Presentation on theme: "The Civil War 1861–1865 Although the United States became unified with the ratification of the Constitution, it became clear that various factions and."— Presentation transcript:
1The Civil War 1861–1865Although the United States became unified with the ratification of the Constitution, it became clear that various factions and regional groups still sought to protect their interests and ways of life. Sectionalism, economic interests, slavery, and states’ rights all tore at the Union throughout the first part of the 19th century. Politicians devised various compromises to satisfy these factions and keep the country together, but in 1857 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional in Dred Scott v. Sandford. This decision hastened the outbreak of what seemed an inevitable showdown—the Civil War.From 1861 to 1865, the U.S. saw the bloodiest conflict in its history, with over 600,000 Americans dead. The conflict ended slavery as an institution in America and restored the break between North and South. While states’ rights and sectionalism have since remained issues, Americans have never threatened war upon each other to the extent that they did in the 1860s.(Image: Fallen soldiers lined up near the Dunker Church during the Battle of Antietam, 1862.)
2Essential QuestionsWhat social, political, and economic issues tended to divide Americans in the period prior to the Civil War?Why did the election of Abraham Lincoln seem to exacerbate sectional tensions in the prewar period?What impact did political and military leadership have on the conduct of the war?How did the war affect minorities during the period (women, free blacks, slaves, immigrants)?How did the Civil War “make” modern America?
3Fundamental Causes of the War Sectionalism and states’ rightsSlaveryEconomic issuesThe North and South differed on the proper function of the federal government. In the North, most felt that the power of the federal government was supreme over the power of the states. Most Southerners felt differently, believing that state governments and loyalty to one’s state or region should take precedence over federal power and allegiance to the nation as a whole.The North—with an abundance of free, skilled labor—had little use for slavery. The South, however, with a smaller population and an agricultural economy, needed labor brought in from outside the white population. Slavery fit that bill nicely, although only a small percentage of white Southerners owned slaves. As the United States expanded due to territorial acquisitions and the doctrine of Manifest Destiny, a struggle ensued as to whether slavery should be allowed in those territories.It becomes evident early on in the nation’s history that the North and South were moving in different economic directions. The North thrived on its industrial economy, while the South remained primarily agricultural. As a result, the South frequently opposed tariffs for internal improvements that the North supported. In the 1830s, tariff debates nearly led to secession of Southern states, especially South Carolina.
4The Dividing Union Missouri Compromise (1820) Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave LawKansas–Nebraska Act (1854)Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)As the nation expanded due to the Louisiana Purchase and territory acquired in the Mexican-American War, questions arose as to whether slavery would be permitted in these new lands. Congress sought to resolve the issue through various legislative compromises. However, the Dred Scott decision destroyed the fragile balance between pro-slavery and free factions, putting the nation on the road to war.The impending statehood of the Missouri Territory in 1820 led to the Missouri Compromise. Congress agreed to admit Missouri to the union as a slave state and Maine as a free state. The 36o30´ line officially divided Northern free territories from Southern slave ones.The admission of California to the Union caused further sectional unrest. The Compromise of 1850 was a package of several measures; some benefited the North, others benefited the South. Perhaps the most controversial provision was the Fugitive Slave Law, which required Northern law enforcement agents to return runaway slaves to their masters. Several states enacted “personal liberty” laws to prohibit this.The Kansas-Nebraska Act, introduced by Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas, allowed the Kansas and Nebraska territories to determine their slave/free status by having their residents vote on the issue (popular sovereignty). This plan led to violence between pro- and anti-slavery factions in the Kansas territory, most famously a raid led by anti-slavery fanatic John Brown.In the Dred Scott case in 1857, the Supreme Court ruled that a slave moved from slave to free territory remained a slave. The decision also declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. Many historians hold that this decision so inflamed sectional tensions that it made the Civil War inevitable.Dred ScottCartoon criticizing the Fugitive Slave Law
5The Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln Stephen A. Douglas Sectional tensions were at a fever pitch as the presidential election of 1860 approached. Four diverse candidates secured their party’s nominations. Abraham Lincoln, a relatively obscure ex-congressman from Illinois, defeated several better-known candidates to become the nominee of the Republican party. The Democrats split over the issue of slavery and ended up nominating two candidates: the Northern anti-slavery wing chose Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas, while former Vice-President John C. Breckenridge represented the Southern pro-slavery faction. John Bell, former Speaker of the House and senator from Tennessee, represented the slavery-neutral Constitutional Union party.Lincoln won the electoral vote by a wide margin, 180 to 123 for the other three candidates combined. However, he only carried 40 percent of the popular vote and did not win a single Southern state; in some, his name didn’t even appear on the ballot. Lincoln’s election intensified the widening divisions between North and South. Several states had already threatened to leave the Union if Lincoln won, and they were now ready to make good on that threat.John C. Breckin-ridgeJohn Bell
6Electoral Votes in 1860This map shows the breakdown of both the electoral and popular votes in the 1860 election. Lincoln carried every Northern state except Maryland and Delaware, and he and Douglas split New Jersey’s electoral votes. Douglas also won Missouri, a border state. Breckenridge prevailed in the southeastern U.S., and Bell carried Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia.The regional implications of the map are evident. Lincoln didn’t carry a single state in the South. In addition, the popular vote was much more closely divided, with Lincoln receiving just 40 percent.
7Seceding states appear in green SecessionSouth Carolina was first to secedeSeveral other states followed soon afterVirginia seceded after the Battle of Fort SumterMany Southerners saw secession as the only way to preserve slavery and the Southern way of life. A few weeks after Lincoln’s election, South Carolina’s legislature voted to secede from the Union. Soon thereafter, Mississippi followed suit, along with Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. A holdout until after the Confederates fired on Fort Sumter, Virginia decided that it could not fight against another Southern state, and joined the Confederacy.Seceding states appear in green
8Discussion QuestionsWhat were the three fundamental causes of the Civil War? Which do you think was the most important? Why?How did the Dred Scott decision help bring the country closer to civil war? Do you think the decision made civil war inevitable? Why or why not?While running for president, Abraham Lincoln said that he had no plans to abolish slavery. Why then did Southerners fear his election so much?The three fundamental causes of the Civil War were sectionalism/states’ rights, slavery, and economic differences between North and South. Answers to the second question will vary, but most students will likely identify slavery as the most important cause.The Dred Scott decision broke down the system of compromises—especially the Missouri Compromise—that had kept the country united. Answers to the second question will vary.Although Lincoln insisted that he only opposed the expansion of slavery into areas where it did not already exist, and that he wouldn’t seek to end slavery where it already existed, many Southerners believed not only that he would abolish slavery entirely, but that his opposition to the expansion of slavery might harm the institution of slavery nationwide. As a result, Lincoln did not carry a single Southern state in the election of 1860, and in some areas, his name wasn’t included on the ballot.
