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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview: Darwin Introduces a Revolutionary Theory A new era of biology began on November 24, 1859 – The day Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Origin of Species – Focused biologists attention on the great diversity of organisms Figure 22.1

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Darwin made two major points in his book – He presented evidence that the many species of organisms presently inhabiting the Earth are descendants of ancestral species – He proposed a mechanism for the evolutionary process, natural selection

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 22.1: The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species In order to understand why Darwins ideas were revolutionary – We need to examine his views in the context of other Western ideas about Earth and its life

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Resistance to the Idea of Evolution The Origin of Species – Shook the deepest roots of Western culture – Challenged a worldview that had been prevalent for centuries

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Scale of Nature and Classification of Species The Greek philosopher Aristotle – Viewed species as fixed and unchanging The Old Testament of the Bible – Holds that species were individually designed by God and therefore perfect

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carolus Linnaeus – Interpreted organismal adaptations as evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a specific purpose – Was a founder of taxonomy, classifying lifes diversity for the greater glory of God

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fossils, Cuvier, and Catastrophism The study of fossils – Helped to lay the groundwork for Darwins ideas Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past – Usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata Figure 22.3

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Paleontology, the study of fossils – Was largely developed by French scientist Georges Cuvier Cuvier opposed the idea of gradual evolutionary change – And instead advocated catastrophism, speculating that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Theories of Gradualism Gradualism – Is the idea that profound change can take place through the cumulative effect of slow but continuous processes

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Geologists Hutton and Lyell – Perceived that changes in Earths surface can result from slow continuous actions still operating today – Exerted a strong influence on Darwins thinking

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lamarcks Theory of Evolution Lamarck hypothesized that species evolve – Through use and disuse and the inheritance of acquired traits – But the mechanisms he proposed are unsupported by evidence Figure 22.4

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 22.2: In The Origin of Species, Darwin proposed that species change through natural selection As the 19th century dawned – It was generally believed that species had remained unchanged since their creation, but a major change would challenge this thinking

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Darwins Research As a boy and into adulthood, Charles Darwin – Had a consuming interest in nature Soon after Darwin received his B.A. degree – He was accepted on board the HMS Beagle, which was about to embark on a voyage around the world

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Voyage of the Beagle During his travels on the Beagle – Darwin observed and collected many specimens of South American plants and animals Darwin observed various adaptations of plants and animals – That inhabited many diverse environments

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Darwins interest in the geographic distribution of species – Was kindled by the Beagles stop at the Galápagos Islands near the equator west of South America Figure 22.5 England EUROPE NORTH AMERICA Galápagos Islands Darwin in 1840, after his return SOUTH AMERICA Cape of Good Hope Cape Horn Tierra del Fuego AFRICA HMS Beagle in port AUSTRALIA Tasmania New Zealand PACIFIC OCEAN Andes ATLANTIC OCEAN

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Darwins Focus on Adaptation As Darwin reassessed all that he had observed during the voyage of the Beagle – He began to perceive adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species as closely related processes

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings From studies made years after Darwins voyage – Biologists have concluded that this is likely what happened to the Galápagos finches Figure 22.6a–c (a) Cactus eater. The long, sharp beak of the cactus ground finch (Geospiza scandens) helps it tear and eat cactus flowers and pulp. (c) Seed eater. The large ground finch (Geospiza magnirostris) has a large beak adapted for cracking seeds that fall from plants to the ground. (b) Insect eater. The green warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea) uses its narrow, pointed beak to grasp insects.

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In 1844, Darwin wrote a long essay on the origin of species and natural selection – But he was reluctant to introduce his theory publicly, anticipating the uproar it would cause In June 1858 Darwin received a manuscript from Alfred Russell Wallace – Who had developed a theory of natural selection similar to Darwins Darwin quickly finished The Origin of Species – And published it the next year

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Origin of Species Darwin developed two main ideas – Evolution explains lifes unity and diversity – Natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Descent with Modification The phrase descent with modification – Summarized Darwins perception of the unity of life – States that all organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In the Darwinian view, the history of life is like a tree – With multiple branchings from a common trunk to the tips of the youngest twigs that represent the diversity of living organisms Figure 22.7 Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) Sirenia (Manatees and relatives) Years ago Millions of years ago Deinotherium Mammut Stegodon Mammuthus Platybelodon Barytherium Moeritherium Elephas maximus (Asia) Loxodonta africana (Africa) Loxodonta cyclotis (Africa)

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Natural Selection and Adaptation Evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr – Has dissected the logic of Darwins theory into three inferences based on five observations

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Observation #1: For any species, population sizes would increase exponentially – If all individuals that are born reproduced successfully Figure 22.8

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Observation #2: Nonetheless, populations tend to be stable in size – Except for seasonal fluctuations Observation #3: Resources are limited Inference #1: Production of more individuals than the environment can support – Leads to a struggle for existence among individuals of a population, with only a fraction of their offspring surviving

