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Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 14 The Expansive Realm of Islam.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 14 The Expansive Realm of Islam."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 14 The Expansive Realm of Islam

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 Muhammad and His Message Born 570 to merchant family in Mecca Orphaned as a child Marries wealthy widow c. 595, works as merchant Familiarity with paganism, Christianity and Judaism as practiced in Arabian peninsula

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 Muhammads Spiritual Transformation Visions c. 610 CE Archangel Gabriel Monotheism Attracts followers to Mecca

5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4 The Quran Record of revelations received during visions Committed to writing c. 650 CE (Muhammad dies 632) Tradition of Muhammads life: hadith

6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 5 Conflict at Mecca Muhammads monotheistic teachings offensive to polytheistic pagans Economic threat to existing religious industry Denunciation of greed affront to local aristocracy

7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6 The Hijra Muhammad flees to Yathrib (Medina) 622 CE Year 0 in Muslim calendar Organizes followers into communal society (the umma) Legal, spiritual code Commerce, raids on Meccan caravans for sake of umma

8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 7 The Seal of the Prophets Islam as culmination and correction of Judaism, Christianity Inheritor of both Jewish and Christian texts

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 Muhammads Return to Mecca Attack on Mecca, 630 Conversion of Mecca to Islam Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques Kaaba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca Approved as pilgrimage site

10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9 The Kaaba

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10 The Five Pillars of Islam No god but Allah and Muhammad is His prophet Daily prayer Fasting during Ramadan Charity Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Muslims at Prayer

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 Jihad struggle Against vice Against ignorance of Islam holy war

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display Jihad against oneself - the daily struggle against evil and temptation in life. 2. Jihad with knowledge - the struggle to use knowledge, particularly from the Qur'an, to fight ignorance and to gain converts to Islam not through battle, but through the power of Qur'anic knowledge. 3. Jihad with wealth - the struggle to give up material wealth for the benefit of Islam, through charitable donations. 4. Jihad with the sword - the physical struggle to defend Islam against harm from unbelievers. Muslims believe that if they give their lives in this military jihad they will be rewarded with eternal paradise. 5. Jihad through righteousness - the struggle to continuously undertake good deeds to please God and benefit humanity. The Meaning of Jihad

17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 Values: Honor parents Be kind to neighbors Protect widows and orphans Give to the poor Condemns: Murder Stealing Lying Adultery Forbids: Gambling Pork Alcohol Regulates: Marriage Divorce Inheritance Business Endorses: Polygamy Slavery Jihad The Quran

18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 Islamic Law: The Sharia Codification of Islamic law Based on Quran, hadith, logical schools of analysis Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human activity

19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18 The Caliph No clear to successor to Muhammad identified Abu Bakr chosen to lead as Caliph Led war against villagers who abandoned Islam after death of Muhammad

20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 The Expansion of Islam Highly successful attacks on Byzantine, Sassanid territories Difficulties governing rapidly expanding territory

21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 Expansion to 750

22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 21 The Shia Disagreements over selection of caliphs Ali passed over for Abu Bakr Served as caliph CE, then assassinated along with most of his followers Remaining followers organize separate party called Shia Traditionalists: Sunni

23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 22 Shiite Pilgrims at Karbala

24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 23 The Umayyad Dynasty ( CE) From Meccan merchant class Capital: Damascus, Syria Associated with Arab military aristocracy

25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 24 Policy toward Conquered Peoples Favoritism of Arab military rulers causes discontent Limited social mobility for non-Arab Muslims Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims Umayyad luxurious living causes further decline in moral authority

26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 25 The Abbasid Dynasty ( CE) Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia, non- Arab Muslims Seizes control of Persia and Mesopotamia Defeats Umayyad army in 750 Invited Umayyads to banquet, then massacred them

27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 26 Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion Dar al-Islam Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces

28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 27 Abbasid Administration Persian influence Court at Baghdad Influence of Islamic scholars (ulama, qadi)

29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 28 Caliph Harun al-Rashid ( CE) High point of Abbasid dynasty Baghdad center of commerce Great cultural activity

30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 29 Abbasid Decline Civil war between sons of Harun al-Rashid Provincial governers assert regional independence Dissenting sects, heretical movements Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian nobility Later, Saljuq Turks influence, Sultan real power behind the throne

31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 30 Economy of the Early Islamic World Spread of food and industrial crops Trade routes from India to Spain Western diet adapts to wide variety New crops adapted to different growing seasons Agricultural sciences develop Cotton, paper industries develop Major cities emerge

32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 31 Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone Historical precedent of Arabic trade Dar al-Islam encompasses silk routes ice exported from Syria to Egypt in summer, 10 th century Camel caravans Maritime trade

33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 32 Banking and Trade Scale of trade causes banks to develop Sakk (check) Uniformity of Islamic law throughout dar al- Islam promotes trade Joint ventures common

34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 33 Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain) Muslim Berber conquerors from North Africa take Spain, early 8 th c. Allied to Umayyads, refused to recognize Abbasid dynasty Formed own caliphate Tensions, but interrelationship

35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 34 Changing Status of Women Quran improves status of women Outlawed female infanticide Brides, not husbands, claim dowries Yet male dominance preserved Patrilineal descent Polygamy permitted, Polyandry forbidden Veil adopted from ancient Mesopotamian practice

36 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 35 Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition Islamic values Uniformity of Islamic law in dar al-Islam Establishment of madrasas Importance of the Hajj Sufi missionaries Asceticism, mysticism Some tension with orthodox Islamic theologians Wide popularity

37 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 36 Al-Ghazali ( ) Major Sufi thinker from Persia Impossibility of intellectual apprehension of Allah, devotion, mystical ecstasy instead

38 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 37 Cultural influences on Islam Persia Adminstration and governance literature India Mathematics, science, medicine Hindi numbers Greece Philosophy, esp. Aristotle Ibn Rushd/Averroes ( )


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