2The Middle Ages!“The period of time after the fall of Rome and before the renaissance”.If you see “Europe” and a date between 600 and 1450 C.E. together on an AP test question, thinkMIDDLE AGES!Because as you will see, the middle ages is an era with many distinct, easy to remember characteristics…and once you jog your mind with these easy to picture things such as knights in armor you’ll start to remember the thematic importance of these things (and have great ideas for an essay!)The Middle Ages was definitely a break in continuity as Europe fragmented and turned very provincial and independent, it was a time of restructuring in Europe.
4The Fall of the Roman Empire Simply said:Diocletian becomes emperor, attempts to deal with increasing problems of maintaining control over the vast area of RomeDivides it into 2 regions (East and West) ruled by co-emperors to have more manageable administrative regions. Civil war breaks out when he retires.In that civil war, Constantine (from Eastern Rome) defeats his rivals in Western Rome so the two become united once again under him. He builds a new capital at the Greek city of Byzantium (in Eastern Rome) and names it Constantinople.284286322It’s big…It splits in two….It reunites…
5From now on this column will have connections, themes, big ideas important for the AP exam! Continued…The reunited empire suffers from shrinking income and increasing external pressures. After the death of Constantine the empire again splits into East and West. The eastern half, centered at Constantinople thrives. The Western half, centered at Rome continues a downward spiral. The west half faced pressure from Germanic tribes at its borders so in defense the Romans placed Germanic peoples such as the Visigoths (who had adopted Roman law and Christianity) at its borders. But in early 5th century the Huns began to began to press on the Germans, and the Germans with no place to retreat from the Huns, crossed the border into Roman territory.the Visigoths sacked Romethe emperor had been deposed and the fall of the Western Roman Empire was complete. The Eastern part survived but was renamed the Byzantine Empire.410457It falls due to both internal weaknesses and external pressure. Remember the Conrad Demarest model for falls of empires! But more specifically, what causes that external pressure? The Germans are not conquering, but rather responding to the pressures on them
6What came after Rome?Germanic tribes settled throughout Western Europe, establishing the successor states to the Roman EmpireSpain= VisigothsItaly= OstragothsGaul= Burgundians/FranksBritain= Angles/SaxonsFranks became the most powerful of the peoples building new states in Western Europe during this time.
8Attempt at Empire in Western Europe The Franks united under Clovis (r ), who built a kingdom stretching from present day Germany through Belgium and into France, with its capital at Paris. Short lived, but strongly influenced political, cultural, and social development of Western EuropeThe Franks had a strong agricultural base, and they drew their agricultural resources from continental Europe, rather than actively participating in the commercial world of the Mediterranean Basin.481Change: center of gravity in Western Europe shifted from italy to the Northern lands of France, Germany, and the Low Countries.
9Continued…Although united under King Clovis, the Franks developed decentralized political institutions, which influenced European politics for years to come.Clovis and his army converted to Roman Christianity, not Arian Christianity, attracting the support and recognition of the Western Christian church. Church support helped the Franks become the most powerful of the German tribes, and the Franks helped the Western Christian church and Roman Christianity maintain its cultural and religious primacy in western Europe.Change:decentralized political institutionsContinuity: Roman Church has primacy in western Europe
10Continued…After Clovis’ death, his successors ruled the Frankish kingdom (although with less authority because aristocratic warriors began to gain control of their own regions) until the early eight century when the Carolingian line displaces the Clovis line. Carolingian Empire founded by Charles Martel.Charles Martel turned back a Muslim army from Spain at the Battle of ToursMartel’s son Pepin decides to be certified by the popehelped persuade Muslim rulers of Spain not to seek further conquest into Western Europe.interaction through conflict732signal of the growing authority of the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. From here on Western Europe will become a religious empire. Keep in mind how that will be different from Eastern Europe.
11Continued…Martel’s grandson Charlemagne (r ) is the high point of the Frankish realm. He temporarily reestablishes centralized imperial rule in a society disrupted by invasions and contests for power between ambitious local rulersmaintained diplomatic relations between Byzantine Empire and Abbasid Caliphate (gift of white elephant symbolic of this)expanded realm to NE Spain, Bavaria, Italy as far South as RomeComparisson: sounds like King Harsha in India!
