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The Human Body: Anatomical Regions, Directions, and Body Cavities.

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Presentation on theme: "The Human Body: Anatomical Regions, Directions, and Body Cavities."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Human Body: Anatomical Regions, Directions, and Body Cavities

2 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology* AnatomyAnatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another –Gross or macroscopic –Microscopic –Developmental PhysiologyPhysiology – the study of the function of the bodys structural machinery

3 Gross Anatomy RegionalRegional – all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg) SystemicSystemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system SurfaceSurface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin

4 Microscopic Anatomy CytologyCytology – study of the cell HistologyHistology – study of tissues

5 Developmental Anatomy Traces structural changes throughout life EmbryologyEmbryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth

6 Specialized Branches of Anatomy Pathological anatomyPathological anatomy – study of structural changes caused by disease Radiographic anatomyRadiographic anatomy – study of internal structures visualized by X ray Molecular biologyMolecular biology – study of anatomical structures at a sub-cellular level

7 Physiology Considers the operation of specific organ systemsConsiders the operation of specific organ systems –Renal – kidney function –Neurophysiology – workings of the nervous system –Cardiovascular – operation of the heart and blood vessels Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular levelFocuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level

8 Physiology* Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains electrical currents, blood pressure, and the way muscle uses bone for movement

9 Principle of Complementarity* Function always reflects structure What a structure can do depends on its specific form

10 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems Atoms Molecules Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Cardiovascular system Levels of Structural Organization* Figure 1.1

11 Levels of Structural Organization ChemicalChemical – atoms combined to form molecules CellularCellular – cells are made of molecules TissueTissue – consists of similar types of cells OrganOrgan – made up of different types of tissues Organ systemOrgan system – consists of different organs that work closely together OrganismalOrganismal – made up of the organ systems

12 Homeostasis HomeostasisHomeostasis is the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world a dynamic state of equilibriumThe internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis

13 Homeostatic Imbalance Disturbance of homeostasis or the bodys normal equilibriumDisturbance of homeostasis or the bodys normal equilibrium Overwhelming of negative feedback mechanisms allowing destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over

14 Anatomical Position* Body erect Feet slightly apart Palms facing forward Thumbs point away from body Figure 1.7a

15 Directional Terms* Superior and inferiorSuperior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectively Anterior and posteriorAnterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body Medial, lateral, and intermediateMedial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure

16 Directional Terms* Proximal and distalProximal and distal – closer to and farther from the origin of the body Superficial and deepSuperficial and deep – toward and away from the body surface

17 Directional Terms* Table 1.1

18 Directional Terms* Table 1.1

19 Regional Terms: Anterior View* AxialAxial – head, neck, and trunk AppendicularAppendicular – appendages or limbs Specific regional terminologySpecific regional terminology Figure 1.7a

20 Regional Terms: Posterior View* Figure 1.7b

21 Body Planes* SagittalSagittal – divides the body into right and left parts Midsagittal or medialMidsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midline Frontal or coronalFrontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts Transverse or horizontalTransverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts Oblique sectionOblique section – cuts made diagonally

22 Body Planes* Figure 1.8

23 Anatomical Variability Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomyHumans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but: –Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place –Small muscles may be missing Extreme anatomical variations are seldom seen

24 Body Cavities Figure 1.9a

25 Body Cavities Dorsal cavityDorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions –Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brain –Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord Ventral cavityVentral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: - Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities

26 Body Cavities Figure 1.9b

27 Body Cavities Thoracic cavityThoracic cavity is subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity –Pleural cavities – each houses a lung –Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs –Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart

28 Body Cavities The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragmThe abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm It is composed of two subdivisions –Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs –Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

29 Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Parietal serosaParietal serosa lines internal body walls Visceral serosaVisceral serosa covers the internal organs Serous fluid separates the serosae

30 Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Figure 1.10a

31 Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Figure 1.10b

32 Other Body Cavities Oral and digestiveOral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs NasalNasal –located within and posterior to the nose OrbitalOrbital – house the eyes Middle earMiddle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations SynovialSynovial – joint cavities

33 Abdominopelvic Regions Umbilical Epigastric Hypogastric Right and left iliac or inguinal Right and left lumbar Right and left hypochondriac Figure 1.11a

34 Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions Figure 1.11b

35 Abdominopelvic Quadrants Right upper (RUQ) Left upper (LUQ) Right lower (RLQ) Left lower (LLQ) Figure 1.12

36 Assigments In pairs, identify the following areas on partner: –Area distal to the knee –Area proximal to the elbow –Lateral to the big toe –Anterior side of the body –Posterior side of the body –Area that is medial to the shoulder –Area that is superior to the lungs –Area that is inferior to the heart. Develop a Short Story describing best date or worst nightmare using anatomical terms.


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