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THE U.S. CIVIL WAR 1861-1865. APRIL 12, 1861 Fort Sumter, SC Fort in Charleston Harbor Fort in Charleston Harbor Lincoln in a bind Lincoln in a bind Gen.

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Presentation on theme: "THE U.S. CIVIL WAR 1861-1865. APRIL 12, 1861 Fort Sumter, SC Fort in Charleston Harbor Fort in Charleston Harbor Lincoln in a bind Lincoln in a bind Gen."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE U.S. CIVIL WAR 1861-1865

2 APRIL 12, 1861 Fort Sumter, SC Fort in Charleston Harbor Fort in Charleston Harbor Lincoln in a bind Lincoln in a bind Gen. P.G.T BeauregardCSA Gen. P.G.T BeauregardCSA Major Anderson-Union Major Anderson-Union Fort surrenders-no casualties! Fort surrenders-no casualties!

3 Call for Volunteers-Both sides predict a quick war! The South has: The South has: 1. Better Military Leaders 1. Better Military Leaders 2. Southern Sons went to West Point in greater numbers 2. Southern Sons went to West Point in greater numbers 3. Farm boys shoot better! 3. Farm boys shoot better! The North has: 1. Sheer numbers in population 2. Better and more weapons 3. Stronger industry and more miles of R.R. track

4 North: Anaconda Plan 1. Control the Mississippi River-Cut off Texas from the rest of the South 2. Blockade all Southern Ports 3. Take the war to the SouthCapture Richmond, VAThe Capital

5

6 Battle of Bull Run/Manasses July 1861 Mr. McLeans House Washington Visitors Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson Traffic Jam Mistakes

7 Lincolns Troubles Fires Gen. Irwin McDowell Fires Gen. Irwin McDowell Hires Gen. George McClellan Hires Gen. George McClellan Army of the Potomac Army of the Potomac Trains and waits Trains and waits Lincoln asks to borrow the Army Lincoln asks to borrow the Army Loses in the Peninsula Campaign Loses in the Peninsula Campaign Souths new heroes: General Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson and Jeb Stuart Souths new heroes: General Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson and Jeb Stuart

8 Souths New Heroes

9 2 nd Bull Run/Manassas August 28-29 1862 Lincoln fires McClellan! Hires Gen. John Pope Jeb Stuart Pays a visit Pope defeated!

10 Lees New Plan No more defense No more defense Take the War to the North Take the War to the North Beliefs: Beliefs: 1. Win in Maryland and turn state to the South 1. Win in Maryland and turn state to the South 2. Make Washington D.C. an Island in the Confederacy 2. Make Washington D.C. an Island in the Confederacy 3. Demoralize the North 3. Demoralize the North

11 Lincolns Dilemma Lincoln fires Pope Lincoln fires Pope Rehires McClellan! Rehires McClellan! McClellan still over cautious McClellan still over cautious Lincoln needs a victory! Lincoln needs a victory! Wants a moral objective to the war Wants a moral objective to the war

12 Battle of Antietam/Sharpsburg Sept. 17, 1862 Lee invades Maryland by crossing the Potomac River Lee invades Maryland by crossing the Potomac River Lees Battle Plans Found! Lil Mac does nothingasks for more men! Lees Battle Plans Found! Lil Mac does nothingasks for more men! Three battle phases: Three battle phases: 1. Morning-Dunker Church & Cornfield 1. Morning-Dunker Church & Cornfield 2. Midday- Sunken Road 2. Midday- Sunken Road 3. Afternoon- Burnsides Bridge 3. Afternoon- Burnsides Bridge

13 Morning-Dunker Church/Cornfield

14 Midday-Sunken Road

15 Burnsides Bridge

16 He has the slows No clear winner but south leaves the field No clear winner but south leaves the field McClellan has advantage but waits more than a week!! McClellan has advantage but waits more than a week!! Lee escapes across the Potomac River Lee escapes across the Potomac River Lincoln Fires McClellan! Lincoln Fires McClellan! Single bloodiest day in United States history Single bloodiest day in United States history 23,000 Killed or Wounded 23,000 Killed or Wounded

17 Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln needed a victory Lincoln needed a victory …all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free. Border States could still keep slaves Reality Emancipation Proclamation freed no slaves! But gave moral cause to the war.

