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A Greek named Aristotle invented the scientific method in 535 B.C.

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Presentation on theme: "A Greek named Aristotle invented the scientific method in 535 B.C."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Greek named Aristotle invented the scientific method in 535 B.C.

2 Scientists worked for centuries to discover these physical laws

3 Galilieo invented the telescope and studied astronomy

4 Descarte created a philosophy, mind-body dualism, based on his observations of an animal eye. “I think therefore I am”

5 Copernicus, the father of modern astronomy, studied the celestial bodies and developed a helio-centric model of our solar system.

6 During the Scientific Revolution mankind learned that physical laws control the Universe

7 Issac Newton’s theories are still used in modern physics.

8 THE PHILOSOPHES questioned existing ideas about authority
believed people were individuals believed in educating all people most rejected the ideas of established religion

9 Evolution of Democracy in England The Glorious Revolution 1688
English Bill of Rights William and Mary Parliament Magna Carta (1215) King John Magna Carta

10 Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes
World History Political Philosophers Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes  The Philosopher for the Monarchy “ I prefer the evil of absolute power to the greater evil of a society which has no authority”  Politics was a science…basic natural laws of human behavior similar to the physical world  Feared Chaos & Anarchy Invented the Theory of Social Contract..but not “Divine Right” State of Nature - Total Freedom of mankind…meaning? (man is evil and motivated by greed , selfishness, self serving. Man will do anything to acquire shelter, wealth, food, power, sex, fame, property…etc. ) People emerge from the State of Nature (anarchy) with a social contract with government. This contract may not be broken …why not?  Supported Absolute Monarchy….why?

11 Philosophy of John Locke
World History  The Philosopher for Modern Democracy  In favor after the Glorious Revolution Philosophy : - All Men are created equal. (renounced Divine Right of Kings) - Man originally exists in a state of nature. - In state of nature man is born good, independent, and equal but needs some control. Therefore, the social contract needs to be formed and government was invented. - People come from the state of nature with a contract in order to control man. - God granted everyone certain “natural unalienable rights”. Those rights are life, liberty, and the property. - The government’s sole purpose is to protect life, liberty, and property. Men give up some of their freedom and agree to follow governments laws in order to live in society. - If government were to violate any of these rights, then the people have the right to break the social contract and revolt. Philosophy of John Locke

12 Philosophy of Voltaire ( real name: Francois-Marie Arolet)
World History Political Philosophers Philosophy of Voltaire ( real name: Francois-Marie Arolet)  Strongly believed in Freedom of Religion, Freedom of the Press and Free Speech “I disapprove of what you say but will defend to the death your right to say it” Relate the importance of this philosophy to the success of a democracy. Voltaire’s philosophy has been included in the American Bill of Rights

13 Philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
 Also believed in the Social Contract. Believed that Man was basically good but was corrupted by society. Believed arts and sciences corrupted natural goodness Renounced the Divine Right of Kings General Will”: members of society agree to be governed by the general will (which represents what is best for society as a whole) civilized people noble savages unhappy in harmony with nature insecure happier selfish less selfish and greedy --accepted intuition rather than scientific evidence ---let children enjoy youth - study later when they want to --society formed by social contract with others in the community rather than with the government. Therefore the power to rule must belong to the people. Philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau MAN IS BORN FREE AND EVERYWHERE HE IS IN CHAINS

14 Philosophy of Baron de Montesquieu
World History Political Philosophers  Major theory - that government should be divided into three separate branches, each coming to power in a separate manner and each having a check on the power of the other two. Relate to American Government. Philosophy of Baron de Montesquieu 3 Branches of Government Legislative, Judicial & Executive The Legislative branch makes the laws The Executive has the power to enforce the laws The Judicial branch interprets the laws & judges when laws are broken.

15 1743-1826 Thomas Jefferson Author of the Declaration of Independence
Influenced by the writings of John Locke Changed the Locke’s phrase of “life, liberty and property to “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”. Believed all men were created equal. Became the 3rd President of the United States. Famous quote “ the tree of liberty should occasionally be watered with the blood of the martyrs”

16 Cesare Beccaria 1738-1794 Wrote: Crimes and Punishment
World History Political Philosophers Cesare Beccaria Wrote: Crimes and Punishment Philosophy: The crime should fit the punishment Dei delitti e delle pene. English: An essay on crimes and punishments. Written by the Marquis Beccaria, of Milan. With a commentary attributed to Monsieur de Voltaire. Contemporary political philosophers distinguish between two principle theories of justifying punishment. First, the retributive approach maintains that punishment should be equal to the harm done, either literally an eye for an eye, or more figuratively which allows for alternative forms of compensation. The retributive approach tends to be retaliatory and vengeance-oriented. The second approach is utilitarian which maintains that punishment should increase the total amount of happiness in the world. This often involves punishment as a means of reforming the criminal, incapacitating him from repeating his crime, and deterring others. Beccaria clearly takes a utilitarian stance. For Beccaria, the purpose of punishment is to create a better society, not revenge. Punishment serves to deter others from committing crimes, and to prevent the criminal from repeating his crime.

17 Mary Wollstonecraft 1759-1797 Philosophy: Rights of Women
English author and Feminist A Vindication of the Rights of Women Argued that the Enlightenment was based on reason and since women have reason, they too are entitled to natural rights. Wollstonecraft proposed the deliberate expansion of Enlightenment ideals to include education for women, whose rational natures are no less capable of intellectual achievement than are those of men. Excessive concern for romantic love and physical desirability, she believed, are not the natural conditions of female existence but rather the socially-imposed means by which male domination enslaves them

18 Adam Smith 1723-1790 * English Economist * wrote: Wealth of Nations
*Philosophy: Laissez-Faire “let people do what they want” “government keep out” * Natural Laws of Economics “let business do as it pleases” * Supply and demand * Competition

19 Published: Encyclopedia, or Classification Dictionary of the Sciences
Denis Diderot Published: Encyclopedia, or Classification Dictionary of the Sciences * Attacked superstition * Called for political changes * Spread Enlightenment Ideas French philosopher, and man of letters, the chief editor of the L'Encyclopédie, one of the principal literary monuments of the Age of Enlightenment. The work took 26 years of Diderot's life. In seventeen volumes of text and eleven of illustrations, it presented the achievements of human learning in a single work. Besides offering a summary of information on all theoretical knowledge, it also challenged the authority of the Catholic Church.

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