9The Creation of the Confederacy Delegates met in Montgomery, AlabamaFormed the Confederate States of AmericaJefferson Davis elected president, with Alexander Stephens as vice presidentRealizing that they needed to form some sort of central government, delegates from the seceding states met in Montgomery, Alabama, in February There they formed the Confederate States of America. The Confederate Constitution mirrored the U.S. Constitution, but with some significant differences: the Confederate Constitution established the sovereignty and independence of each state, as well as guaranteeing the right of Southerners to own slaves. Delegates of the convention elected Mississippi Senator and former Secretary of War Jefferson Davis as president, with Alexander Stephens of Georgia as vice president.CSA President Jefferson Davis
10President James Buchanan Buchanan’s InactionBelieved secession was illegal, but that acting to prevent it was also illegalDecided to let the incoming administration handle the problemLincoln had been elected president in November, but wouldn’t be inaugurated until almost four months later per the Constitution as it read at the time. In the interim, President James Buchanan took no action to stop the Southern states from seceding. He believed that the seceding states could not leave the Union legally; however, he also believed that he lacked the constitutional authority to compel the states to remain. Buchanan decided to do nothing about the situation and let the new president deal with it once he took office. While the nation waited to see Lincoln’s policy toward secession, more states left the Union, compounding the difficulty that the incoming administration would have to face.President James Buchanan
11Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address March 4, 1861Promised not to interfere with slavery where it already existedAttempted to reconcile with the SouthSeveral Southern states had already left the Union and had formed their own government by the time Lincoln took office. In his Inaugural Address, delivered in the shadow of the as-yet-unfinished Capitol dome, Lincoln tried to reassure Southerners that he did not intend to abolish slavery, and that it was in the hands of the Southern states whether a Civil War would ensue.In his speech, Lincoln stated, “I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.” He also said, “I take the official oath today with no mental reservations and with no purpose to construe the Constitution or laws by any hypercritical rules; and while I do not choose now to specify particular acts of Congress as proper to be enforced, I do suggest that it will be much safer for all, both in official and private stations, to conform to and abide by all those acts which stand unrepealed than to violate any of them trusting to find impunity in having them held to be unconstitutional.”However, Lincoln did place the responsibility for civil war with the South by asserting, “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to ‘preserve, protect, and defend it’... We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.”A crowd listens to Lincoln’s speech at the Capitol building
12Lincoln and Fort Sumter Confederates demanded that the fort be surrenderedLincoln received urgent message from Ft. Sumter’s commanderLincoln faced with dilemma of resupplying SumterDecided to send only “food for hungry men”On the day after his inauguration, President Lincoln received an urgent message from Major Robert Anderson, the commander of Fort Sumter. Located in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, the fort was one of a handful of Union installations left in the Confederacy. Anderson reported that Confederates were demanding that he surrender the fort, and furthermore that his men were running low on food and ammunition. Anderson requested that Lincoln replenish the fort’s supplies. This put the president in a difficult position: if he refused Anderson’s request, Anderson would be forced to surrender, but if he attempted to resupply the fort, the Confederates might see the move as an act of war. Instead, Lincoln took the middle ground by supplying the fort not with ammunition but with “food for hungry men.” Nonetheless, the Confederates still took this as an act of war.Fort Sumter
13The War Begins Bombardment began on April 12, 1861 Anderson surrendered to Gen. Beauregard, a close friend and colleaguePainting depicting the bombardment of Fort SumterOn April 12, 1861, the Confederacy began the bombardment of Fort Sumter with the first of nearly 4000 rounds of cannon shots. Approximately 36 hours later, Anderson surrendered the fort to the Confederates. Ironically, the event that sparked the bloodiest war in U.S. history was itself relatively bloodless. No Union soldiers died in the attack, although two were killed accidentally during a gun salute as the army evacuated Fort Sumter. Union forces were allowed to leave following the surrender and were not held as prisoners of war.While the war made enemies of the North and South, many soldiers and commanders knew one another prior to the start of hostilities. Such was the case of Major Robert Anderson, who surrendered Fort Sumter to Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard. The two had originally met at West Point, where Anderson had been Beauregard’s instructor. After Beauregard’s graduation, he had returned to West Point to serve as Anderson’s assistant.
14Cartoon about the “Anaconda Plan” The Union’s strategy:Naval blockade from Louisiana to VirginiaControl of the Mississippi RiverConfederate strategy primarily defensiveUnion commanders quickly developed a strategy for subduing the Confederate states. Proposed by General Winfield Scott, it became popularly known as the “Anaconda Plan” in reference to the snake that suffocates its prey by squeezing. The strategy actually consisted of two parts: First, the Union Navy would blockade Southern ports in order to keep imported goods from landing on Confederate shores. The second part involved the Union army seizing control of the Mississippi River in an attempt to split the Confederacy in two. Union forces would then advance to capture Richmond, Virginia, the new capital of the Confederacy, which had been moved from Montgomery when Virginia seceded.The Confederacy’s strategy was primarily defensive. As long as the Confederate army was in the field, it served as a symbol of Southern resistance. However, Confederate commanders did have the option to attack Union armies and even invade Union territory, should it be advantageous to do so.Cartoon about the “Anaconda Plan”
15Advantages & Disadvantages: The Union Industry and railroadsLarger populationLegitimate governmentStrong political leadershipDisadvantages:Funding difficultiesOffensive warLack of skilled military leadersThe Union enjoyed several advantages over the Confederacy. Nearly 92 percent of the value of manufactured goods produced in the United States came from Northern factories. With a great capacity to produce industrial goods, Northern factories could easily be converted to wartime production. Also, the North had over 70 percent of the country’s railroad lines, which aided in bringing men and material to the front lines.Seven out of every ten Americans lived in the North. With its large population, the North could muster enough manpower to fill armed services quotas, as well as to staff its factories.Other nations recognized the U.S. government as legitimate, which meant that Congress could form treaties with foreign nations and thwart Confederate attempts to negotiate their own treaties, especially with Britain and France.Perhaps the Union’s greatest non-military strength was the leadership of Abraham Lincoln. While frequently criticized and ridiculed (even by members of his own Cabinet), Lincoln had an ability to keep Union morale high and maintain relations between its various political factions.The North did have some major disadvantages, however. Soldiers needed to be trained, and that took time. Fighting a war was an expensive proposition, and generating funds proved difficult. Fighting an offensive war in enemy territory also posed challenges. Probably the biggest problem facing the Union was its lack of skilled military leaders who could lead troops into battle and win major engagements.A Massachusetts factory
16Advantages & Disadvantages: The Confederacy Defensive war on home turfCommon causeStrong military tradition and outstanding leadersDisadvantages:Weak economySmaller populationIneffective central government and leadershipThough the Union had several significant advantages, the Confederacy was not without a few of its own. Since most battles took place in the South, the Confederates were fighting on familiar ground and had the support of (and could obtain supplies from) Confederate sympathizers.Also, while Northerners differed on the reasons for fighting their Southern brothers, Confederates generally were united in their cause.The Southern states had developed a strong military tradition. Many Southern soldiers were accomplished marksmen from years of hunting. However, the most important military advantage the South enjoyed was a number of outstanding commanders, such as Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson. These generals frequently won major battles against numerically superior forces that were often better equipped.On the other hand, the South had major impediments to victory. Though cotton profits from sales on the world market did help, the Southern economy as a whole was weak, and inflation was rampant. The South’s smaller population put manpower at a premium, making replacing troops lost in battle difficult. The preoccupation with states’ rights also hampered the war effort: frequently governors and other state authorities refused to comply with requests and orders from Richmond to provide material, manpower, and money. Similarly, President Davis was not the skilled politician that Lincoln was, and had a harder time enforcing government policy.Generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson
17War Aims: North and South The North: to preserve the UnionThe South: safeguarding states’ rights, as well as protecting the South from “Northern aggression”Abraham LincolnHorace GreeleyFrom the start of the war, Lincoln stated that he only wanted to restore the union. While he opposed the expansion of slavery into areas where it did not already exist, he did not initially seek to abolish slavery across the nation. In an 1862 letter to publisher Horace Greeley, Lincoln wrote, “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and it is not to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.”In the South, war was seen as a means of preserving the concept of states’ rights, as well as protecting the South from what some considered “Northern aggression.”
18Discussion QuestionsPretend you are a member of Buchanan’s cabinet. How would you advise him to deal with the secession crisis in the period before the next president took office?Do you think the “Anaconda Plan” was an effective strategy for subduing the Confederacy? If not, what strategy would you have recommended?Which side’s goals for the war seem more reasonable to you? Why?Some students might suggest that Buchanan’s strategy of not intervening in the secession issue was reasonable because of the relatively short period between secession and Lincoln taking office. Other students may feel, however, that early intervention by Buchanan might have led to another compromise between free and slave states that could have stopped the crisis before it led to full-blown conflict, possibly averting war.Students may note that since the South had relatively little industry, the Union blockade of Confederate ports was highly effective in curtailing the Southern war effort, and that further tightening the blockade might have ended the war sooner. Other students may feel that the idea of seizing the Confederate capital of Richmond might have been more effective than attacking the Confederacy’s western “breadbasket,” and therefore the Union could have put more resources toward that goal.Many students may feel that Lincoln’s goal of preserving the Union was somewhat simplistic or too idealistic to rally around, and therefore that the Confederate aims of protecting states’ rights and the South against “Northern aggression” made a stronger case. Other students may feel, however, that once a state entered the Union the bond was unbreakable, so the North had no choice but to ensure that the country stayed united.