12Continued…constantly traveled throughout his because he did not have financial resources to build an elaborate bureaucracy to implement his policies. Instead relied on aristocratic deputies, known as “counts” who had authority in their local jurisdictionssometimes counts tried to pursue their own interests, so Charlemagne instituted the “missi dominici”, group of imperial officials who traveled to local jurisdictions to review the accounts of the local authoritiesCharlemagne did not want to challenge the Byzantine emperors who considered themselves the legitimate successors of the Roman Empire by taking the title of emperor, but Pope Leo III, possibly as a surprise, crowned him as emperor.Comparison: sounds like the Persian empire!800
13Fragmented AgainCarolingian empire came to a decline after Charlemagne’s deathhis son Louis the Pious inherited the throne, but was not as strong of a leader, lost control of the counts.his 3 sons argued over inheritance of the empire and waged wars against each other.they agreed to divide the empire into 3 kingdoms, according to the Treaty of Verdun.external invasions from Muslims from South, Magyars (descendants of Nomadic Asian peoples that settled in Hungary) from East, and the most feared, Vikings from NorthTheme: how do empires fall? Looks like the Carolingian is another r example of eternal weaknesses and external invasions. Hmmm…sounds like the realm of Clovis. Could this be a trend in this area? Why might it? Could geography make it susceptible to German invaders overland or vikings by sea?843
15the social, economic, political system of Europe in Middle Ages Europe’s SolutionThe emergence of effective regional kingdoms prevented the return of centralized imperial rule in Europe. Europe became a society of competing regional states. By establishing this form of political stable order Europe was able to pursue social, cultural, and economic development.the social, economic, political system of Europe in Middle Ages
16How it worked The Hierarchy of Feudalism Compare/contrast: where else have we heard feudalism? Japan! Similar political and social structure. Even both have honor codes (remember the samurai…aren’t they like knights? In contrast, European feudalism obligations were enforced by law, while in japan it was based on loyalty. Also different in their treatment of womenThe Hierarchy of Feudalism-king has power over a territory called his kingdom-nobles, in exchange for military service and loyalty to the king, were granted power over sections of the kingdom. Knights were also considered nobility.-nobles divided their land among lesser lords called vassals. Estates granted to them called fiefs of manors and were self sufficient-vassals could split their lands among subordinate vassals-below the vassals were the peasants who worked the landFor this system to work everyone had to fulfill obligations to the different levels in the hierarchy. Ex: if you were a lesser lord you were obliged to your Lord, as well as your vassals.Conflicts erupted between feudal lords, but the code of chivalry, followed by most lords and knights was an honor system that laid out a proper etiquette for disputes.Land=powerFeudal system was male dominated, women could not inherit land so were powerless and education limited to domestic skills. Noblewomen admired for “feminine traits” and regarded as property to be protected and displayed (remember all the stories about the knights saving the helpless pretty damsel in distress? Of course the girl couldn’t save herself.)The economy had tanked w/ fall of Rome. The agricultural output was insufficient to support cities so Europe became very rural.Compare/contrast: could the idea that fulfilling obligations to levels of the hierarchy for society to run smooth be compared to Confucian ideas that following the 5 relationships keeps society running? Or how about to the Hindu caste idea of the shoudras being the feet, Brahmins the head, etc.Continuity: patriarchal society
19The 3 EstatesFeudal system was male dominated, women could not inherit land so were powerless and education limited to domestic skills. Noblewomen admired for “feminine traits” and regarded as property to be protected and displayed (remember all the stories about the knights saving the helpless pretty damsel in distress? Of course the girl couldn’t save herself.)Manors come to depend on serfdom, a class of serfs is added to the social order.Those who pray (clergy)Those who fight (knights)Those who work (peasants)THE 3 ESTATES
20Progress increased agriculture Population growth Compare/contrast: What was happening in the rest of the world during European feudalism? As Europe was turning inwards, other places like the Islamic merchants of the Abbasid dynasty were traveling the world.Theme: doesn’t this look like pattern the ancient civilizations followed? Urbanization IS a pattern!ProgressAgricultural advancements-three field system, new agricultural advance in which harvests rotated between three different fields-nobles directed “the great clearing”, clearing of forests for more farmland-development of heavy plow-horse collarsincreased agriculturePopulation growthAn addition of merchants, artisians, physicians, lawyers, into the “those who work” class.the revival of towns and urbanization. Towns were chartered on lands controlled by Feudal lords and within the towns middle class merchant called burghers became politically powerful.towns had a great deal of independence within the empire, but were more interdependent than the manors of the Feudal system. Towns formed alliancesSpecialization of labor occurs.-textile productionFormation of guilds. Guilds offer price and quality control and a social support network.Revival of trade. The Hanseatic controlled trade throughout Northern EuropeNew opportunities for women, who can join guilds
22The Crusades 11th-14th cen 1000-1300 1330’s Military campaigns undertaken by European Christians convert all Muslims and other non Christians to convert to ChristianityRise of heresies, religious practices or beliefs that do not conform with traditional church doctrine-Waldesians-The CatharsDuring early middle ages European society had been too unstable to provide institutions for advanced learning. In the high middle ages (1000 to 1300) increased wealth makes that possible-cathedral schools-universitiesByzantine Greek texts of the Greek philosophers are translated to Latin and circulated, influence scholastism.The Bubonic Plaguespread from Asia on the silk road trade routes, within 50 years of its first arrival in Europe, had killed a third of the population, made traditional feaudal hierarchies obsolete, intensified religious hate, and caused people to lose faith in the church11th-14th cen1330’sTheme: All of these events influence the social changes to come in the renaissance and enlightenment and signify the growing dissatisfaction with church authority.