18 Battle of Fredericksburg December 11-15 1862 Lincoln fires McClellan!! Lincoln hires Gen. Ambrose Burnside Lee controls Maryes Heights Series of Union attacks all unsuccessful Men know they will die Northern Lights Angel of Maryes Heights

19 Battle of Chancellorsville April 30-May 6 1863 Lincoln fires Burnsides! Lincoln fires Burnsides! Lincoln hires Fightin Joe Hooker Lincoln hires Fightin Joe Hooker 138,000 Union forces 138,000 Union forces Lee has about half as many Lee has about half as many Stonewall Jackson makes a grand manuever Stonewall Jackson makes a grand manuever Stonewall accidently shot by own troops Stonewall accidently shot by own troops

20 Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3 1863 Lee moves north again to put fear in the North and hopefully end the war. Lee moves north again to put fear in the North and hopefully end the war. Lincoln fires Hooker hires Gen. George Meade Lincoln fires Hooker hires Gen. George Meade Shoes? Gen. Bufords Delay Shoes? Gen. Bufords Delay Chamberlains Pinwheel Charge Chamberlains Pinwheel Charge Picketts Charge Picketts Charge 43,000 Killed, wounded or missing25,000 from the southwill never recover 43,000 Killed, wounded or missing25,000 from the southwill never recover Gettysburg is the turning point of the war! Gettysburg is the turning point of the war!

21 First Day-save the high ground Gen. Buford

22 2 nd Day- Chamberlain saves the Union Army

23 Little Round Top

24 Devils Den

25 Day 3Pickets Charge

26 Attack the Center, where they are weak Robert E. Lee

27 Civil War in the West Control the Mississippi Control the Mississippi Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant Wins at Ft. Donnelson & Fort HenryNo Terms! Unconditional Surrender! Wins at Ft. Donnelson & Fort HenryNo Terms! Unconditional Surrender! Battle of Shiloh Church April 6-7 1862 Battle of Shiloh Church April 6-7 1862 High casualties Grant almost losestemporarily relieved of command High casualties Grant almost losestemporarily relieved of command Admiral David Farragut (Union Navy) captures New Orleans and Baton Rouge (spring of 1862) Grant lays siege of Vicksburg, MS (May 1863 - July 4 th, 1863 Cuts off food and supplies 30,000 Confederates surrender

28 He Fights Not thought of highly Not thought of highly Drinks too much Drinks too much Has enemies in Congress and Army Has enemies in Congress and Army Undercover officer sent to dig up dirt in order to get Grant fired Undercover officer sent to dig up dirt in order to get Grant fired Lincoln find out what he drinks and send a case to all my generalshe fights! Lincoln find out what he drinks and send a case to all my generalshe fights!

29 Gettysburg Address November 19 1863 National Cemetery Dedication National Cemetery Dedication Didnt want Lincoln invitedafter thought Didnt want Lincoln invitedafter thought Edward Everett spoke almost 2 hours-top that Edward Everett spoke almost 2 hours-top that One of Americas top 3 speeches only 3 minutes long One of Americas top 3 speeches only 3 minutes long Biblical connection to speech Biblical connection to speech

30 The Gettysburg Address

31 Medical Treatment during the Civil War New weapons + old strategies=terrible wounds New weapons + old strategies=terrible wounds Amputation most common treatment Amputation most common treatment Infections kills more than bullets Infections kills more than bullets Disease is rampant Disease is rampant Clara Barton Clara Barton

32 Home front Women doing more on the farms and factories Women doing more on the farms and factories Copperheads Copperheads Draft and New York Draft riot Draft and New York Draft riot Habeas Corpus Habeas Corpus

33 African-Americans in the Civil War Early opposition Early opposition Contraband in the South Contraband in the South 54 th Massachusetts 54 th Massachusetts 186,000 served in the Union Army 186,000 served in the Union Army 50,000 served in the Confederate Army 50,000 served in the Confederate Army

34 Grant Now in Charge Grant replaces Meade now in command of all Union Armies Grant replaces Meade now in command of all Union Armies New strategyTotal War New strategyTotal War Grant has more men, weapons, supplies, transportation Grant has more men, weapons, supplies, transportation South will never recover from Gettysburg & Vicksburg South will never recover from Gettysburg & Vicksburg Must now fight a desperate defensive war Must now fight a desperate defensive war Cannot replace men, weapons, supplies and transportation Cannot replace men, weapons, supplies and transportation

35 Grant, The Butcher The Wilderness The Wilderness Battle of Cold Harbor Battle of Cold Harbor 7000 KIAs in only 2 hours! 7000 KIAs in only 2 hours! Lee digs in Lee digs in Grant lays siege at Petersburg Grant lays siege at Petersburg I can replace soldiers, Lee cannot I can replace soldiers, Lee cannot

36 War in the West 1864 Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman Tennessee to Atlanta Tennessee to Atlanta Victory helped Lincoln win re-election Victory helped Lincoln win re-election Shermans neckties Shermans neckties

37 Shermans March to the Sea Make Georgia howl!Make Georgia howl! 60,000 men, 60 miles wide 60,000 men, 60 miles wide Total War! Total War! Break the Souths will to fight Break the Souths will to fight Can do this anywhere Can do this anywhere Savannah, GA Dec. 10, 1864 Savannah, GA Dec. 10, 1864 Merry Christmas Mr. President Merry Christmas Mr. President

38 Appomattox Court House Lee makes contact Lee makes contact April 9 th, 1865 April 9 th, 1865 Farm house Farm house Reminisce Reminisce Lee asks for terms Lee asks for terms Grant allows for horses and sidearms Grant allows for horses and sidearms Gives foodtime to replant Gives foodtime to replant

