park across from the White House. He pleaded “temporary insanity” as his defense. It worked! This was the first time this defense was ever used in U.S. History Nice to know that he made General. This is picture of Joshua Chamberlain and the view from the top of Little Round Top looking down towards Devil’s Den and where the Confederate soldiers would be coming from.
23Little Round TopLooking up from Devil’s Den after the battle
24Devil’s DenSpeaks for themselves. They continued to find remains in the rocks years after the battle.
25Day 3—Picket’s ChargeA better look at the third day of battle and Pickett’s charge.
26“Attack the Center, where they are weak” Robert E. Lee The top picture shows the field of Pickett’s charge. Where the photographer is standing is where the charge began the tree line is where the Union army is dug in. One of several split rail fences can be seen. Below pic is a re-enactment photo
27Civil War in the West Control the Mississippi Ulysses S. Grant Wins at Ft. Donnelson & Fort Henry—No Terms! “Unconditional Surrender!”Battle of Shiloh Church AprilHigh casualties Grant almost loses—temporarily relieved of commandAdmiral David Farragut (Union Navy) captures New Orleans and Baton Rouge (spring of 1862)Grant lays siege of Vicksburg, MS (May July 4th, 1863Cuts off food and supplies30,000 Confederates surrenderA major part of the Anaconda Plan was to “Control the Mississippi”. By doing this Texas will be cut off from the rest of the Confederacy and movement of much needed supplies (especially cotton to be sold in Europe) on the river will be stopped.Ulysses S. Grant—Graduated from West Point, not very high in his class, fought like many other officers in the Mexican War. Left the Army went into business and didn’t do very well. When the war broke out he was put in command of Ohio Volunteers. While things where going bad for the North back east, Grant will win a couple of small but important victories in Kentucky. While attacking Fort Donnelson the Confederate commander asked Grant what he terms of surrender Grant may offer. Grant replied “No Terms, Unconditional surrender” In other words surrender or die. The newspapers who had been asking Grant, who had been going by just U.S. Grant, what the U.S. stood for they now gave him the nickname “Unconditional Surrender” Grant. This press love affair with Grant was short lived.The Battle of Shiloh Church/Pittsburg Landing took place April It was a horrible battle and the casualties where the highest of the war up to that point. It shocked the public. Grant was in control of the first day but almost lost the second had it not been for Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman helping out. Some will claim that Grant, who did drink a lot, was drunk overnight and that this fogged his judgment. This led to Grant temporarily losing his command.Wihle this was happening Admiral David Farragut led naval and army forces in an attack on New Orleans and then Baton Rouge. We was successful. He uttered the famous line while attacking Mobile Bay when informed of torpedoes (mines) “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!”. By capturing New Orleans and Baton Rouge for the North all that was left was the city of Vicksburg, MS. To take this city Grant had to lay siege to the city as he was unable to directly attack it due to its position on the high bluffs overlooking the river. He could not run gunboats up or down the river as they would be blown apart from Confederate cannon. So he crossed the river on the Lousianna side and came up south of Vicksburg. At the same time a Union Army attacked Jackson, Mississippi then turned west to link up with Grant and basically surround Vicksburg. The Siege of Vicksburg was an extremely difficult battle on the both sides. The North would slowly tighten the ring around Vicksburg and the Confederates and the civilian population would be slowly starved to submission as no food or supplies could make its way into the city. People were forced to eat rats and pigeons. Finally on July 4th ,1863 Vicksburg surrendered to Grant. 30,000 Confederates and all their weapons. The Crown Jewell of the South was now in Union control. For many decades after the war Vicksburg’s inhabitants, and some still to this day, do not celebrate the 4th of July! What else happened at this same time and year back east? That’s right—the Battle of Gettysburg took place and was won by the North. These two battles will mark the turning point of the Civil War. The south will never be able to recover from these two huge losses.