19New Yorkers line up to enlist Recruiting SoldiersLincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for three months’ enlistmentResponse was overwhelmingUnion also encouraged enlistment with bountiesSoon after the firing on Fort Sumter, President Lincoln asked the states for volunteers to help quell the rebellion. Like many others in the North, Lincoln believed that the war would be relatively short and asked for 75,000 volunteers to sign up for a three-month enlistment. The response to Lincoln’s request was overwhelming, as thousands of men signed up. Another factor that helped spur enlistments was the “bounty” system: recruits received a “bounty” for enlistment in the form of a cash bonus.However, many well-to-do persons sought to avoid joining the army by hiring a substitute. Under this system, one man could lawfully pay another to take his place in military service. This led to charges that the Civil War was a “rich man’s war, but a poor man’s fight.”New Yorkers line up to enlist
20An enlistment poster aimed at Irish Americans Ethnic RecruitmentBoth sides appealed to ethnic pride in order to recruitMany nationalities joined both sidesIrish Americans among the most commonIn order to raise armies, both sides used appeals to ethnic pride as a recruiting tool. Although many immigrants fought for the Confederacy, even more fought for the North: approximately 25 percent of the Union Army consisted of men born outside the United States. Immigrants from countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, Canada, France, and Italy joined in the war effort, as well as a few thousand Native Americans. The best estimates claim that about 150,000 Irish Americans (the largest group outside of Anglo Americans, German Americans, and African Americans) joined the Union Army and played important roles in many major battles (most notably, the Battle of Fredericksburg).An enlistment poster aimed at Irish Americans
21Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson Bull RunFirst major battle of Civil WarAbout 25 miles from Washington, D.C.“Stonewall” Jackson became famousConfederate victoryThe first major battle of the Civil War was a disaster for the North. A Union army, full of 90-day recruits, met a similarly staffed Confederate army at Bull Run Creek, near Manassas, Virginia. Lincoln ordered commanding General Irvin McDowell to press an attack, noting that, “You are green, but they are green, also.”Union forces held the upper hand early in the battle. However, Confederate commander Thomas J. Jackson kept his men from retreating. Fellow Confederate General Bernard Bee described Jackson as standing “like a stone wall” during the battle, and the name stuck. As Confederate reinforcements arrived, the Union line collapsed, and the Northern forces fell back to Washington, D.C. However, Confederate forces found themselves too disorganized to pursue the “skedaddling” Union army.Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson
22The San Jacinto accosting the Trent The Trent AffairUnion forces seized two Confederate diplomats from aboard a British ship, the TrentBritish contended the seizure was an act of warUnion eventually released the diplomatsConfidence built between the U.S. and British governmentsBritain refused to support ConfederacyThe San Jacinto accosting the TrentIn the course of fighting the Confederacy, the Union nearly found itself in a war with Great Britain as well. In late 1861, the USS San Jacinto stopped the Trent, a British mail ship that was known to be transporting two Confederate diplomats to Europe, in international waters in the Caribbean. The diplomats, James Mason and John Slidell, had been sent by the Confederacy to negotiate support from the British and French governments. Union forces seized the two men, but allowed the Trent to continue on its route. The British government saw the boarding of their ship as an act of war. In addition, the French government also publicly announced its support of Britain should the affair lead to a military conflict against the U.S.In the end, Lincoln’s policy of “one war at a time” won out, and the two envoys were released. In handling the affair, Secretary of State William Seward proved to the British through his actions that he was a diplomat they could work with, and the British never recognized the Confederacy as a legitimate government, nor did they give military or financial support to the South.
23A view of Shiloh after the battle Union forces led by Ulysses S. GrantConfederate attack nearly wiped out Union forces on first dayGrant counterattacked the next dayUnion victoryAlthough he had been out of military service for almost seven years prior to the start of the war, General Ulysses S. Grant was fast becoming a rising star in the Union Army. Already a hero for his victories at Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson, he had earned the nickname “Unconditional Surrender” Grant. However, the battle at Shiloh—a small creek and church located near the town of Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee—nearly was a disaster for Grant. Failing to send out scouts or secure picket lines, his forces were nearly wiped out by attacking Confederates.While the Battle of Shiloh was a victory for the Union, it was a costly one. It also led both sides to recognize the importance of adequately preparing for battle by sending out scouts and building fortifications.A view of Shiloh after the battle
24A painting of the battle IroncladsConfederates built the Merrimack from a sunken Union shipUnion quickly built the MonitorMonitor and Merrimack fought to a draw in first battle between ironcladsIronclads were traditionally wooden boats with iron plates welded to the hull. The Confederates built the first one, a recovered Union ship called the Merrimack. With iron plating to repel cannonballs and a novel design that left much less of the ship exposed to fire, the Merrimack successfully defeated wooden-hulled Union warships in the Atlantic.Inventor John Ericsson designed the Union’s first ironclad, the Monitor. Struck by its radically different shape, some remarked that its gun turret and low, flat deck resembled a “cheese box on a shingle.”In March 1862, the two ships fought to a draw off the coast of Virginia. Though the battle was strategically insignificant, both sides (and the rest of the world) could see that the era of wooden warships was over.A painting of the battle
25New Technologies in Warfare Minie ballSubmarineHeavy artilleryAerial reconnaissanceGatling gunTrench warfareThe Civil War saw several technological innovations that made warfare more efficient and deadlier. The minie ball was a soft lead bullet that was easier to load and more accurate than previous bullets. It also tended to cause more damage to its human targets, shattering bones so completely that amputation was often the only recourse.The Confederacy created the CSS Hunley, which became the first submarine to sink another ship in wartime. However, during its attack on the USS Housatonic, the Hunley itself was sunk and its crew was lost.Heavy artillery was common during the Civil War, and hot-air balloons were used for reconnaissance purposes and to help aim huge cannons. Carbine rifles and the Gatling gun (the first machine gun, invented by Richard Gatling) led to both sides digging trenches in order to find protection against new weaponry.A Gatling gun
26A New Union Commander McClellan selected as commander after Bull Run McClellan popular with troopsA thorough administratorOverly cautiousAfter McDowell’s defeat at Bull Run, Lincoln replaced him with General George B. McClellan. A West Point graduate and engineer, McClellan served in the military until the 1850s, when he resigned to become president of the Illinois Central Railroad. When war broke out, McClellan reentered the army, and in August 1861 Lincoln appointed him commander of the Army of the Potomac.Known as a skilled organizer and administrator, McClellan consistently took too cautious an approach when planning strategy, always convinced that he needed more troops in order to defeat the Confederate army. He frequently allowed the Confederate army to escape a decisive engagement that would have won the war, such as the “Seven Days Battle” and Antietam. As Lincoln quipped, “I would like to borrow McClellan’s army if the general himself was not going to use it.” Frustrated with McClellan’s inaction, Lincoln relieved him of command after the battle of Antietam.Gen. George B. McClellan
27Lee Takes Command General Joseph E. Johnston wounded Robert E. Lee takes command of Confederate armyLee proves an able commanderJust as the Union leadership found it necessary to replace a general, so did the Confederacy. Commanding General Joseph E. Johnston was wounded in battle and was replaced by Robert E. Lee. Lee had originally been offered command of the Union army, but he could not bring himself to fight against his home state of Virginia. A skilled commander and tactician, he was known as the “Marble Model” from his days at West Point, which he attended four years without receiving a single demerit. Lee won stunning victories at the Seven Days Battle, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville, but suffered a major defeat at Gettysburg, which sealed the fate of the Confederacy (although the war continued for another two years).Gen. Robert E. Lee
28Antietam Attempt by Lee to invade the North Near Sharpsburg, Maryland McClellan tipped off to Lee’s plans when a soldier found secret orders wrapped around cigarsSingle bloodiest day in American historyArtillery Hell, a painting of early morning hostilities at AntietamLee took a calculated gamble and decided to invade the North through Maryland. However, a Union soldier found Lee’s secret orders wrapped around a bunch of cigars, apparently dropped by one of Lee’s officers. Tipped off to the Confederates’ plans, McClellan decided to pursue Lee. The two armies met up at Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg. The ensuing battle turned into the single bloodiest day in U.S. history. More than 23,000 casualties were reported—as many as the War of 1812 and Mexican War combined.The one-day battle had three separate stages. The morning phase occurred in a cornfield, where intense fighting led to control of the field changing hands at least 15 times, with many dying near the Dunker Church. The midday phase took place along an area called the “sunken road,” in which 5600 Union and Confederate troops were killed. The afternoon phase occurred along what became known as “Burnside Bridge.” Union forces finally were able to cross the bridge and force the Confederates back into Virginia.True to McClellan’s nature, he refused to pursue Lee into Virginia, where he probably could have destroyed the Confederate army. He had assumed that Lee’s forces were stronger than they actually were, and he allowed them to regroup and fight again.Captain James Hope of the 2nd Vermont Regiment painted various scenes of the battle of Antietam, near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The picture in this slide, Artillery Hell, depicts the early morning phase of the battle, looking north along the Hagerstown Turnpike.
