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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chapter 24 The Origin of Species TOP 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chapter 24 The Origin of Species TOP 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chapter 24 The Origin of Species TOP 5

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1. Ways at Classifying Species Biological species concept – Population that has the potential to interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring but unable to produce viable fertile offspring with members of other populations

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Other Species Concepts Morphological – Based on shape, size, etc. Ecological – in terms ecological niche Phylogenetic – in terms of unique genetic history

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 2. Biological Species Barriers Prezygotic barriers – Impedes fertilization of ova Postzygotic barriers – Prevents hybrid zygote from developing

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers Figure 24.4 Prezygotic barriers impede mating or hinder fertilization if mating does occur Individuals of different species Mating attempt Habitat isolation Temporal isolation Behavioral isolation Mechanical isolation HABITAT ISOLATION TEMPORAL ISOLATIONBEHAVIORAL ISOLATION MECHANICAL ISOLATION (b) (a) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Viable fertile offspring Reduce hybrid viability Reduce hybrid fertility Hybrid breakdown Fertilization Gametic isolation GAMETIC ISOLATION REDUCED HYBRID VIABILITY REDUCED HYBRID FERTILITY HYBRID BREAKDOWN (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m)

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings (a) Allopatric speciation. A population forms a new species while geographically isolated from its parent population. (b) Sympatric speciation. A small population becomes a new species without geographic separation. Figure 24.5 A, B Speciation can occur in 2 ways – Allopatric – Sympatric

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3. Formation of Species: Allopatric Allopatric speciation – Population is divided into 2 or more geographically isolated subpopulations

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.6 A. harrisi A. leucurus Geographic separation evolutionary change during the period of separation

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Allopatric speciation – Reproductive isolation Figure 24.7 Initial population of fruit flies (Drosphila Pseudoobscura) Some flies raised on starch medium Some flies raised on maltose medium Mating experiments after several generations EXPERIMENT Diane Dodd, of Yale University, divided a fruit-fly population, raising some populations on a starch medium and others on a maltose medium. After many generations, natural selection resulted in divergent evolution: Populations raised on starch digested starch more efficiently, while those raised on maltose digested maltose more efficiently. Dodd then put flies from the same or different populations in mating cages and measured mating frequencies.

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3. Formation of Species: Sympatric Sympatric speciation – Geographically overlapping populations

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Polyploidy – Extra sets of chromosomes f/ accidents during cell division

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autopolyploid – More than two chromosome sets, f/ same species Figure n = 6 4n = 12 2n2n 4n4n Failure of cell division in a cell of a growing diploid plant after chromosome duplication gives rise to a tetraploid branch or other tissue. Gametes produced by flowers on this branch will be diploid. Offspring with tetraploid karyotypes may be viable and fertilea new biological species.

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Allopolyploid – Multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species Figure 24.9 Meiotic error; chromosome number not reduced from 2n to n Unreduced gamete with 4 chromosomes Hybrid with 7 chromosomes Unreduced gamete with 7 chromosomes Viable fertile hybrid (allopolyploid) Normal gamete n = 3 Normal gamete n = 3 Species A 2n = 4 Species B 2n = 6 2n = 10

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Goats Beard Illustration of an Allopolyploid

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sexual Selection Cichlid fish – Sympatric speciation f/ nonrandom mating due to sexual selection Figure Researchers from the University of Leiden placed males and females of Pundamilia pundamilia and P. nyererei together in two aquarium tanks, one with natural light and one with a monochromatic orange lamp. Under normal light, the two species are noticeably different in coloration; under monochromatic orange light, the two species appear identical in color. The researchers then observed the mating choices of the fish in each tank. EXPERIMENT P. nyererei Normal light Monochromatic orange light P. pundamilia Under normal light, females of each species mated only with males of their own species. But under orange light, females of each species mated indiscriminately with males of both species. The resulting hybrids were viable and fertile. RESULTS The researchers concluded that mate choice by females based on coloration is the main reproductive barrier that normally keeps the gene pools of these two species separate. Since the species can still interbreed when this prezygotic behavioral barrier is breached in the laboratory, the genetic divergence between the species is likely to be small. This suggests that speciation in nature has occurred relatively recently. CONCLUSION

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Allopatric speciation – Speciation due to geographic isolation Sympatric speciation – Barrier isolates a subset of a population without geographic separation

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 5. Adaptive Radiation Adaptive radiation – Evolution of diversely adapted species from a common ancestor upon introduction to new environment Figure 24.11

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hawaiian archipelago – Showcase of adaptive radiation Figure Dubautia laxa Dubautia waialealae KAUA'I 5.1 million years O'AHU 3.7 million years LANAI MOLOKA'I 1.3 million years MAUI HAWAI'I 0.4 million years Argyroxiphium sandwicense Dubautia scabra Dubautia linearis N


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