28“He Fights” Not thought of highly Drinks too much Has enemies in Congress and ArmyUndercover officer sent to dig up dirt in order to get Grant firedLincoln “find out what he drinks and send a case to all my generals—he fights!At the beginning of the war Grant was not highly regarded. Dress like a slob. Standard uniform was basically a private’s uniform in which he sewed on his “stars”. He was not highly successful, was not incredibly ambitious for political life and such. He did drink heavily at times. He was a bulldog and liked to do things his way. Because of all of this he had a slew of enemies both in Congress and the army who didn’t think he belonged in a position of command. There were many attempts to discredit him. Even as far a assigning him an officier in his command who was actually working undercover for a congressman who wanted to get Grant replace. When the Congressman brought the information back to Lincoln with some information stating how much Grant drank Lincoln supposedly said to an aide “find out what he drinks and send a case to all my generals—he fights! While all the generals were losing in the East, Grant, in the West, was the only one winning!
29Gettysburg Address November 19 1863 National Cemetery DedicationDidn’t want Lincoln invited—after thoughtEdward Everett spoke almost 2 hours-”top that”One of America’s top 3 speeches only 3 minutes longBiblical connection to speechAfter the horrific carnage which took place at Gettysburg as decision was made to turn it into a National Cemetery. The plans were made and the committee decided to invite Edward Everett, former Sec. of War (I think) and considered to be the greatest speaker of the day (long inspiring speeches were his specialties) A date was set but Everett said he needed more time to write a speech for such an important occasion. So the Dedication was pushed back, thus giving Everett almost 40 days to write his speech. At first the committee did not want to invite Lincoln. Lincoln’s popularity had been dropping and they really only asked him out of common courtesy not expecting him to say yes, especially since they told him he would not be the keynote speaker (this would be considered an insult to the office of the president) To their surprise Lincoln accepted and made no demands to have top billing. Contrary to popular folklore, Lincoln did not write the Gettysburg Address on the back of an envelope while riding on a train in route to Gettysburg. This would not have been standard for Lincoln who did write his own speeches and was very meticulous on the choice of words and images he wished to convey to the audience. A magnificent speech writer like Lincoln wrote and re-wrote the speech but he did not need 40 days as he only had 17 days from the time of the invite to the dedication day.On November 19, 1863 the dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery took place. True to form Edward Everett took the podium and as key note speaker gave a two hour speech. As standing principle of the time Lincoln was expected to give one just as long. As Everett was leaving the podium and walked past Lincoln he jokingly whispered to Lincoln “top that!”Lincoln took the podium and in his high Kentucky pitch spoke. It was over in 3 minutes! The crowd was stunned, not initially from the words but from the shortness. No one seemed to care for the speech. Everett did and later told Lincoln that he did “top it!”. The press roasted Lincoln for what seemed like a slight or disrespect to the dead and living at Gettysburg. It was not until a couple of days later as th full text of this Address was published and analyzed that the Nation fully understood what Lincoln had said and done at Gettysburg
30The Gettysburg Address Hand out the copy of the speech:Hand out a copy of the speech: The Gettysburg Address is considered to be one of the best speeches ever in American history. Easily in the top1 or 2. Lincoln put great thought into this speech. Under great examination experts have discovered what Lincoln was trying to prove in this speech. Throughout the speech Lincoln ties in the biblical connection of Old to New Testament. The birth and rise of Jesus to the death and finally the resurrection of Jesus to the discovery and rise of America to the re-birth of a new America. The first paragraph is of the “past birth”. (old testament) The second paragraph is of the current and present death of the nation in the Civil War (rise and cruxification of Jesus), and the last paragraph is the resurrection or Future Rebirth of America. America will survive this and will be even stronger and better than before. Now play the speech.
