2 Target #9- I can identify the five types of evidence for evolution Evidence for evolution came through fossils, biogeography, embryology, anatomy, and biochemistryTarget #9- I can identify the five types of evidence for evolution
3 Target #10- I can explain how fossils provide evidence for evolution Fossils: the remains and traces of past life or any other direct evidence of past lifeCan be studied for information on environment of the time, the age of the fossilRelative age of fossils was determined by where they were located in the layers of rockThe oldest fossils were on the bottomSome can consist of hard parts of organismsShellsBonesTeethSoft parts can be preserved based off of how the sample was preservedTrace fossils can be preservedTrailsFootprintsWorm castsdroppingsTarget #10- I can explain how fossils provide evidence for evolution
5 Target #11- I can explain the purpose of a transitional species Fossils that serve as links between groupsExample: ArchaeopteryxLived 165 million years agoAn intermediate between reptiles and birdsHad reptile-like features: jaws, teeth, long and jointed tailHad bird-like features: feathers and wingsOther transitional groupsFish amphibeans reptiles
7 Target #12- I can explain how biogeography provides evidence for the theory of evolution Biogeography: the study of the range and distribution of plants and animals in different places throughout the world in comparison to the ancestorsOrganisms evolve in one locale and then spread to accessible regionsA different mix of plants and animals will be present whenever geography separates continents, islands, seas, etc.Examplesmarsupials in AustraliaLemurs in MadagasgarMesosaurus in S.America & Africa
10 The homology shared by vertebrates extends to their embryology Target #13- I can explain how embryology provides evidence for evolutionThe homology shared by vertebrates extends to their embryologyAll vertebrates have a postanal tail and exhibit paired pharyngeal pouchesIn fish and amphibians, those pouches develop into gillsIn humans they develop into various components of the neck and inner earTranslation since both fish, amphibians, and humans have pharyngeal pouches, fish & amphibians were the common ancestor to all vertebrates
12 Target #14- I can explain how anatomy provides evidence for evolution Homologous structures: features that are similar in structure but appear in different organisms and have different functionsProvides more evidence for the concept of a common ancestor among all organismsEx: forelimbs of vertebrate animalsAnalogous Structures: structures that perform a similar function but are not similar in originEx: wings of insects and birdsVestigial structures: remnants of organs or structures that had a function in an early ancestorEx: snakes have pelvic bones and limbs but do not walkEx: human have an appendix that is believed to have been used to process raw meat and plantsEx: hind limb bones exist in animals like baleen whales and snakesTarget #14- I can explain how anatomy provides evidence for evolution
16 Almost all organisms use the same basic biochemical molecules Includes DNA, ATP, and other enzymesOrganisms use the same DNA triplet code for the same 20 amino acids in their proteinsHumans share a large number of genes with much simpler organismsLife’s diversity has come about by only a slight difference in many of the same genes and regulatory genes often found in introns and other regions of the genomeTarget #15- I can explain the commonalities of organism through their biochemical connections
17 The more similar the DNA sequences are between organisms, generally the more closely related the organisms areExample comparison:Humans and chimpanzees are about 97% similarExample protein:Cytochrome C used for the transport of materials across the plasma membrane in all organismsHumans vs. monkeys: 1 amino acid differenceHumans vs. ducks: 11 amino acid differenceHumans vs. yeast: 51 amino acid differenceData is consistent with anatomical similarities of the organisms and their relation to each otherTarget #15- cont.