Presentation on theme: "Restructuring of Europe 600 to 1450 C.E.. The Middle Ages! The period of time after the fall of Rome and before the renaissance. If you see Europe and."— Presentation transcript:
Restructuring of Europe 600 to 1450 C.E.
The Middle Ages! The period of time after the fall of Rome and before the renaissance. If you see Europe and a date between 600 and 1450 C.E. together on an AP test question, think MIDDLE AGES! Because as you will see, the middle ages is an era with many distinct, easy to remember characteristics…and once you jog your mind with these easy to picture things such as knights in armor youll start to remember the thematic importance of these things (and have great ideas for an essay!) The Middle Ages was definitely a break in continuity as Europe fragmented and turned very provincial and independent, it was a time of restructuring in Europe.
Political Restructuring of Western Europe
The Fall of the Roman Empire Diocletian becomes emperor, attempts to deal with increasing problems of maintaining control over the vast area of Rome Divides it into 2 regions (East and West) ruled by co-emperors to have more manageable administrative regions. Civil war breaks out when he retires. In that civil war, Constantine (from Eastern Rome) defeats his rivals in Western Rome so the two become united once again under him. He builds a new capital at the Greek city of Byzantium (in Eastern Rome) and names it Constantinople Its big… It splits in two…. It reunites… Simply said:
Continued… The reunited empire suffers from shrinking income and increasing external pressures. After the death of Constantine the empire again splits into East and West. The eastern half, centered at Constantinople thrives. The Western half, centered at Rome continues a downward spiral. The west half faced pressure from Germanic tribes at its borders so in defense the Romans placed Germanic peoples such as the Visigoths (who had adopted Roman law and Christianity) at its borders. But in early 5th century the Huns began to began to press on the Germans, and the Germans with no place to retreat from the Huns, crossed the border into Roman territory. the Visigoths sacked Rome the emperor had been deposed and the fall of the Western Roman Empire was complete. The Eastern part survived but was renamed the Byzantine Empire It falls due to both internal weaknesses and external pressure. Remember the Conrad Demarest model for falls of empires! But more specifically, what causes that external pressure? The Germans are not conquering, but rather responding to the pressures on them From now on this column will have connections, themes, big ideas important for the AP exam!
What came after Rome? Germanic tribes settled throughout Western Europe, establishing the successor states to the Roman Empire Spain= Visigoths Italy= Ostragoths Gaul= Burgundians/Franks Britain= Angles/Saxons Franks became the most powerful of the peoples building new states in Western Europe during this time.
Attempt at Empire in Western Europe The Franks united under Clovis (r ), who built a kingdom stretching from present day Germany through Belgium and into France, with its capital at Paris. Short lived, but strongly influenced political, cultural, and social development of Western Europe The Franks had a strong agricultural base, and they drew their agricultural resources from continental Europe, rather than actively participating in the commercial world of the Mediterranean Basin. Change: center of gravity in Western Europe shifted from italy to the Northern lands of France, Germany, and the Low Countries. 481
Continued… Although united under King Clovis, the Franks developed decentralized political institutions, which influenced European politics for years to come. Clovis and his army converted to Roman Christianity, not Arian Christianity, attracting the support and recognition of the Western Christian church. Church support helped the Franks become the most powerful of the German tribes, and the Franks helped the Western Christian church and Roman Christianity maintain its cultural and religious primacy in western Europe. Change:decentralized political institutions Continuity: Roman Church has primacy in western Europe
Continued… After Clovis death, his successors ruled the Frankish kingdom (although with less authority because aristocratic warriors began to gain control of their own regions) until the early eight century when the Carolingian line displaces the Clovis line. Carolingian Empire founded by Charles Martel. Charles Martel turned back a Muslim army from Spain at the Battle of Tours Martels son Pepin decides to be certified by the pope 732 signal of the growing authority of the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. From here on Western Europe will become a religious empire. Keep in mind how that will be different from Eastern Europe. helped persuade Muslim rulers of Spain not to seek further conquest into Western Europe. interaction through conflict
Continued… Martels grandson Charlemagne (r ) is the high point of the Frankish realm. He temporarily reestablishes centralized imperial rule in a society disrupted by invasions and contests for power between ambitious local rulers maintained diplomatic relations between Byzantine Empire and Abbasid Caliphate (gift of white elephant symbolic of this) expanded realm to NE Spain, Bavaria, Italy as far South as Rome Comparisson: sounds like King Harsha in India!
Continued… constantly traveled throughout his because he did not have financial resources to build an elaborate bureaucracy to implement his policies. Instead relied on aristocratic deputies, known as counts who had authority in their local jurisdictions sometimes counts tried to pursue their own interests, so Charlemagne instituted the missi dominici, group of imperial officials who traveled to local jurisdictions to review the accounts of the local authorities Charlemagne did not want to challenge the Byzantine emperors who considered themselves the legitimate successors of the Roman Empire by taking the title of emperor, but Pope Leo III, possibly as a surprise, crowned him as emperor. 800 Comparison: sounds like the Persian empire!