31Medical Treatment during the Civil War New weapons + old strategies=terrible woundsAmputation most common treatmentInfections kills more than bulletsDisease is rampantClara BartonThe Civil War brought upon carnage in which the world had never seen before. New weapons had a greater killing capacity were added to old strategies thus multiplying the casualty rates many times over. In the days of the Revolution or the Napoleonic style of fighting the weapons were smooth bore muskets with an effective killing range of about 50 yards. So standing shoulder to shoulder and firing at your enemy was considered to be the standard pracitce. However by the time of Civil War rifle technology had improved dramatically. A small groove down the barrel of the rifle spun the projectile like a “football” and sent the bullet up to 200 yards accurately! Cannon fire also incorporated this technology greatly increasing the range of cannon fire. However, the commanders only knew how to fight the old style of fighting and men went into “meat grinders” The lead bullets were heavy and big. When struck by one you were knocked over, even if hit in the arm.When wounded there really wasn't’ much that could be done for you unless it was a superficial wound or didn’t not hit anything major like organs, bone or arteries/veins. Surgeons often had no anesthesia and many operations were done without! Imagine getting your arm amputated without being knocked out!!! Amputation was the most common treatment for any wound on an arm or leg. While the amputation usually went well the patient often died later due to loss of blood, infections or blood clots. Was not unusual during and after major battles to see mounds of arms and legs outside of the hospital tents. They did not have modern medicines to fight infections and often used the same water to rinse surgical tools from one patient to the next.Many more soldiers dies from disease than from actual battle wounds. For many of these boys they had never been off the farm and therefore were not used to the close contact of the army camps where sickness and disease ran rampant. “Camp Fever”, dysentery, flu, diarrhea, amongst others were the most prevalent.At the Battle of Antietam, Clara Barton will become the most famous female of the war. As a nurse she tends to the wounded. She will push the army for better and stronger standards in medical care and treatment. She will go on to form the American Red Cross.
32Home front Women doing more on the farms and factories Copperheads Draft and New York Draft riotHabeas CorpusThe Civil War was tough on American families. It was not unusual for family members in he border states like KY, MO and MD to split apart due to some taking sides with the North and Some with the South. This is why it is often said that the Civil War pitted “brother against brother. Women were forced to carry the load on the family farms and in the factories as the men went off to war.In the North there were groups of mainly Northern Democrats who were against the war and sympathetic to the South. They were known as “Copperheads” (a Midwestern poisonous snake). They were stirring up political trouble for Lincoln. So much so that they were often seen as “traitorous” in some of their actions. This will lead Lincoln to suspend the lawful act of “Habeas Corpus” which states that when you arrested you are entitled to know what the charges are against you and that you just cannot be held in jail indefinitely. Those in the North who were seen as ‘dangerous” might be locked up for a long time—war’s end?The North and the South needed men so a “draft” was enacted on both sides. All able bodied men from were expected to register for the draft in their own counties. Each county would have a quota of men they would have to supply to the state militia or Union army. However, there was a way to get out of serving. If you could come up with $300 and find someone to go in your place you would not have to serve. Not very easy to do and only those with that amount of money could afford do due so. In June of 1863 in New York City there was a major draft riot with close to 200 killed. It was over the fact that former slaves were brought in to work in the factories where the Irish workers had been thus forcing the Irish into the draft.
33African-Americans in the Civil War Early oppositionContraband in the South54th Massachusetts186,000 served in the Union Army50,000 served in the Confederate ArmyAfrican-Americans (former and freed slaves) fought with distinction during the Civil War. That is once they were allowed to fight. Early on it was considered wrong to arm the black man as even in the North it was believed that they were incapable of learning how to become soldiers. If they were to be put in uniform they were more suited to menial jobs like grave detail, orderlies, wagon and supply drivers and such. Many abolitionists and influential leaders in government pushed Lincoln for the development of Black regiments. In the Union controlled territory in the South, like parts of coastal South Carolina, freed slaves became known as “contraband” and were formed in to units but were not properly trained nor respected thus were very undependable and were rarely used.Finally after the Battle of Antietam a decision was made to form an all black regiment known as the 54th Massachusetts. White officers would command. Col. Robert Gould Shaw, son of a prominent Massachusetts abolitionist family, was given command. The 54th overcame much difficulty and racism, including a warning from the south that any “colored” regiment which fights against the South will be wiped out. Any “colored” soldier or white officer of “colored” troops if captured will not be treated like a prisoner but will be executed on the spot. The 54th will lead the way and will prove the value and determination of black soldiers. By war’s end more than 180,000 black soldiers will serve in various positions in the Union Army. Believe it or not about 50,000 African-Ameican will serve for the South—mostly with the promise of freedom if the survive the war.