29Antietam: Battle Scenes Dead soldiers await burial after the morning fighting in the Miller cornfieldCivil War photographer Alexander Gardner, an associate of famed photographer Matthew Brady, took several pictures of the Antietam battlefield after the conclusion of hostilities. The next few slides show a few of these photos.
30Antietam: Battle Scenes A view of the Burnside Bridge from the “Confederate side”
32Antietam: Battle Scenes Confederate dead along the Hagerstown turnpike
33Lincoln meets with McClellan at Antietam Antietam: AftermathLincoln met with McClellan after the battleLincoln fired him, complaining that he “had the slows”McClellan replaced by series of commandersAbraham Lincoln visited McClellan at the battlefield following the Confederates’ retreat. Though he had achieved a minor victory for the Union, he had missed a perfect opportunity to decisively defeat Lee and his army by pursuing them across the Virginia border. Soon after his meeting with McClellan, Lincoln decided to fire his commanding general, but he would have to go through several more before he found a commander who would squarely take on the Confederate army.Lincoln meets with McClellan at Antietam
34Painting of the CSS Alabama fighting the USS Kearsage Alabama ClaimsConfederates purchased commerce raiders from BritainAlabama highly successful in disrupting Union shippingU.S. government demands compensation from BritainIn 1872, an arbitration commission ordered Britain to pay $15.5 millionThe Alabama claims arose from an ongoing dispute between the U.S. and Britain regarding U.S. monetary claims for ships lost to British-built Confederate raiders. The CSS Alabama was by far the most successful of the commerce raiders (ships that specifically attacked cargo ships), but similar craft had also harried Union shipping in 1861 and Demanding compensation, the U.S. government asked Britain for over $2 billion. Britain refused to pay.Finally, in 1871, the British and U.S. governments established an arbitration board to evaluate the merit of U.S. claims. In 1872, the arbitration board ordered Britain to pay the U.S. $15.5 million in damages. While the British did compensate the U.S. government for damages caused by the British-built raiders, the British paid only a fraction of the original claim. In the end, the matter actually led to friendly relations between Britain and the U.S., and the precedent set by the claims would be used to resolve many subsequent international disputes.Painting of the CSS Alabama fighting the USS Kearsage
35Discussion QuestionsCompare Lee and McClellan as commanders. Which do you feel was more effective? Why?Why do you think McClellan refused to pursue Lee’s army into Virginia after the battle of Antietam? Do you think Lincoln should have fired him for this? Why or why not?Which of the inventions/innovations in warfare do you think was the most effective? Why?Most students would probably rank Lee as more effective than McClellan because Lee remained in command throughout the war, while McClellan was relieved of his command. Other students may note that Lee was more successful because he was able to more effectively use his army and was not above taking risks in order to ensure victory; on the other hand, McClellan frequently kept his army from pursuing Confederate forces, allowing Lee’s army to escape to fight another day.McClellan most likely didn’t go after the retreating Confederates because his forces had suffered heavy losses. He probably should have, since he stood a good chance of finishing them off. Answers to the second question will vary. Some students will see McClellan’s weak leadership during Antietam as the “last straw” that Lincoln did; others will feel that after such a bloody battle, McClellan’s refusal to cause more bloodshed was understandable.Many students would probably look at the creation of the Gatling gun (machine gun) as most effective because of its ability to rapidly fire bullets at the enemy. Still others might point to ironclads as the most effective weapon because of the ships’ ability to more easily sink wooden-hulled ships without sustaining much damage.
36Prelude to Emancipation At first, Lincoln did not believe he had the authority to end slaveryHowever, every slave working on a plantation allowed a white Southerner to fightLincoln saw emancipation as a strategic issue as well as a moral oneWhile Lincoln felt slavery to be morally wrong, he believed that the Constitution did not give him the authority to abolish slavery. However, he did oppose the possible spread of slavery into new territories.As the Union army moved deeper into Confederate territory, Lincoln began to see the liberation of the slaves as a war aim, as well as a moral issue. While Confederate slaves did not usually carry guns or fight in battles, they were used to build fortifications for the Confederate army. Also, slaves did work the fields, allowing white Southerners to fight against Union troops. Consequently, Lincoln believed that the army could liberate slaves as well as seize Confederate supplies and cotton.Slaves on a South Carolina plantation, 1862
37Advantages to Emancipation Cause “union” in the North by linking the war to abolishing slaveryCause disorder in the South as slaves were freedKept Britain out of the warWhile Lincoln wrestled with his personal views about freeing all the slaves, emancipation did present some significant advantages that would help the Union cause. By late 1862, some Northerners were becoming discouraged with the war and its goals, especially in light of what they viewed as excessive casualties. Linking the fight to preserve the Union with the movement to free the slaves would help bring the North together in common cause.Lincoln believed that freeing the slaves might also hurt the Southern war effort. If slaves knew that they would soon have their freedom, they might be less likely to work or obey their masters as Union troops approached. In addition, freed slaves could not be held as contraband property and therefore could not be returned to their masters.Lincoln had a real concern that Britain would enter the war on the side of the Confederacy. Needing Southern cotton for their textile mills, the British regarded the South as a valuable trading partner. However, the British Empire had recently abolished slavery, so supporting a nation that defended the practice was problematic.Lincoln discussing emancipation with his cabinet
38The Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln announced proclamation after AntietamTook effect on January 1, 1863Freed slaves only in “territories in rebellion”Lincoln had decided to go ahead with emancipation, but he needed a Union victory to allow him to formally make the proclamation. Issuing the proclamation after a Confederate victory, he felt, would appear to be the “last gasp” of a desperate Union commander; issuing it after a Union victory would seem like a compassionate gesture.The proclamation did not free all the slaves at that time, only those “held in territories in rebellion.” Since some states remained loyal to the Union but also permitted slavery, Lincoln feared that freeing the slaves there would encourage the states to join the Confederacy. Also, some areas of the Confederacy (for example, parts of Louisiana) had been taken and restored to the Union, and Lincoln did not wish to free those slaves for similar reasons.Lincoln announced that he would give the Confederacy until January 1, 1863, to return to the Union, or he would free the slaves in those states. No Confederate states agreed. In actuality, Lincoln’s proclamation did not have any force at that time, as the Confederate states did not recognize the president’s authority. Slavery officially ended in the United States with the ratification of the 13th Amendment in 1865.A cartoon celebrating emancipation
39Women’s Roles in the War Clara BartonMary BickerdykeWhile few women took part in the fighting, they did make substantial contributions to the war effort. Several women became well known through their service in various humanitarian endeavors.Clara Barton became known as the “Angel of the Battlefield” for her work in tending to wounded soldiers. At Antietam, she aided soldiers wounded near the Miller cornfield, where some of the bloodiest fighting of that day occurred. In one instance, a stray bullet went through the sleeve of her dress, missing her but killing the soldier she was helping. After the war, she founded the American Red Cross.Mary “Mother” Bickerdyke strove to maintain sanitary conditions and adequate supplies in field hospitals, as well as nursing the wounded. She frequently bypassed government bureaucracy and red tape to get needed supplies to soldiers. When officers complained about Bickerdyke to General William T. Sherman, his reply was that he couldn’t do anything about her, because “she outranks me.”Dorothea Dix was already known as an advocate for the rights of the mentally ill. During the war, she was named Superintendent of Nurses for the Union army. However, she could not effectively handle the job, and by the end of the war, she was stripped of most of the real responsibility. She later considered this part of her life’s work to be a failure.Dr. Mary Edwards Walker attempted to enlist as a surgeon in the Union army. When denied enlistment, she volunteered anyway, serving as a surgeon during the battles of Fredericksburg and Chickamauga. She also supposedly served as a Union spy. Captured by the Confederates, she spent four months in a prisoner-of-war camp before finally being released as part of a prisoner exchange. Walker later received the Congressional Medal of Honor for her service.Dorothea DixDr. Mary Edwards Walker