24The beginning of another political reconstruction
25The VikingsVikings raided villages and cities, sacked Constantinople 3 times. island life meant limited resources, and raids were a normal consequence of the pressures of growing populations as the Vikings had to find new resources.Beg. 800Vikings forced western Europe to organize and state build in order to defend themselves
26Emergence of Nation States ENGLAND8711066GERMANY955962Viking invasions force the Angles and Saxons to consolidate under Alfred (r ). They built a navy and fortified cities.at Battle of Hasting William the Conqueror, a Viking, conquers England, marks the beginning of England as we know it.response to Viking invasion brought end of Carolingian rule and the formation of a more effective state under a new dynasty.King Otto of Saxony (recall the Carolingian rulers had lost control of the counts and they had built their own kingdoms) defeats the Magyars and imposes authority throughout GermanyPope crowns him emperor of a new “Holy Roman Empire” (remember: nothing like former Rome, not really an Empire, more of a kingdom)Theme: At the beg. Of the middle ages, western Europe was broken into feudal kingdoms, but by the end, nation states were beginning to emerge
27Continued… FRANCE 987 12th cen 1337- 1453 ITALY 8th to 12th cen ITALY8th to 12th cena decentralized political order was created because the counts withdrew their alliance from the Carolingian empire and began to rule their areas how they pleased, without any reference to a central authority.Hugh Capet succeeds the last Carolingian emperor and slowly expands his authority out from France, creating Capetian France.Meanwhile, Vikings carved out many small independent states in Northern France. England begins to claim large parts of France, which led to French statehoodHundred Years War between France and England occurs. After the war France became a little more centralized under a series of monarchs called Bourbonsbecame series of states ruled by church. The Pope directly controlled a papal state in central Italy, but by 12th century the northern Italian city states were increasingly displacing church control, and in South Italy, Normans invade, displacing Byzantine and Muslim authoritiesTheme: Invasions seem to be a common cause here of solidifying power and building a nation (sounds like a nice thesis idea…)
28Continued… IBERIAN PENNINSULA 8th to 12th cen 1469 controlled by MuslimsQueen Isabella of Castille marries Ferdinand of Aragon, uniting Spain into a single monarchySpanish Inquisition-monarchy allies with catholic church and ends religious tolerance in the area, non Christians forced to convert or leave the countryIBERIAN PENNINSULA8th to 12th cen1469
29What About Eastern Europe? Unlike, Western Europe, Byzantine was tightly centralized by a single emperor.Policy of Caesaropapism, where the emperor rules as a secular lord and plays a role in ecclesial affairsCentered around Constantinople, a lavish capital with libraries, museums, palaces, baths, public buildings, churches, etc. Fancy court dress and etiquetteJustinian codified law, sent General Belisarius on military campaigns to Italy, Sicily, NW Africa, and S Spain, but did not have resources to maintain control over these areas longIslamic conquests. Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Egypt and N. Africa fall under Muslim controlConstantinople is under Muslim siege, but with military technology Byzantine retained its holds of Anatolia, Greece, and Balkan regionCompare/contrast fragmented Western Europe with the Byzantine EmpireAfter 7th cenand
31Continued…Theme: What contributed to the cultural differences between Russia and the rest of Europe. Well orthodox Christianity. And Mongol invasion. Both of these provided cultural influence different from that which western Europe was exposed to.9th cen1242The slavic people of SE Europe and Russia were converted to Christianity by At. Cyril, an orthodox Christian who used the Greek alphabet to create a slavic alphabetVladimir, Russian Prince, converts to Orthodox ChristianityRussia conquered by the Tatars, Mongols under Genghis Khan
33Christianity SplitsThe differences between Byzantine Christianity and Western European Christianity caused tensionsChristianity in the WestChristianity very centralized-power stemming from Rome, services held in LatinThe West centralized power in the church and decentralized political powerPolitical leaders had to be blessed by the Church, and were often under authority of Church. Religious empire with subservient political unitsRegarded religious images/icons as acceptablePopes asserted Rome as the seat of authority for all ChristendomPriests can shave beardsUnleavened bread when saying massChristianity in the EastChristianity localized-churches conducted services in the language of the area they were located in (Russian in Russia for ex.)Political emperors in control of their empire and the church, church. Secular empire with an official religion.Iconoclasm, belief that venerating religious images and icons sinful introduced by emperor Leo III, destroyed and prohibited use of religious icons in churchesPatriarchs want autonomy of all Christian jurisdictionsPriests don’t shave beardsLeavened bread for mass
34Eastern and Western Christianity split into eastern orthodox Christianity and Roman Catholic ChristianityInvestiture Contests: Pope Gregory VII attempts to end practice of lay investiture (king having power to choose bishop). Excommunicates (expels from Church) Emperor Henry IV. Germans rebel.1054BREAK IN CONTINUITY!Theme: once again, this signals the growing dissatisfaction with church authority and the coming separation of church and state.