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Chapter 24 The Origin of Species TOP 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24 The Origin of Species TOP 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 24 The Origin of Species TOP 5

2 1. Ways at Classifying Species
Biological species concept Population that has the potential to interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring but unable to produce viable fertile offspring with members of other populations

3 Other Species Concepts
Morphological Based on shape, size, etc. Ecological in terms ecological niche Phylogenetic in terms of unique genetic history

4 2. Biological Species Barriers
Prezygotic barriers Impedes fertilization of ova Postzygotic barriers Prevents hybrid zygote from developing

5 Individuals of different species
Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers Figure 24.4 Prezygotic barriers impede mating or hinder fertilization if mating does occur Individuals of different species Mating attempt Habitat isolation Temporal isolation Behavioral isolation Mechanical isolation HABITAT ISOLATION TEMPORAL ISOLATION BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION MECHANICAL ISOLATION (b) (a) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

6 Reduce hybrid viability Reduce hybrid fertility Hybrid breakdown
Viable fertile offspring Reduce hybrid viability Reduce hybrid fertility Hybrid breakdown Fertilization Gametic isolation GAMETIC ISOLATION REDUCED HYBRID VIABILITY REDUCED HYBRID FERTILITY HYBRID BREAKDOWN (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m)

7 Speciation can occur in 2 ways
Allopatric Sympatric (a) Allopatric speciation. A population forms a new species while geographically isolated from its parent population. (b) Sympatric speciation. A small population becomes a new species without geographic separation. Figure 24.5 A, B

8 3. Formation of Species: Allopatric
Allopatric speciation Population is divided into 2 or more geographically isolated subpopulations

9 Geographic separation
 evolutionary change during the period of separation Figure 24.6 A. harrisi A. leucurus

10 Allopatric speciation
Reproductive isolation Figure 24.7 Initial population of fruit flies (Drosphila Pseudoobscura) Some flies raised on starch medium Some flies raised on maltose medium Mating experiments after several generations EXPERIMENT Diane Dodd, of Yale University, divided a fruit-fly population, raising some populations on a starch medium and others on a maltose medium. After many generations, natural selection resulted in divergent evolution: Populations raised on starch digested starch more efficiently, while those raised on maltose digested maltose more efficiently. Dodd then put flies from the same or different populations in mating cages and measured mating frequencies.

11 3. Formation of Species: Sympatric
Sympatric speciation Geographically overlapping populations

12 Polyploidy Extra sets of chromosomes f/ accidents during cell division

13 Autopolyploid More than two chromosome sets, f/ same species
Figure 24.8 2n = 6 4n = 12 2n 4n Failure of cell division in a cell of a growing diploid plant after chromosome duplication gives rise to a tetraploid branch or other tissue. Gametes produced by flowers on this branch will be diploid. Offspring with tetraploid karyotypes may be viable and fertile—a new biological species.

14 Allopolyploid Multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species Figure 24.9 Meiotic error; chromosome number not reduced from 2n to n Unreduced gamete with 4 chromosomes Hybrid with 7 chromosomes with 7 chromosomes Viable fertile hybrid (allopolyploid) Normal gamete n = 3 Species A 2n = 4 Species B 2n = 6 2n = 10

15 Goat’s Beard Illustration of an Allopolyploid

16 Sexual Selection Cichlid fish
Sympatric speciation f/ nonrandom mating due to sexual selection Figure 24.10 Researchers from the University of Leiden placed males and females of Pundamilia pundamilia and P. nyererei together in two aquarium tanks, one with natural light and one with a monochromatic orange lamp. Under normal light, the two species are noticeably different in coloration; under monochromatic orange light, the two species appear identical in color. The researchers then observed the mating choices of the fish in each tank. EXPERIMENT P. nyererei Normal light Monochromatic orange light P. pundamilia Under normal light, females of each species mated only with males of their own species. But under orange light, females of each species mated indiscriminately with males of both species. The resulting hybrids were viable and fertile. RESULTS The researchers concluded that mate choice by females based on coloration is the main reproductive barrier that normally keeps the gene pools of these two species separate. Since the species can still interbreed when this prezygotic behavioral barrier is breached in the laboratory, the genetic divergence between the species is likely to be small. This suggests that speciation in nature has occurred relatively recently. CONCLUSION

17 Allopatric speciation
Speciation due to geographic isolation Sympatric speciation Barrier isolates a subset of a population without geographic separation

18 5. Adaptive Radiation Adaptive radiation
Evolution of diversely adapted species from a common ancestor upon introduction to new environment Figure 24.11

19 Argyroxiphium sandwicense
Hawaiian archipelago Showcase of adaptive radiation Figure 24.12 Dubautia laxa Dubautia waialealae KAUA'I 5.1 million years O'AHU 3.7 LANAI MOLOKA'I 1.3 million years MAUI HAWAI'I 0.4 Argyroxiphium sandwicense Dubautia scabra Dubautia linearis N

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