40Women Warriors Some women posed as men in order to fight Frances Clayton (right) fought in artillery and cavalry unitsTotal number unknownWhile some women chose to support the war effort as nurses or advocates for the wounded, others wanted more direct involvement on the battlefield. Some women disguised themselves as males and joined either the Union or Confederate forces. Frances Clayton, pictured above, fought in artillery and cavalry units in Missouri. However, due to the fact that these women purposely hid their identities, it is difficult to determine how many actually served in either army. Some estimates put the number of women who joined the Confederate Army at 250.While it is probably true that women soldiers did not make much of a difference statistically or militarily during the Civil War, their williness to serve when they weren’t required to showed a great desire to be included in the war and made a difference for their respective side.
41Civil War Espionage Belle Boyd Rose Greenhow Pauline Cushman Sam Davis Spies for both sides worked secretly to gather crucial intelligence about the enemy. Due to the nation’s divided loyalties, it became difficult to tell friend from foe. Since Confederate territory nearly surrounded Washington D.C., spies could move freely back and forth with precious information about troop strength, battle plans, and other important data.Belle Boyd (top left) worked as a spy out of her father’s hotel in Front Royal, Virginia. She was able to provide information to several Confederate generals, including Stonewall Jackson. She was held as a spy for a time, but was later released.Rose Greenhow (top right) had been a supporter of states’ rights and the Confederate cause due to her friendship with former senator (and vice president) John C. Calhoun. Working out of her aunt’s Washington D.C. boarding house, she was able to collect a great deal of intelligence about the Union and forward it to the South. She was captured as a spy and deported to Richmond, but later resumed her spying activities. Pursued by a Union ship, the blockade runner she was traveling on ran aground on a sandbar in 1864; she drowned when her lifeboat overturned in a storm.Pauline Cushman (bottom left) was an actress who spied for the Union army. Captured after discovering the battle plans of Confederate General Braxton Bragg, she was sentenced to be hanged, but Union forces overtook the prison in which she was being held before she could be executed.Nineteen-year-old Sam Davis (bottom right) was known as the “Boy Hero of the Confederacy.” Wounded in battle in Tennessee, he spied for the Confederacy until Union forces caught him with battle plans and sentenced him to death. His bravery and composure as he was led to the gallows not only boosted the morale of the Confederacy, but impressed his captors as well.Pauline CushmanSam Davis
42Rep. Clement Vallandigham Dealing With DissentCopperheadsLed by Rep. Clement Vallandigham of OhioLincoln suspends habeas corpusWith the Civil War crossing family as well as sectional lines, it was easy for some from either side to support the opposition. In the North, “Copperheads” (also called “Peace Democrats”) were fiercely anti-war, pro-Confederacy Democrats who wanted Lincoln and the Republicans out of power. The Copperheads were named for the deadly snake that (unlike a rattlesnake) strikes without warning.The most famous Copperhead was Ohio Congressman Clement Vallandigham. After publicly calling for Union soldiers to desert and suggesting that the North and South reach an armistice, Lincoln had him arrested and convicted by a military court. Lincoln, concerned with such dissent, suspended the right to a writ of habeas corpus. Habeas corpus refers to a legal action that requires authorities to officially charge a person they are holding with a crime. The U.S. Circuit Court for Maryland later ruled that Lincoln had exceeded his constitutional power by suspending habeas corpus. In response, Lincoln simply ignored the ruling.Rep. Clement Vallandigham
43Manpower for the War Mostly volunteers Conscription needed to sustain troop levelsIn the North, draftees could hire substitutes or pay $300 to opt outVolunteers made up the great majority of soldiers—about 92 percent—who fought for the Union. However, both North and South soon found that maintaining adequate troop levels required a military draft (also known as conscription). The Union drafted white males between the ages of 20 and 45. However, if a man could afford to, he could hire a substitute to take his place or he could pay a $300 fee to avoid the draft altogether.In the Confederacy, white men between the ages of 18 and 35 were eligible for the draft. However, those who owned 20 or more slaves were exempted. Many Southerners who didn’t own slaves complained that the Civil War was a “rich man’s war, but a poor man’s fight.” By the last year of the war, conscripts made up one-fourth to one-third of the Confederate army.An illustrated sheet music cover protesting the inequities of the draft
44Rioters loot a New York store New York Draft RiotsJuly 1863Rioters mainly poor whites and Irish immigrantsOpposed to freeing slavesMore than 100 people killedThe Union draft law angered some who felt that with poor whites forced into the army, blacks would be waiting to take their jobs. In addition, many—especially Irish immigrants—were frustrated by the terrible living conditions in the New York City slums. Discontent exploded into full-scale rioting in July 1863, during the selection of names for military service. The rioters moved throughout the city, destroying draft centers and Republican newspaper offices, and attacking well-to-do persons and blacks. More than 100 people were killed before the riots were stopped.Rioters loot a New York store
45African American Enlistment Congress allowed black enlistment in 186254th Massachusetts commanded by Colonel ShawHalf of 54th killed in assault on Ft. WagnerHelped spur further enlistmentCol. Robert Gould ShawEarly in the war, many Northerners resisted the idea of allowing African Americans to serve in the Union army—largely because of racism. However, Congress finally approved the enlistment of African Americans in 1862, and thousands signed up.Black troops were often denied the opportunity to prove their worth. They served in segregated units, and were usually assigned menial duties. They could not rise through the ranks as white soldiers could. In addition, blacks received lower pay than whites. In many instances, black soldiers refused the lesser rate of pay in protest.Probably the most famous of the African American regiments was the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. Commanded by 24-year-old Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the 54th included two sons of abolitionist Frederick Douglas, as well as Sergeant William Carney, the first African American to win the Congressional Medal of Honor. Nearly half of the 54th, including Shaw, were killed in an abortive attack on Ft. Wagner, located in Charleston Harbor. Thousands of other blacks enlisted in the Union Army after hearing of the 54th’s sacrifice.Memorial to the 54th Massachusetts
46The Sanitary Commission Poor health conditions in army campsU.S. Sanitary Commission createdPurposes included improving hygiene and recruiting nursesDeveloped better methods of transporting wounded to hospitalsPoor hygiene plagued most army camps. Many soldiers failed to follow basic sanitary procedures such as washing their hands and face, let alone bathing. A lack of proper sewage disposal allowed disease to run rampant. Body lice, dysentery, and diarrhea were common. The U.S. Sanitary Commission aimed to improve these conditions. Based on the British Sanitary Commission set up during the Crimean War, the “Sanitary” taught soldiers basic concepts of hygiene (such as avoiding polluted water supplies) and inspected camps to ensure that proper procedures were being followed. The commission also worked to develop medical ships and trains to more efficiently transport wounded soldiers to hospitals. By the end of the war, the Sanitary Commission had effectively cut the disease rate of the Union Army by approximately half.A Civil War field hospital
