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States and state change

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Presentation on theme: "States and state change"— Presentation transcript:

1 States and state change
Chapter 11 sec 1 States and state change

2 States of Matter The fundamental difference between states of matter is the distance between particles.

3 States of Matter Gases – fill container, random rapid motion, never coming to rest or clumping together Motion is mainly translational Liquids – fixed volume, flow and assume shape of container, only slightly compressible, stronger forces hold molecules together Motion is mainly translational EOS Solids – fixed volume, definite shape, generally less compressible than liquids, forces hold particles in a fixed shape Motion is mainly vibrational

4 Solid particles have fixed position
Crystalline form: they can be very hard and brittle or they can be very soft.

5 Liquid particles can move easily past one another
Liquid flow to take the shape of the lower part of a container. A meniscus is the interface between a liquid and the air above it EOS Capillary action results from intermolecular interactions

6 Surface Tension Surface tension (g) is the amount of work required to extend a liquid surface and is usually expressed in unit of J m–2 Adhesive forces are intermolecular forces between unlike molecules Cohesive forces are intermolecular forces between like molecules EOS

7 Vaporization and Condensation
Vaporization is the conversion of a liquid to a gas. EOS Condensation is the change of a gas to a liquid. The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure becomes equal to the external pressure

8 Phase Changes Involving Solids
The conversion of a solid to a liquid is called melting, or fusion, and the temperature at which a solid melts is its melting point Sublimation is the process of a molecule’s passing directly from the solid to the vapor state

9 Phase Diagrams A phase diagram is a graphical representation of the temperature and pressure conditions under which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, gas, or some combination of these in equilibrium EOS critical point fusion curve vapor pressure curve sublimation curve triple point

10 Practice A sample of water has a fixed volume and shape. What state is it in? What property of a liquid enable you to pour a liquid into a cup until the top of the liquid is slightly higher than the top of the cup? During what process does a liquid change to solid? solid Surface tension freezing

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