Fragmented Again Carolingian empire came to a decline after Charlemagnes death his son Louis the Pious inherited the throne, but was not as strong of a leader, lost control of the counts. his 3 sons argued over inheritance of the empire and waged wars against each other. they agreed to divide the empire into 3 kingdoms, according to the Treaty of Verdun. external invasions from Muslims from South, Magyars (descendants of Nomadic Asian peoples that settled in Hungary) from East, and the most feared, Vikings from North 843 Theme: how do empires fall? Looks like the Carolingian is another r example of eternal weaknesses and external invasions. Hmmm…sounds like the realm of Clovis. Could this be a trend in this area? Why might it? Could geography make it susceptible to German invaders overland or vikings by sea?
Europes Solution The emergence of effective regional kingdoms prevented the return of centralized imperial rule in Europe. Europe became a society of competing regional states. By establishing this form of political stable order Europe was able to pursue social, cultural, and economic development. the social, economic, political system of Europe in Middle Ages
How it worked The Hierarchy of Feudalism -king has power over a territory called his kingdom -nobles, in exchange for military service and loyalty to the king, were granted power over sections of the kingdom. Knights were also considered nobility. -nobles divided their land among lesser lords called vassals. Estates granted to them called fiefs of manors and were self sufficient -vassals could split their lands among subordinate vassals -below the vassals were the peasants who worked the land For this system to work everyone had to fulfill obligations to the different levels in the hierarchy. Ex: if you were a lesser lord you were obliged to your Lord, as well as your vassals. Conflicts erupted between feudal lords, but the code of chivalry, followed by most lords and knights was an honor system that laid out a proper etiquette for disputes. Land=power Feudal system was male dominated, women could not inherit land so were powerless and education limited to domestic skills. Noblewomen admired for feminine traits and regarded as property to be protected and displayed (remember all the stories about the knights saving the helpless pretty damsel in distress? Of course the girl couldnt save herself.) The economy had tanked w/ fall of Rome. The agricultural output was insufficient to support cities so Europe became very rural. Compare/contrast: where else have we heard feudalism? Japan! Similar political and social structure. Even both have honor codes (remember the samurai…arent they like knights? In contrast, European feudalism obligations were enforced by law, while in japan it was based on loyalty. Also different in their treatment of women Compare/contrast: could the idea that fulfilling obligations to levels of the hierarchy for society to run smooth be compared to Confucian ideas that following the 5 relationships keeps society running? Or how about to the Hindu caste idea of the shoudras being the feet, Brahmins the head, etc. Continuity: patriarchal society
Social and Economic Restructuring
The 3 Estates Feudal system was male dominated, women could not inherit land so were powerless and education limited to domestic skills. Noblewomen admired for feminine traits and regarded as property to be protected and displayed (remember all the stories about the knights saving the helpless pretty damsel in distress? Of course the girl couldnt save herself.) Manors come to depend on serfdom, a class of serfs is added to the social order. THE 3 ESTATES Those who pray (clergy) Those who fight (knights) Those who work (peasants)
Progress Agricultural advancements -three field system, new agricultural advance in which harvests rotated between three different fields -nobles directed the great clearing, clearing of forests for more farmland -development of heavy plow -horse collars increased agriculture Population growth the revival of towns and urbanization. Towns were chartered on lands controlled by Feudal lords and within the towns middle class merchant called burghers became politically powerful. towns had a great deal of independence within the empire, but were more interdependent than the manors of the Feudal system. Towns formed alliances Revival of trade. The Hanseatic controlled trade throughout Northern Europe Specialization of labor occurs. -textile production An addition of merchants, artisians, physicians, lawyers, into the those who work class. Formation of guilds. Guilds offer price and quality control and a social support network. New opportunities for women, who can join guilds Theme: doesnt this look like pattern the ancient civilizations followed? Urbanization IS a pattern! Compare/contrast: What was happening in the rest of the world during European feudalism? As Europe was turning inwards, other places like the Islamic merchants of the Abbasid dynasty were traveling the world.
The Crusades Military campaigns undertaken by European Christians convert all Muslims and other non Christians to convert to Christianity Rise of heresies, religious practices or beliefs that do not conform with traditional church doctrine -Waldesians -The Cathars During early middle ages European society had been too unstable to provide institutions for advanced learning. In the high middle ages (1000 to 1300) increased wealth makes that possible -cathedral schools -universities Byzantine Greek texts of the Greek philosophers are translated to Latin and circulated, influence scholastism. The Bubonic Plague spread from Asia on the silk road trade routes, within 50 years of its first arrival in Europe, had killed a third of the population, made traditional feaudal hierarchies obsolete, intensified religious hate, and caused people to lose faith in the church 11 th - 14 th cen s Theme: All of these events influence the social changes to come in the renaissance and enlightenment and signify the growing dissatisfaction with church authority.