47Civil War Medicine Infection often deadlier than the wounds Amputations more commonAnesthesia widely usedA soldier wounded in battle during the Civil War frequently found infection more of a threat than the wound itself. Antiseptic procedures common in 21st-century medicine were nonexistent in the 1860s. Widespread use of the minie ball made amputations more frequent than in previous wars. The soft lead bullet tended to cause a jagged wound and expanded on impact, shattering bones and destroying tissue. In such cases, the field hospital surgeon had little option but to amputate. Surgeons used chloroform or ether to anesthetize the patient, and a surgical saw to perform the operation. Morphine was later administered to kill pain. Although surgical procedures from this era were relatively primitive, an estimated 75 percent of amputees survived the war.A surgeon at the Camp Letterman field hospital at Gettysburg prepares for an amputation
48Severely emaciated POWs rescued from Andersonville Confederate POW camp in Georgia32,000 prisoners jammed into 26 acresOne-third of all prisoners diedSuperintendent was executed as a war criminalWhile sanitary conditions in many army camps were poor, conditions in prisoner-of-war camps were far worse. Nowhere was this truer than at the Confederate-run camp at Andersonville, Georgia. At its height, more than 32,000 Union prisoners crowded into a space of just 26 acres, or less than 1.5 square feet per man. The same stream that served as the camp sewer also served as the drinking water supply. Shelter was nearly nonexistent; men made crude tents from blankets and sticks, or dug holes in the ground.Nearly 13,000 prisoners died at Andersonville during the war. Overall, approximately 15 percent of the total number of Union POWs died in Confederate camps; nearly 12 percent of Confederate prisoners died in Union camps such as those at Elmira, New York, and Camp Douglas, Illinois. After the war, Andersonville’s superintendent, Henry Wirz, was court-martialed and hanged—the only person executed for war crimes in the Civil War.Severely emaciated POWs rescued from Andersonville
49Discussion QuestionsDo you think issuing the Emancipation Proclamation was a necessity for Lincoln? Why?Do you think Lincoln was justified in suspending habeas corpus during the war? Why?Why do you think that both sides allowed sanitary conditions in prison camps and within their own armies to deteriorate to such a level?Many students will note that it was important for Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation in order to unite Northerners under a common cause, as well as to keep Britain out of the war. It also could have emboldened slaves in the South to try to escape, which would have benefited the North militarily.Answers will vary. Some students will see the suspension as a necessary war measure; others will see it as an unwarranted abridgement of civil liberties.Students will probably note that the general lack of sanitation resulted from a lack of understanding hygiene and proper medical care. Furthermore, prisoner of war camps were especially susceptible to poor conditions because of the rationale that supplies, fresh water, medical care, etc. should go to warring soldiers before POWs.
50A painting of the battle ChancellorsvilleJackson’s forces surprised Union troopsConfederates won unlikely victoryJackson hit by “friendly fire” and died a week laterLee pressed on to PennsylvaniaThe Confederacy scored a major victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May Confederate forces led by Lee and Jackson outmaneuvered a much larger Union force commanded by General Joseph Hooker, forcing him to retreat.However, the victory proved extremely costly for the Confederates. While inspecting picket lines after the battle, a Confederate sentry who didn’t recognize him shot and seriously wounded “Stonewall” Jackson. A surgeon was forced to amputate Jackson’s left arm the next day. Upon hearing that Jackson had been wounded, Lee remarked, “He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right.” Jackson subsequently contracted pneumonia and died a week later.A painting of the battle
51Gettysburg battlefield: view from Culp’s Hill Gettysburg: PreludeLee crossed into PennsylvaniaSent troops for suppliesConfederates encounter Union force outside GettysburgLee, in dire need of supplies, decided to invade the North. To do so could possibly force the Union to move troops from Vicksburg, and a Confederate victory in the North could potentially force a political settlement to end the war. Lee crossed the Potomac into Maryland and pushed into Pennsylvania.Lee’s men desperately needed shoes. Led to believe there was a shoe warehouse near Gettysburg, Lee sent men to investigate. They encountered a small Union force near the town, which began the battle.Gettysburg battlefield: view from Culp’s Hill
52Gettysburg: Day OneSmall Union force led by Buford delayed a larger Confederate forceBuford held high ground at Seminary RidgeBuford’s stand allowed time for reinforcements to arriveOn the battle’s first day, Union cavalry forces under the command of General John Buford withstood a Confederate charge, allowing reinforcements under the command of General John Reynolds to relieve Buford’s shattered division. Later that day, Reynolds was killed in action.While the Union held the high ground around the town, the Confederates were still strategically in a position to win the battle. However, Lee and his second-in-command, General James Longstreet, argued as to what strategy to pursue next. Longstreet advised retreating behind the Union army in an attempt to cut it off from Washington. Lee, however, decided to press the attack at Gettysburg by ordering General Richard Ewell to attack the high ground. However, Ewell didn’t understand Lee’s vague orders and instead waited until his men were sufficiently rested.
53Colonel (later Major General) Joshua L. Chamberlain Gettysburg: Day TwoCol. Joshua Lawrence ChamberlainDefense of Little Round Top20th Maine repelled Confederates and saved Union positionOn the second day of the battle, the Confederates attempted to take control of a nearby hill nicknamed Little Round Top. The 20th Maine Regiment, commanded by Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, already occupied the hill, which lay at the far left flank of the Union army.Various Confederate regiments attempted to go around Chamberlain’s line to take the Union position from the rear. Chamberlain’s men repelled several assaults. Toward the end of the engagement, with ammunition nearly gone and the Confederates preparing to again assault the Union position, Chamberlain ordered a daring final counterattack: his troops swung around and rushed down the hill—rifles empty but bayonets fixed—toward the approaching Confederate soldiers. The Confederates, their own ammunition depleted, were so shocked by the 20th Maine’s advance that most of them surrendered.Chamberlain’s actions saved the Union position at Little Round Top, keeping the Confederates from gaining the strategic advantage of high ground.Colonel (later Major General) Joshua L. Chamberlain
54Artist’s rendition of the battlefield during Pickett’s charge Gettysburg: Day ThreeLee believed Union lines were still vulnerableOrdered Pickett’s forces to attack center of Union lines“Pickett’s Charge” resulted in over 6500 Confederate casualtiesArtist’s rendition of the battlefield during Pickett’s chargeEven after the failure of Confederate forces to dislodge the Union’s hold of Little Round Top, Lee still believed that Union forces could be defeated. He ordered three divisions, the front most led by Major General George Pickett, to attack the center of the Union lines. Marching uphill through an open field toward Union troops, Pickett’s men made easy targets for Union soldiers entrenched in higher positions. Several of Pickett’s men reached the Union lines but could not break through.Losses under Pickett’s command were extreme: nearly 1100 Confederate troops were killed in the charge alone, with about 4000 wounded and over 3700 captured. Three of Pickett’s brigade officers and most of his field commanders were among the dead.Lee realized that his position was extremely weakened, and he withdrew back into Virginia. While the war would continue for nearly two more years, Gettysburg was the high-water mark of the Confederacy and the turning point of the war. After Gettysburg, the Confederacy had little hope of winning.