39 McLeans House Moved far away from Manassas Moved far away from Manassas House used for the surrender House used for the surrender the war began in my front yard, and ended in my front parlor the war began in my front yard, and ended in my front parlor

40 The Price in Blood! Casualties in the Civil War At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War, and some experts say the toll reached 700,000. The number that is most often quoted is 620,000. At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam. The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. Their losses, by the best estimates: At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War, and some experts say the toll reached 700,000. The number that is most often quoted is 620,000. At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam. The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. Their losses, by the best estimates: Battle deaths:110,070 Disease, etc.:250,152 Total 360,222 Battle deaths:110,070 Disease, etc.:250,152 Total 360,222 The Confederate strength, known less accurately because of missing records, was from 750,000 to 1,250,000. Its estimated losses: The Confederate strength, known less accurately because of missing records, was from 750,000 to 1,250,000. Its estimated losses: Battle deaths: 94,000 Disease, etc.:164,000 Total258,000 Battle deaths: 94,000 Disease, etc.:164,000 Total258,000

41 The Civil War in 4 minutes

42 Source Page: 1. www.soldierstudies.org/images/webquest/civil%... 2.. www.geocities.com 3. theelectoralmap.com 4. www.nassaulibrary.org/hewlett/civilwar.jpg 5. americancivilwar.com/pictures/stonewall_jacks... 6. www.militaryhistoryinstone.org/.../mcdowell.jpg 7. www.sonofthesouth.net/.../mcclellan-portrait.jpg 8. students.umf.maine.edu/.../robertlee.jpg 9. americancivilwar.com/pictures/stonewall_jacks... 10. wolfcreekfarmva.com/.../images/Jeb_stuart.jpg 11. www.sonofthesouth.net/.../mcclellan-portrait.jpg 12. upload.wikimedia.org/.../6/6a/GenJohnPope.jpeg 13. upload.wikimedia.org/.../6/6a/GenJohnPope.jpeg 14. www.sonofthesouth.net/.../mcclellan-portrait.jpg www.sonofthesouth.net/.../mcclellan-portrait.jpg

43 Source Page cont. 15. travel.nationalgeographic.com/places/images/g... 16. i.pbase.com/g4/04/177304/2/59550491.IntheCorn... 17. www.nps.gov/.../hh/31/images/hh31m1.jpg 18. www.old-picture.com/.../Antietam-Sunken-Road.jpg 19. www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/Antietam/... 20. thomaslegion.net/sitebuildercontent/sitebuild... 21. 22. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/A... 23. www.batteryb.com/battles/federals/hooker_j.jpg 24. farm4.static.flickr.com/3160/2607942854_b5f91 25. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/G... 26. explorepahistory.com/images/ExplorePAHistory-... 27. www.usrarecoininvestments.com/images/coin_inf... 28. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/db/J... 29. www.4thmichigan.com/images/Devil%27s%20Den%20... 30. www.civil-war.net/cw_images/files/images/323.jpg 31. www.civil-war.net/cw_images/files/images/323.jpg

44 Source Page cont. 32. www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/gettysbur 33. www.visit-gettysburg.com/images/confederate-i... www.visit-gettysburg.com/images/confederate-i 34. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gettysburg_Ba... commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gettysburg_Ba... 35. www.old-picture.com/mathew-brady-studio/Picke... www.old-picture.com/mathew-brady-studio/Picke... 36. farm3.static.flickr.com/2166/2392339372_38054... 37. 38. www.sonofthesouth.net/.../ulysses-s-grant.htm www.sonofthesouth.net/.../ulysses-s-grant.htm 39. www.hallowedgroundartifacts.com/HGPGettysburg... www.hallowedgroundartifacts.com/HGPGettysburg... 40. genealogystories.net/ima.ges/lincoln_gettysbur.. 41. Hollywood Goes to War:Music from the Great American War films; 2000 Silva Screen Records Ltd, Gettysburg Address, Randy Edelman, Daniel Massey/narration 42. www.rochester.edu/.../FIG17. 43 Dances with Wolves:Tig Productions, Inc 1990: MGM Home Entertainment LLC 2004: video clip 44. www.northcarolinahistory.org/images/uploaded/... 45. pages.prodigy.net/.../coatesville/4thUSCT.jpg 46. www.usa-civil-war.com/Grant/grant-in-camp.jpg

45 Source Page cont. 47. www.army.mil/cmh/books/AMH-V1/Map32.jpg 48. www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/... 49. media.maps.com/magellan/Images/schist2.gif 50. gfc.easytel.com/.../surrender.jpg 51. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/A... 52. pro.corbis.com/images/IH137963.jpg?size=67... 53. 54. pro.corbis.com/images/KF001892.jpg?size=67... 55. http://www.maniacworld.com/civil-war-in-four-minutes.html


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