34Grant Now in ChargeGrant replaces Meade now in command of all Union ArmiesNew strategy—”Total War”Grant has more men, weapons, supplies, transportationSouth will never recover from Gettysburg & VicksburgMust now fight a desperate defensive warCannot replace men, weapons, supplies and transportationBy the beginning of 1864 Lincoln calls U.S. Grant to Washington and places him in command of not just the Army of the Potomac but of all Union Armies. Grant has a new policy towards conducting the war. The new strategy is called Total War. Total defeat of mind and spirit of not just the Southern Army but of the southern population in general. Take the war straight to them. Destroy any means of production which may help the South. (farms, factories, railroads etc…) Break their will to fight and hopefully show the South that it is futile to continue let alone win. By this time the North is becoming a “monster” The northern industry is able to out produce anything the South can produce. The factories are humming with new weapons and supplies massed produced like nothing before. The huge advantage of northern railroads and miles of track laid enables the North to ship the supplies anywhere faster and in great quantities. The South is running out of everything supplies are bad enough but what it cannot replace is the loss of men. The North’s population is twice as big giving them a constant supply of new soldiers—which they will need.
35Grant, “The Butcher” The Wilderness Battle of Cold Harbor 7000 KIAs in only 2 hours!Lee digs inGrant lays siege at Petersburg“I can replace soldiers, Lee cannot”1864 will be a very bloody year as Grant just slogs his way south towards Richmond. Lee puts up gallant defensives but cannot hold out forever. These battles become known as the “meat grinders” as Grant just keeps applying the pressure. Grant is not like the previous Union Generals. He is more like a determined “bull dog on a bone”
36War in the West 1864 Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman Tennessee to AtlantaVictory helped Lincoln win re-electionSherman’s necktiesWhen Grant went East he turned over the War in the Wes to William Tecumseh Sherman. Sherman, like Grant, believed in total war. A series of major battles took place in Tennessee like Nashville, Franklin, Chickamauga, Lookout Mt. Most were victories for the North but some were but minor set backs. Chickamauga was one of the bloodiest in the entire War. Nevertheless Sherman pressed on. Although Southern General Hood fought gallantly he will give up Atlanta on Sept 8th Something happens however and either through Sherman’s order or Hood’s retreat the warehouses loaded with bales of cotton were set on fire. This fire spreads rapidly and most of Atlanta is burnt to the ground.Lincoln meanwhile is in the political fight of his career. He is re-nominated by the Republican Party for re-election as President. However, he is being pushed by a strong Democrat who is much younger and promises to end the war and bring peace to the land. Lincoln is behind in every poll and it looks like in the upcoming election he will lose the presidency. The challenger is no other than “Lil Mac himself—George McClellan. Sherman’s victory will prove to the North that Lincoln was right and that this war can be won. Lincoln destroys McClellan by winning 212 to 12 in electoral votes!To ensure that the South could not continue to use the railroads to ship supplies Sherman ordered the rail lines to be torn up and destroyed in the areas which were not needed by the Union Army. This was done by making huge bonfires from the railroad ties then placing the iron rails on top of the fires. Once the rails become red hot in the center the rail would be picked up men on each end then bent around a tree making it impossible to be used again without being melted down in a iron factory which the South too few of to begin with.