55A Confederate soldier lies dead at “Devil’s Den” Impact of GettysburgConfederates lost 28,000 men (one-third of army)Union lost 23,000 men (one-quarter of army)Town overwhelmed by dead and wounded soldiersLee unable to rebuild armyTurning point of the warThe overall impact of the battle was massive. Lee lost nearly a third of his army, and was unable to replace the missing manpower. Northern losses in the battle were nearly 23 percent, but with a larger population to draw from, the Union army easily replaced its fallen soldiers.The battle overwhelmed the town of Gettysburg. The corpses of soldiers and pack animals littered the surrounding area. Thousands of bodies had been buried in shallow graves and had to be dug up and reburied. Thousands more wounded took shelter in schools, churches, and private homes.Lee’s invasion of Pennsylvania is recognized as the turning point of the war—the “beginning of the end” for the Confederacy. Never again did Lee have the forces to mount an invasion of Northern territory. For the rest of the war, he fought a primarily defensive campaign.A Confederate soldier lies dead at “Devil’s Den”
56Union troops surround Vicksburg during the siege Siege of VicksburgKey to total Union control of the Mississippi RiverSeveral attempts by Grant to take the city failedGrant barraged the city for two monthsVicksburg fell on July 4, 1863Union forces had successfully taken control of the upper Mississippi River (around Tennessee) and had regained control of New Orleans. The city of Vicksburg, Mississippi, was the last obstacle to gaining control of the entire Mississippi River valley.Forces under General Ulysses S. Grant failed in multiple attempts to conquer Confederate forces in the city. By May 1863, Grant had elected to force a surrender by laying siege to the city. Grant bombarded Vicksburg with artillery fire for the next two months. Food supplies ran extremely low, and many in the city resorted to eating dogs, mules, rodents, and even shoe leather in an effort to survive.Finally the Confederates asked Grant for terms of surrender. Confederate forces turned over Vicksburg on July 4, the same day as the conclusion of the Battle of Gettysburg. With the end of the siege at Vicksburg, the entire length of the Mississippi River lay in Union hands—or in Lincoln’s words, “The father of waters goes unvexed to the sea.”Union troops surround Vicksburg during the siege
57The Gettysburg Address Lincoln invited to attend cemetery dedicationEverett the principal speakerAt the time, Lincoln’s two-minute speech was considered great by some, a failure by othersBy November 1863, the town of Gettysburg had mostly returned to normal. The federal government had contracted to bury soldiers killed in battle in proper graves, and part of the battlefield was made into a national cemetery. As part of the dedication ceremony, famous orator Edward Everett was asked to deliver the main speech. President Lincoln was also invited to give “a few appropriate remarks” at the ceremony.Many dignitaries on both the national and state levels attended the dedication. Everett’s oration lasted over two hours, whereas Lincoln spoke for a little more than two minutes. Nonetheless, Lincoln’s short speech spoke volumes not only on the battle, but also on the idea of the Union. Some consider it the greatest speech in American history, if not one of the best of all time. However, immediate response to the Gettysburg Address was mixed. Lincoln himself admitted to a friend after the ceremony, “That speech won’t scour…it’s a flat failure.”The only known picture of Lincoln (lower center) at the Gettysburg Cemetery dedication
58Discussion QuestionsWhy do you think the loss of Stonewall Jackson was so devastating to the Confederacy?Why was the Battle of Gettysburg such an important victory for the Union? How might things have been different had the Confederacy won the battle?Should Lee have been relieved of command because of his strategy at Gettysburg? Why or why not?Jackson’s contribution to the Southern cause was pivotal to Confederate success. His victories in previous battles had shown him as a brilliant tactician and made him a highly respected general. As such, he was irreplaceable.The battle of Gettysburg was one of two instances in which Lee invaded Northern territory (Antietam was the other). Therefore, it was paramount that the Union stop the Southern invasion. Had the Confederates won the battle, most likely they would have had an open lane to attack Washington D.C., or at least a stronger position from which to negotiate a Union surrender.Owing to Lee’s importance to the Confederate war effort, most students would probably disagree with removing Lee, even though his decision to attack the middle of the Union lines with Pickett’s men proved disastrous. Other students may note, however, that Longstreet seemed to have a more solid strategy at Gettysburg, and thus should have been given command.
59The “Wilderness Campaign” Grant came to support “total war”Sought to crush Lee’s army in VirginiaFought in dense forest near FredericksburgGrant criticized for taking high lossesBy mid-1864, Lincoln had appointed General Ulysses S. Grant commander of all Union forces. Spurred on by his friend and colleague General William Tecumseh Sherman, Grant supported the doctrine of “total war,” in which not only enemy troops but the civilian population and all of its resources are considered military targets.Grant’s strategy was to have Sherman’s troops march across Georgia while he decimated Lee’s army in Virginia. While Grant recognized that casualties might be high, he also knew that the Union army could easily replenish itself if necessary, whereas Lee’s forces did not have that advantage.In May 1864, Union and Confederate forces fought in a wooded area called “the Wilderness” near Fredericksburg, Virginia. Both sides suffered heavy casualties. Many of the wounded were killed in fires caused by artillery and rifle fire. Casualties also ran high in battles at nearby Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and Petersburg; in one instance, Grant lost 7000 men in the span of a single hour.During the Wilderness Campaign, Grant lost nearly twice as many men as did Lee. Some Northern newspapers called Grant a “butcher.” Nonetheless, his strategy severely crippled Lee’s forces.Grant at Cold Harbor during the Wilderness Campaign
60Sherman’s “March to the Sea” Sherman sought to break the South’s ability to make warCaptured Atlanta in September 1864Led the March to the Sea from Atlanta to SavannahTook Savannah by Christmas 1864While Grant was fighting Lee in the Wilderness Campaign, Sherman was moving south, aiming to destroy the Confederacy’s ability to make war. By September, his forces had taken Atlanta; within weeks, he had burned most of the city. Sherman then turned southeast toward Savannah on his “March to the Sea.” His forces moved through Georgia, burning farms, killing livestock, tearing up railroad lines—ruining anything the Confederates could put towards the war effort—and living off the land as they went. They reached Savannah just before Christmas After capturing the city, Sherman sent a message to President Lincoln: "I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the City of Savannah, with one hundred and fifty guns and plenty of ammunition, also about twenty-five thousand bales of cotton."From there, Sherman’s men moved through South Carolina and up into North Carolina, inflicting even further damage. While some criticized Sherman for his tactics and severity, he summed up his view of total war in his letter demanding the surrender of the city of Atlanta: “You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it; and those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out.”Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman
61Election of 1864 Lincoln sought reelection Democrats nominated McClellanUnion victories helped Republican campaignLincoln won by large marginLincoln’s reelection was far from certainty as the election of 1864 approached. Many saw the war as too long and too bloody, and even Lincoln felt that his chances of winning a second term were slim, noting, “I am going to be beaten, and unless some great change takes place, badly beaten.”The Democrats nominated General George McClellan, whom Lincoln had fired after Antietam, as their presidential candidate. Lincoln also faced a third-party challenge from a group called the “Radical Republicans,” who favored punishing the South for seceding. The party nominated John C. Fremont (the 1856 Republican nominee) as its candidate. However, Fremont withdrew from the race in September.In an effort to unite moderate Republicans as well as to attract disaffected Democrats, Lincoln picked Andrew Johnson from Tennessee—a pro-war Democrat—as his running mate.Luckily, the “great change” Lincoln had hoped for became reality. Union victories by Farragut, Sherman, and Sheridan increased Northern support for the war, and helped Lincoln easily defeat McClellan and win reelection.A political cartoon shows Lincoln and Davis tearing a U.S. map while McClellan tries to intercede
62Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Lincoln addresses the crowd at his second inauguration. It is believed that John Wilkes Booth is the figure at top row center.Many scholars have remarked about the power of Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address. Long seen as an attempt to steer the nation’s policy regarding the end of the war, Lincoln remarked, “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan—to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations."