27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Observation #4: Members of a population vary extensively in their characteristics – No two individuals are exactly alike Figure 22.9

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Observation #5: Much of this variation is heritable Inference #2: Survival depends in part on inherited traits – Individuals whose inherited traits give them a high probability of surviving and reproducing are likely to leave more offspring than other individuals

29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Inference #3: This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce – Will lead to a gradual change in a population, with favorable characteristics accumulating over generations

30 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Artificial Selection In the process of artificial selection – Humans have modified other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits Figure Terminal bud Lateral buds Brussels sprouts Cabbage Flower cluster Leaves Cauliflower Flower and stems Broccoli Wild mustard Kohlrabi Stem Kale

31 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Summary of Natural Selection Natural selection is differential success in reproduction – That results from the interaction between individuals that vary in heritable traits and their environment

32 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Natural selection can produce an increase over time – In the adaptation of organisms to their environment Figure (a)A flower mantid in Malaysia (b)A stick mantid in Africa

33 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings If an environment changes over time – Natural selection may result in adaptation to these new conditions

34 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 22.3: Darwins theory explains a wide range of observations Darwins theory of evolution – Continues to be tested by how effectively it can account for additional observations and experimental outcomes

35 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Natural Selection in Action Two examples – Provide evidence for natural selection

36 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Differential Predation in Guppy Populations Researchers have observed natural selection – Leading to adaptive evolution in guppy populations Reznick and Endler transplanted guppies from pike-cichlid pools to killifish pools and measured the average age and size of guppies at maturity over an 11-year period (30 to 60 generations). EXPERIMENT Pools with killifish, but not guppies prior to transplant Experimental transplant of guppies Predator: Killifish; preys mainly on small guppies Guppies: Larger at sexual maturity than those in pike-cichlid pools Predator: Pike-cichlid; preys mainly on large guppies Guppies: Smaller at sexual maturity than those in killifish pools Figure 22.12

37 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings RESULTS After 11 years, the average size and age at maturity of guppies in the transplanted populations increased compared to those of guppies in control populations Weight of guppies at maturity (mg) Age of guppies at maturity (days) Control Population: Guppies from pools with pike-cichlids as predators Experimental Population: Guppies transplanted to pools with killifish as predators 76.1 Males Females Males Females CONCLUSION Reznick and Endler concluded that the change in predator resulted in different variations in the population (larger size and faster maturation) being favored. Over a relatively short time, this altered selection pressure resulted in an observable evolutionary change in the experimental population.

38 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Evolution of Drug-Resistant HIV In humans, the use of drugs – Selects for pathogens that through chance mutations are resistant to the drugs effects Natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution

39 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Researchers have developed numerous drugs to combat HIV – But using these medications selects for viruses resistant to the drugs Figure Patient No. 1 Patient No. 2 Patient No. 3 Percent of HIV resistant to 3TC Weeks

40 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The ability of bacteria and viruses to evolve rapidly – Poses a challenge to our society

41 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homology, Biogeography, and the Fossil Record Evolutionary theory – Provides a cohesive explanation for many kinds of observations

42 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homology – Is similarity resulting from common ancestry

43 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomical Homologies Homologous structures between organisms – Are anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme that was present in a common ancestor Figure HumanCat Whale Bat

44 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Comparative embryology – Reveals additional anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms Figure Pharyngeal pouches Post-anal tail Chick embryo Human embryo

45 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Vestigial organs – Are some of the most intriguing homologous structures – Are remnants of structures that served important functions in the organisms ancestors

46 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Molecular Homologies Biologists also observe homologies among organisms at the molecular level – Such as genes that are shared among organisms inherited from a common ancestor

47 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homologies and the Tree of Life The Darwinian concept of an evolutionary tree of life – Can explain the homologies that researchers have observed

48 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomical resemblances among species – Are generally reflected in their molecules, their genes, and their gene products Figure Species Human Rhesus monkey Mouse Chicken Frog Lamprey 14% 54% 69% 87% 95% 100% Percent of Amino Acids That Are Identical to the Amino Acids in a Human Hemoglobin Polypeptide

49 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biogeography Darwins observations of the geographic distribution of species, biogeography – Formed an important part of his theory of evolution

50 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sugar glider AUSTRALIA NORTH AMERICA Flying squirrel Figure Some similar mammals that have adapted to similar environments – Have evolved independently from different ancestors

51 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Fossil Record The succession of forms observed in the fossil record – Is consistent with other inferences about the major branches of descent in the tree of life

52 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Darwinian view of life – Predicts that evolutionary transitions should leave signs in the fossil record Paleontologists – Have discovered fossils of many such transitional forms Figure 22.18

53 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings What Is Theoretical about the Darwinian View of Life? In science, a theory – Accounts for many observations and data and attempts to explain and integrate a great variety of phenomena

54 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection – Integrates diverse areas of biological study and stimulates many new research questions


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