The beginning of another political reconstruction
The Vikings Vikings raided villages and cities, sacked Constantinople 3 times. island life meant limited resources, and raids were a normal consequence of the pressures of growing populations as the Vikings had to find new resources. Beg. 800 Vikings forced western Europe to organize and state build in order to defend themselves
Emergence of Nation States Viking invasions force the Angles and Saxons to consolidate under Alfred (r ). They built a navy and fortified cities. at Battle of Hasting William the Conqueror, a Viking, conquers England, marks the beginning of England as we know it. response to Viking invasion brought end of Carolingian rule and the formation of a more effective state under a new dynasty. King Otto of Saxony (recall the Carolingian rulers had lost control of the counts and they had built their own kingdoms) defeats the Magyars and imposes authority throughout Germany Pope crowns him emperor of a new Holy Roman Empire (remember: nothing like former Rome, not really an Empire, more of a kingdom) ENGLAND GERMANY Theme: At the beg. Of the middle ages, western Europe was broken into feudal kingdoms, but by the end, nation states were beginning to emerge
Continued… a decentralized political order was created because the counts withdrew their alliance from the Carolingian empire and began to rule their areas how they pleased, without any reference to a central authority. Hugh Capet succeeds the last Carolingian emperor and slowly expands his authority out from France, creating Capetian France. Meanwhile, Vikings carved out many small independent states in Northern France. England begins to claim large parts of France, which led to French statehood Hundred Years War between France and England occurs. After the war France became a little more centralized under a series of monarchs called Bourbons became series of states ruled by church. The Pope directly controlled a papal state in central Italy, but by 12th century the northern Italian city states were increasingly displacing church control, and in South Italy, Normans invade, displacing Byzantine and Muslim authorities FRANCE th cen ITALY 8 th to 12 th cen Theme: Invasions seem to be a common cause here of solidifying power and building a nation (sounds like a nice thesis idea…)
Continued… controlled by Muslims Queen Isabella of Castille marries Ferdinand of Aragon, uniting Spain into a single monarchy Spanish Inquisition-monarchy allies with catholic church and ends religious tolerance in the area, non Christians forced to convert or leave the country IBERIAN PENNINSULA 8 th to 12 th cen 1469
What About Eastern Europe? Unlike, Western Europe, Byzantine was tightly centralized by a single emperor. Policy of Caesaropapism, where the emperor rules as a secular lord and plays a role in ecclesial affairs Centered around Constantinople, a lavish capital with libraries, museums, palaces, baths, public buildings, churches, etc. Fancy court dress and etiquette Justinian codified law, sent General Belisarius on military campaigns to Italy, Sicily, NW Africa, and S Spain, but did not have resources to maintain control over these areas long Islamic conquests. Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Egypt and N. Africa fall under Muslim control Constantinople is under Muslim siege, but with military technology Byzantine retained its holds of Anatolia, Greece, and Balkan region After 7 th cen and Compare/contrast fragmented Western Europe with the Byzantine Empire
Continued… The slavic people of SE Europe and Russia were converted to Christianity by At. Cyril, an orthodox Christian who used the Greek alphabet to create a slavic alphabet Vladimir, Russian Prince, converts to Orthodox Christianity Russia conquered by the Tatars, Mongols under Genghis Khan 9 th cen 1242 Theme: What contributed to the cultural differences between Russia and the rest of Europe. Well orthodox Christianity. And Mongol invasion. Both of these provided cultural influence different from that which western Europe was exposed to.
Restructuring of Religion
Christianity Splits Christianity in the West Christianity very centralized-power stemming from Rome, services held in Latin The West centralized power in the church and decentralized political power Political leaders had to be blessed by the Church, and were often under authority of Church. Religious empire with subservient political units Regarded religious images/icons as acceptable Popes asserted Rome as the seat of authority for all Christendom Priests can shave beards Unleavened bread when saying mass Christianity in the East Christianity localized-churches conducted services in the language of the area they were located in (Russian in Russia for ex.) Political emperors in control of their empire and the church, church. Secular empire with an official religion. Iconoclasm, belief that venerating religious images and icons sinful introduced by emperor Leo III, destroyed and prohibited use of religious icons in churches Patriarchs want autonomy of all Christian jurisdictions Priests dont shave beards Leavened bread for mass The differences between Byzantine Christianity and Western European Christianity caused tensions
Eastern and Western Christianity split into eastern orthodox Christianity and Roman Catholic Christianity Investiture Contests: Pope Gregory VII attempts to end practice of lay investiture (king having power to choose bishop). Excommunicates (expels from Church) Emperor Henry IV. Germans rebel Theme: once again, this signals the growing dissatisfaction with church authority and the coming separation of church and state. BREAK IN CONTINUITY!