63The remains of buildings after the Union invasion, April 1865 The Fall of RichmondLee told Davis the capital was in dangerDavis ordered evacuationUnion forces took RichmondLincoln toured the city soon afterBy April 1865, it had become more and more obvious that the Confederate capital of Richmond was indefensible. On April 2, President Jefferson Davis received an urgent telegram from General Robert E. Lee notifying him that he could not protect the city and recommending its evacuation. Davis ordered the evacuation of the capital, and Union forces soon moved in and occupied major government buildings. Davis and his cabinet relocated to Danville, Virginia, to maintain the Confederate government from there.A few days later, President Abraham Lincoln traveled from Washington D.C. to the fallen Confederate capital. As Lincoln made his way through the streets of the conquered city, hundreds of now-freed slaves mobbed the President, wanting to touch him and thank him for their freedom.The remains of buildings after the Union invasion, April 1865
64Illustration depicting the Senate debate over the 13th Amendment Proposed and co-authored by Senator Henderson of MissouriApproved by Congress in January 1865Ratified by 27 states by December 1865Abolished “involuntary servitude”Although the Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves “in territories in rebellion,” it did not actually have the force of law, since the Confederacy did not recognize the executive authority of the President of the United States. Now with the Confederacy on the verge of collapse, many saw a prime opportunity to eliminate slavery once and for all. A handful of proposals for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery had already emerged during the war, including that of Senator John Brooks Henderson, a pro-war Democrat. Henderson’s bill became the basis for the resolution that Congress passed and the president signed early in The amendment was ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures by December of the same year. The 13th Amendment eliminated “involuntary servitude,” except in case of punishment for a crime.Illustration depicting the Senate debate over the 13th Amendment
65Surrender at Appomattox Lee realized his position was hopelessAsked to meet with GrantMet in Appomattox on April 9, 1865Lenient surrender termsAn artist’s rendition of the meetingAfter the fall of Richmond and the approach of Grant’s and Sherman’s armies, Lee understood the hopelessness of his position. On April 9, 1865, Lee requested to meet with General Grant to work out terms for surrendering his army. The two generals met at the home of Wilmer McLean in the small town of Appomattox Court House, Virginia. (Coincidentally, four years earlier, McLean had lived in Manassas, and his farm had served as part of the Bull Run battlefield.)Lee and Grant met for nearly an hour and a half, first engaging in small talk before hashing out the specifics. The terms of surrender were very lenient: Grant agreed to pardon Lee’s soldiers, and allowed them to keep their personal possessions, horses, and enough rations to return home; Lee’s officers were also allowed to keep their side arms.Within a few weeks, the last Confederate troops surrendered, officially ending the Civil War.
66Lincoln’s Assassination April 14, 1865, at Ford’s TheaterShot by actor John Wilkes BoothBooth killed 12 days laterVice President Andrew Johnson became presidentOnly a few days after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, the Civil War claimed its last casualty. President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C. by John Wilkes Booth, a well-known actor and Confederate sympathizer. Booth had previously conspired to kidnap the president, take him to the South, and ransom him for the release of Confederate prisoners. Now, with Lee’s surrender, Booth’s plans had changed: instead of kidnapping Lincoln, he would murder him in hopes of rallying the Confederate cause.Booth, a regular player at Ford’s, knew the theater well and planned the crime carefully. During the third act of the play Our American Cousin, Booth crept into Lincoln’s theater box, and shot him once in the head with a small pistol. The bullet lodged in Lincoln’s brain, and he died the next morning. Meanwhile, Booth’s co-conspirators, who were assigned to kill other high-level officials of the federal government, failed to carry out their crimes.Booth broke his ankle during his escape from Ford’s Theater and managed to elude federal authorities for 12 days. Finally cornering him in a tobacco barn in Virginia, federal troops shot him to death before he could be tried.Vice President Andrew Johnson became president upon Lincoln’s death. While Lincoln was almost universally mourned, Johnson could not effectively carry out Lincoln’s Reconstruction policies. Radical Republicans spearheaded his impeachment in 1868, but failed by a single vote in the Senate to convict him and remove him from office. Nonethless, Johnson’s presidency is considered a failure.An illustration of Lincoln’s assassination
67Impact of the WarThe Civil War was the most devastating conflict in U.S. history. More than 600,000 Americans died in more than 10,400 different engagements. In addition, the war had serious economic and social consequences for both sides. However, the war had positive effects as well. Slavery, long an issue of contention between North and South, finally ended—if not because of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, then certainly by force of the 13th Amendment. Also, while sectionalism did not totally fade as a divisive issue, the nation has not faced a crisis like the one that came to a head in the 1860s.Freedmen disinter bodies of soldiers killed at Cold Harbor for reburial after the war
68Impact of the War: the Union 111,000 killed in action250,000 killed by non-military causes (mostly disease)Over 275,000 woundedEstimated cost in today’s dollars: $6.19 billionUnion war dead reached over 360,000, including both those killed in battle and by non-military causes (disease). Of the 275,000 wounded, many were also amputees.Union dead at Gettysburg
69Impact of the War: the Confederacy 93,000 killed in battle165,000 killed by non-military causesOver 137,000 woundedEstimated cost in today’s dollars: $2.10 billionWhile the Confederacy lost fewer men than the Union did overall, the smaller population of the Southern states resulted in a much higher percentage of war dead.In addition, both sides found that the dollar costs of the war continued far after 1865 as the federal government continued to pay out pensions to aging war veterans.Destruction in Atlanta after Sherman’s troops took the city
70The Road to Reconstruction Lincoln’s assassination led to rise of “Radical Republicans”Conflict over how to best deal with the former Confederate statesReconstruction period brought about great political upheavalSouth “punished” for causing the warWhile John Wilkes Booth might have believed that he was doing a great service for the Confederate cause by assassinating Lincoln, his crime resulted in a great deal of political upheaval that probably made postwar conditions much worse in the South than if Lincoln had lived to oversee its reconstruction. Even before the end of the war, members of Lincoln’s own party known as “Radical Republicans” gained power in Congress and promoted a plan for punishing the former Confederate states. In 1864, Lincoln had pocket-vetoed a bill the Radical Republicans had passed, but after his death President Andrew Johnson had a much harder time keeping them in check. In the midterm elections of 1866, Radical Republicans gained control of both houses of Congress and began to push their program even more forcefully. When Johnson attempted to stop the Republican push, the Radicals unsuccessfully tried to impeach him, failing by a single vote.Postwar America was standing at a crossroads, and it would take a long struggle to put to rest the issues that had led to the Civil War.President Andrew Johnson
71Discussion QuestionsWhy did Grant’s “total war” policy meet with resistance even in the North? Do you think the policy was a good idea? Why?How did Grant and Sherman’s military campaigns help Lincoln win reelection in 1864?What was the impact of Lincoln’s assassination on the North? On the South?Some in the North felt that Grant’s “total war” doctrine was excessive or harsh because of its focus on civilian (as well as military) targets and infrastructure; the strategy of destroying the South in order to save it might not have seemed acceptable or particularly effective.Prior to Sherman’s March to the Sea, many political experts believed that Lincoln would have a difficult time winning the reelection in Even Lincoln himself remarked that he thought he would be beaten, and “beaten badly.” However, the fall of Atlanta along with continued Union military gains boosted Lincoln’s popularity, and he easily won reelection against McClellan.The loss of its leader—assassinated just after a hard-fought victory—caused widespread grief and mourning in the North. Furthermore, the nation was without leadership at a time of national peril. Reaction in the South was probably more mixed, if not somewhat jubilant. Ironically, Lincoln’s death allowed the Radical Republicans, who openly sought to punish the South for the war, to set the agenda for Reconstruction.