37Sherman’s March to the Sea “Make Georgia howl!”60,000 men, 60 miles wideTotal War!Break the South’s will to fightCan do this anywhereSavannah, GA Dec. 10, 1864“Merry Christmas Mr. PresidentSherman then goes to Grant and Lincoln with a new plan. Grant did not initially like it as it would spread Sherman’s line of supply too far and leave him open to attack from behind. Grant finally approved of what will be forever known as “Sherman’s March to the Sea” The intent is to march from Atlanta to Savannah on the Georgia coast. Inflict “total war” and “make the Georgia howl”. He will leave Atlanta with 60,000 men in a line 60 miles wide. They are to leave a trail of destruction along the way. Burn every field, barn and house along the way. Forage (feed and supply) themselves from the land. Show not just Georgia but the South in general that if we can do this here in the “deep south” we can do it anywhere. To continue to fight is futile and you need to surrender. You have lost. We will contiue to do this everywhere we go if you don’t surrender. Sherman will march into Savannah on Dec. 10th 1864 and sent a note to Lincoln saying that Savannah is now under his control– “Merry Christmas, Mr. President”
38Appomattox Court House Lee makes contactApril 9th, 1865Farm houseReminisceLee asks for termsGrant allows for horses and sidearmsGives food—time to replantBy spring of 1865 Lee has had to give up trying to defend Richmond and Petersburg. In early April he pulls his army out and moves what is left into southwester Virginia. He is relentlessly pursued by the Union Army. Especially a young(23 yr. old) dashing cavalry General named George Armstrong Custer. Finally on the night of April 8th Lee sends out word to the Union Army that he would like to meet with Grant.In the early morning fog a house, considered to be one of the most beautiful in town, in the small town of Appomattox Court House was chosen. The family was told to vacate. Grant arrives early and looks very disheveled in a dirty private’s uniform, slouchy hat sucking on a big cigar. Lee, ever the gentleman rides up on a beautiful white/grey horse named “Traveler”, impeccably dressed and groomed. The complete opposite of Grant. They meet on the top steps of the porch, shake hands and move inside. They reminise about some common days and remember that they served together briefly during the Mexican War. But Lee is not there for a party. He asks Grant for the “terms” of surrender. Knowing what we do about Grant you would be surprised when Grant asked what Lee was thinking of. The men are hungry and tired. It is spring and they need to go home and do the spring planting. Grant orders food to be delieverd, Allows the South to take the horses and wagons to go and replant and begin the “re-growing “ of the United States. The officers are allowed to keep their weapons. And with that the surrender is signed and the war is basically over. Although it will take weeks for the word to get to all armies on both sides. Believe it or not the last battle was fought in Texas in late may of 1865 and the Confederates won!
39McLean’s House Moved far away from Manassas House used for the surrender“the war began in my front yard, and ended in my front parlor”Now Mr. McLean left his farm house in July of 1861 at the time of the 1st Battle of Bull Run/Manassas. He wanted to move his family as far away from the war as he could possible go and still stay in Virginia. He moved to a quiet little town in southwest Virginia called Appomattox Court House. He settled into one of the best homes in town and sat out the war there, until there came a knock on his door on the foggy morning of April 9th and was told that the two commanding generals would be meeting there. Mr. McLean who only wanted to live in peace a quiet away from the war ended up witnessing the beginning and the end. He will go on to be quoted “the war began in my front yard and ended in my front parlor”
40The Price in Blood! Casualties in the Civil War At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War, and some experts say the toll reached 700,000. The number that is most often quoted is 620,000. At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam. The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. Their losses, by the best estimates:Battle deaths:110,070 Disease, etc.:250,152 Total 360,222 The Confederate strength, known less accurately because of missing records, was from 750,000 to 1,250,000. Its estimated losses:Battle deaths: 94,000 Disease, etc.:164,000 Total258,000
44Source Page cont. 32. www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/gettysbur 33.34. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gettysburg_Ba...35.36. farm3.static.flickr.com/2166/ _184.108.40.206. genealogystories.net/ima.ges/lincoln_gettysbur..41. Hollywood Goes to War:Music from the Great American War films; 2000 Silva Screen Records Ltd, Gettysburg Address, Randy Edelman, Daniel Massey/narration42.43 Dances with Wolves:Tig Productions, Inc 1990: MGM Home Entertainment LLC 2004: video clip44.45. pages.prodigy.net/.../coatesville/4thUSCT.jpg46.