2Functions of the Cardiovascular System The Cardiovascular system is composed of:The HeartBlood vesselsThe function of it is:To circulate bloodMaintain the internal environment so all cells are nourished
3How it works Heart pumps blood Blood vessels carry oxygen and nutrients to body cellsCarbon dioxide and waste iscarried from cells.Carbon dioxide is carried to lungsWaste carried to kidneys for removal
4Structure The Cardio system is composed of: The Heart Blood Blood vesselsArteriesCapillariesVeins
5The Heart The pump that makes the whole system work Most of the heart is made of muscle called myocardium, which contracts and relaxes constantly and in rhythm.Your heart rate will adjust depending on the activity you are doing.
6Chambers of the Heart There are 4 chambers inside the heart. The 2 smaller ones are called an atriumThe 2 lower, larger chambers are called ventriclesA wall of tissue called the septum separates the left and right atria, and also separates the left and right ventricles.
7What they doTop right of the atrium is a muscle that acts as a natural pacemakerRegular electrical impulses remind the muscles of the atrium to contract, forcing blood to the ventricles.Valves between the atria and ventricles allow blood to flow through the chambers of the heart.When ventricles contract the valves closeThat’s the sound when your heart beats
8Circulation in the Heart Page 418Blood that has been deleted of oxygen but contains carbon dioxide and waste is carried to the heart by two large blood vessels called the vena cava.The deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium and is transferred to the right ventricle.
9The blood is then pumped to the lungs. In the lungs, blood releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen from air.Now the blood is oxygenated.It then returns from the lungs to the left atrium.The left atrium pumps the blood to the left ventricle of the heart.The left ventricle pumps the blood out of the heart and to the body through an artery called the aorta.
10Blood Delivers oxygen, hormones, and nutrients to the cells. It carries the waste that cells produce away.55% of total blood volume is composed plasmaThe fluid in which other parts of the blood are suspendedPlasma consist ofWater, nutrients, proteins, salts and hormones
11Blood Red blood cells White blood cells and platelets Platelets Make up about 40% of blood volumeWhite blood cells and plateletsLast 5% of blood volumePlateletsCells that prevent the bodies loss of blood.Gather at the site of an injury and release chemicals that make them stick together.This allows clotting to take place and slow blood loss.
12Red Blood Cells Red Blood Cells Hemoglobin Transport oxygen to tissues and cellsFormed in bone marrow- red blood cells contain hemoglobin.HemoglobinThe oxygen-carrying protein in blood.Hemoglobin contains iron that binds with oxygen in the lungs and releases oxygen in the tissues.
13White Blood CellsMain role is to protect the body against infection and fight infection when it does occur.Production increases when an infection is present.Some are involved in allergic reactions.Some form antibodies that provide immunity
14HeartThings to include:AORTARIGHT ATRIUMLEFT ATRIUMRIGHT VENTRICLELEFT VENTRICLEINFERIOR VENA CAVASUPERIOR VENA CAVAPULMANARY ARTERYPULMINARY VEINSMITRAL VALVEAORTIC VALVEPULMONIC VALVETRICUSPID VALVEAlso you need to include blood flow and where is it going, coming from!
15ASSIGNMENT – 3/3 Only 23 days till Spring Break! We will continue the PPT tomorrowYour tasks for today are:Read chapter 16 Lesson #1Reading Strategy on pg. 416Q #1-5 & AYR on page 422
16Blood Vessels Arteries Capillaries Veins 60,000 miles of blood vessels trasnport blood. (page 420).There are 3 main typesArteriesCapillariesVeins
17Arteries The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart Arteries have thick elastic walls that contain smooth muscle fibers.The elastic fibers in the walls of arteries allow them to withstand the pressure exerted by the blood as the heart beats.Arterioles- smaller blood vessels that carry blood to capillaries
18CapillariesSmall blood vessels that carry blood between arterioles and vessels called venules.They form an extensive network throughout tissues and organs in the body.They play a role in body temperature regulation.
19Veins Blood vessels that return blood to the heart. The vena cava (large veins) carry deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium of the heart.Pulmonary veins carry blood oxygenated from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
20Lymphatic SystemHelps fight infection and plays role body’s immunity to disease.Helps maintain the balance of fluids in the spaces between cells.Helps support the cardiovascular system.
21LymphLymphClear fluid that fills the spaces around body cells.Transported by lymphatic system to the heart and eventually returns to the blood.Similar to plasma in contentConsists of water and proteins, fats and lymphocytesLymphocytesSpecialized white blood cells that provide the body with immunity and protect against pathogensTwo types: B cells and T cells
22B & T cellsB cellsStimulated to enlarge & multiply when they come into contact with a pathogen.Some produce antibodies to attack- while others are memory cells to provide immunity again.T cellsTwo types:Killer T cells stop the spread of diseaseHelper T cells control the body’s immune system
23Caring for the Cardio System Blood pressureA measure of the amount of force that the blood places on the walls of blood vessels, particularly large arteries, as its pumped through the body.Should remain in a normal rangePrevention includes:maintaining a healthy weight, staying active, managing stress and avoiding drugs/alcohol.
24Problems in the Cardio System Congenital Heart DefectsPresent at birthSome are less serious than others, most require medical attention and sometimes surgery.Alcohol and Smoking during pregnancy can cause higher riskSometimes its hereditary
25Problems cont…. Cardiovascular Disease Heart Murmur Group of diseases that include:HypertensionHeart diseaseStroke#1 killer in men and women930,000 die each year from CVDHeart MurmurAbnormal sounds made as blood pumps through heart.Some go away and some require surgery.
26Probs cont…. Varicose Veins Anemia Leukemia Hemophilia Form when the valves do not close tightly enough to prevent backflow of blood.Surgery, exercise and reducing standing time can limit and prevent theseAnemiaCondition in which the ability of the blood to carry oxygen is reduced.Caused by iron deficiencyLeukemiaForm of cancer in which any one of the different types of white blood cells is produced excessively and abnormally.Causes increased risk of infectionChemo and Radiation often most common treatment.HemophiliaInherited disorder in which blood does not clot properlyDonated blood can help cure this.
27Problems of the Lymphatic System Immune DeficiencyCan no longer protect against infectionSome are congenital, some caused by HIV.Hodgkin’s LymphomaType of cancer that affects the lymph tissue found in spleen.Early detection is essential for recovery.TonsillitisHelp protect against pathogens entering the body through respiratory system.Treated with antibiotics or removed