Presentation on theme: "Buddhism and Confucianism By: Ryan Simpson and Martin Williamson."— Presentation transcript:
Buddhism and Confucianism By: Ryan Simpson and Martin Williamson
The origins of Buddhism Founded by Siddhartha Gaumtama ( B.C.E) Grew up in Nepal, as a Hindu prince. Relinquishes his wealth and begins searching for the meaning of human suffering. After meditating under the Bodhi tree, becomes Buddha (Enlightened one).
Key beliefs of Buddhism Follow Four Noble Truths: - All life is suffering - Suffering is caused by desire - One can be freed of desire - Must follow Eight Fold Path Eight Fold Path: - Right views - Right aspirations - Right speech - Right conduct - Right livelihood - Right endeavor - Right Mindfulness - Right Meditation No Supreme being in Buddhism.
Beliefs continued By following the Four Noble Truths and in effect the Eight Fold Path, one moves closer to the destination of Nirvana. Nirvana is considered a place of peace and harmony. Buddhists believe that the goal in ones life is to reach Nirvana, though it may take many lifetimes, so they also believe in reincarnation. Buddhism preaches that Nirvana can be reached by anyone, no matter what their caste or social standing.
The somewhat of a great Schism After Buddhas death in 483 B.C.E, Buddhism split into two sects. Theravada (Hinayana) and Mahayana. Theravada: - Strong emphasis on meditation, simplicity, and personal interpretations on Nirvana and the human conscious. - No belief in a supreme being. - Theravada means the Way of the Elders and Hinayana means the Lesser Vehicle. Mahayana: - Means the Greater Vehicle. - More complex rituals, more so then Buddha had originally specified. - Buddha is a godlike deity. - Believe that some people have already reached Nirvana and choose to stay on Earth to help others reach Nirvana, called Bodhisattvas. - Also rely heavily on priests and scriptures.
The spread of Buddhism Appealed strongly to the lower classes especially in India. - This was because it did not contain a social structure and did not advocate the caste system. Spread far beyond the borders of India. Spread was aided by conversions of some key political leaders. - Ashoka, the Mauryan Emperor converted after a series of bloody battles.
Directions Buddhism spread
The origins of Confucianism Confucius (551 to 479 BC) was born into an aristocratic family, he spent most of his life trying to obtain a high position in the government. But because is ideas and morals often conflicted with the governmental standards of the time, he was never hired. Later, he would manage to become an educator and a political advisor. Through his advice he became a very prominent figure during his time.
Key beliefs of Confucianism Followers created a collection of his thoughts and sayings in the Analects. These thoughts and sayings would later shape Chinese political and cultural structures. Note: Confucianism is not a religion, but rather a political and social philosophy on how to restore political and social order.
Beliefs continued Five fundamental relationships for order: - Ruler and the subject - Parent and the child - Husband and wife - Older brother and younger brother - Friend and friend If all relationships follow structure then society will be orderly and predictable. Confucianism focuses on the creation of Junzi, or superior individuals to lead society. Ren- sense of humanity, kindness, and benevolence. Li- a sense of propriety, courtesy, respect, and deference to elders. Xiao- filial piety. Believe that Junzi individuals must lead by example to better society as a whole. Under Confucianism women have lower status.
Confucianisms impact abroad Confucianism was often practiced with other religions, as it was not a religion itself. - Often practiced with Buddhism. Extensively used in governmental jobs. - Civil service examinations tested Confucian ideals. However, did not spread far beyond the borders of China, due to the fact it was integrated with Chinese culture itself.
Neo- Confucianism During Tang and Song China ( C.E), Buddhism was formally introduced to China via Silk roads Note: Buddhism was introduced earlier during the Han Dynasty, but not significantly. - During this period, Buddhism began grabbing the attentions of many Chinese as it preached of salvation, a term unknown to Confucianism. After a period of time new syncretic faiths began to emerge. Primarily: - Chan Buddhism: Buddhism with Chinese values. And Neo-Confucianism - Example of how Confucianism can be practiced at the same time with other religions, in this case Buddhism. - Transformed Confucian thought from dealing with politics and morality to thoughts on logic and metaphysics. - Zhu Xi ( C.E) well known Neo-Confucian scholar. However, not all Confucians liked Buddhism, often persecuted followers. Neo - Confucianism would later spread to Korea and eventually Japan. - Tokugawa Shogunate
Document one: In defense of Buddhism The questioner said: If the way of the Buddha is the greatest and most venerable of ways, why did Yao, Shun, the Duke of Chou, and Confucius not practice it? In the seven Classics one sees no mention of it. You, sir are fond of the Book of Odes and the Book of History, and you take please in rites and music. Why, then, do you love the way of the Buddha and rejoice in outlandish arts? Can they exceed the Classics and commentaries and beautify the accomplishments of the sages? Mou Tzu [ a Chinese Buddhist ] said: All written works need not necessarily be the words of Confucius, and all medicine does not necessarily consist of the words of the formulae of [the famous physician]. To compare them to the Buddha would be like comparing a white deer to a unicorn, or a swallow to a phoenix. Yao Shun, the Duke of Chou, and Confucius learned even from such teachers as these. How much less, then, may one reject the Buddha, whose distinguishing marks are extraordinary and whose superhuman powers know no bounds! How may one reject him and refuse to learn from him? The records and teachings of the Five Classics do not contain everything. Even if the Buddha is not mentioned in them, what occasion is there for suspicion? Anonymous Chinese Scholar, The Disposition of Error, China, Circa 500 C.E. Themes: Development and interaction of cultures Compares Buddhist values to Confucian values Here, Chinese Buddhist describes the close relationship between the two ideologies.
Document two: Memorial on Buddhism Now the Buddha was of barbarian origin. His language differed from Chinese speech; his clothes were of a different cut; his mouth did not pronounce the prescribed words of the Former Kings, his body was not clad in the garments prescribed by the Former Kings. He did not recognize the relationship between prince and subject, nor the sentiments of father and son. Let us suppose him to be living today, and that he come to court at the capital as an emissary of his country. Your Majesty would receive him courteously. But only one interview in the audience chamber, one banquet in his honor, one gift of clothing, and he would be escorted under guard to the border that he might not mislead the masses. Han Yu, Confucian Scholar, 819 C.E Theme: Development and interaction of cultures Discredits Buddha, does believes he is significant Points out the obvious cultural differences. Says that the Emperor would, if he met Buddha, most likely banish him.