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Species Interactions. Fitness: the relative contribution to the gene pool in the next generation.

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Presentation on theme: "Species Interactions. Fitness: the relative contribution to the gene pool in the next generation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Species Interactions

2 Fitness: the relative contribution to the gene pool in the next generation

3 Species Interactions Change in Fitness as a Result of the Interaction + net gain of fitness 0 no net change of fitness - net loss of fitness Fitness: the relative contribution to the gene pool in the next generation

4 Species Interactions Species ASpecies B Competition Predation Neutralism Mutualism Change in Fitness as a Result of the Interaction + net gain of fitness 0 no net change of fitness - net loss of fitness Fitness: the relative contribution to the gene pool in the next generation

5 Competition - / - Experiments by Russian ecologist Gause in 1934 examined two closely related species of protozoans. When cultured on a constant food source separately, both reached carrying capacity. When cultured together, P. aurelia proved to be a better competator and drove P. caudatum to extinction.

6 Competition - / -

7 Two possible outcomes to competition: Competitive exclusion = extinction Niche partitioning = coexistence

8 Competition - / - Two possible outcomes to competition: 1.Competitive exclusion = extinction (one species dominates) 2. Niche partitioning = coexistence (species have slightly different niches) Therefore, many species may coexist and still use similar resources in a similar way, if they can specialize in their ecosystem.

9 Predation + / - virus Various types: Carnivores, Herbivores, Omnivores, Parasites, Parasitoids Pepis sp.

10 Predation + / - Ecologically, there seems to be a trade-off between competitive ability and the ability to escape predators. STRATEGY FOR SURVIVAL Competitive Ability Resistance to Predation

11 Predation + / - What do you see? How do you interpret this graph? STRATEGY FOR SURVIVAL Competitive Ability Resistance to Predation

12 Predation + / - What is Species A good at in its ecosystem? What is this species not as good at? STRATEGY FOR SURVIVAL Competitive Ability Resistance to Predation Species A

13 Predation + / - STRATEGY FOR SURVIVAL Competitive Ability Resistance to Predation Species A Species B What is the strategy for Species B?

14 Analogy: It is very difficult to be good at everything. But, using different strategies (different niches) you can still be good at the game.

15 Neutralism 0 / 0

16 It is important to remember that this is not the absence of interaction.

17 Neutralism 0 / 0 Where neutralism becomes more important is when examining larger numbers of species interactions in a bounded community. Example: Tide pool communities. Though their members interact frequently, many neither benefit nor cost one another. Studies suggest that 5% or less show significant correlations in abundance, for example.

18 Mutualism + / + Atta cephalotes

19 Interactions in a tropical ecosystem Eciton burchelli

20 What types of interactions are present in the army ant situation? Write them in your notebook and explain your thinking.

21 Now it is your turn to form analogies. In your notebook, come up with analogies for ecological community interactions using your own neighborhood community or school. Explain and draw a quick picture illustrating competition, predation, neutralism and mutualism.


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