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The Civil War 1861–1865. Essential Questions What social, political, and economic issues tended to divide Americans in the period prior to the Civil War?

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War 1861–1865. Essential Questions What social, political, and economic issues tended to divide Americans in the period prior to the Civil War?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War 1861–1865

2 Essential Questions What social, political, and economic issues tended to divide Americans in the period prior to the Civil War? Why did the election of Abraham Lincoln seem to exacerbate sectional tensions in the prewar period? What impact did political and military leadership have on the conduct of the war? How did the war affect minorities during the period (women, free blacks, slaves, immigrants)? How did the Civil War make modern America?

3 Fundamental Causes of the War Sectionalism and states rights Slavery Economic issues

4 The Dividing Union Missouri Compromise (1820) Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law Kansas–Nebraska Act (1854) Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Cartoon criticizing the Fugitive Slave Law Dred Scott

5 The Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln John C. Breckin- ridge Stephen A. Douglas John Bell

6 Electoral Votes in 1860

7 Secession South Carolina was first to secede Several other states followed soon after Virginia seceded after the Battle of Fort Sumter Seceding states appear in green

8 Discussion Questions 1.What were the three fundamental causes of the Civil War? Which do you think was the most important? Why? 2.How did the Dred Scott decision help bring the country closer to civil war? Do you think the decision made civil war inevitable? Why or why not? 3.While running for president, Abraham Lincoln said that he had no plans to abolish slavery. Why then did Southerners fear his election so much?

9 The Creation of the Confederacy Delegates met in Montgomery, Alabama Formed the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis elected president, with Alexander Stephens as vice president CSA President Jefferson Davis

10 Buchanans Inaction Believed secession was illegal, but that acting to prevent it was also illegal Decided to let the incoming administration handle the problem President James Buchanan

11 Lincolns First Inaugural Address March 4, 1861 Promised not to interfere with slavery where it already existed Attempted to reconcile with the South A crowd listens to Lincolns speech at the Capitol building

12 Lincoln and Fort Sumter Confederates demanded that the fort be surrendered Lincoln received urgent message from Ft. Sumters commander Lincoln faced with dilemma of resupplying Sumter Decided to send only food for hungry men Fort Sumter

13 The War Begins Bombardment began on April 12, 1861 Anderson surrendered to Gen. Beauregard, a close friend and colleague Painting depicting the bombardment of Fort Sumter

14 The Anaconda Plan The Unions strategy: Naval blockade from Louisiana to Virginia Control of the Mississippi River Confederate strategy primarily defensive Cartoon about the Anaconda Plan

15 Advantages & Disadvantages: The Union Advantages: Industry and railroads Larger population Legitimate government Strong political leadership Disadvantages: Funding difficulties Offensive war Lack of skilled military leaders A Massachusetts factory

16 Advantages & Disadvantages: The Confederacy Advantages: Defensive war on home turf Common cause Strong military tradition and outstanding leaders Disadvantages: Weak economy Smaller population Ineffective central government and leadership Generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson

17 War Aims: North and South The North: to preserve the Union The South: safeguarding states rights, as well as protecting the South from Northern aggression Horace Greeley Abraham Lincoln

18 Discussion Questions 1.Pretend you are a member of Buchanans cabinet. How would you advise him to deal with the secession crisis in the period before the next president took office? 2.Do you think the Anaconda Plan was an effective strategy for subduing the Confederacy? If not, what strategy would you have recommended? 3.Which sides goals for the war seem more reasonable to you? Why?

19 Recruiting Soldiers Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for three months enlistment Response was overwhelming Union also encouraged enlistment with bounties New Yorkers line up to enlist

20 Ethnic Recruitment Both sides appealed to ethnic pride in order to recruit Many nationalities joined both sides Irish Americans among the most common An enlistment poster aimed at Irish Americans

21 Bull Run First major battle of Civil War About 25 miles from Washington, D.C. Stonewall Jackson became famous Confederate victory Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson

22 The Trent Affair Union forces seized two Confederate diplomats from aboard a British ship, the Trent British contended the seizure was an act of war Union eventually released the diplomats Confidence built between the U.S. and British governments Britain refused to support Confederacy The San Jacinto accosting the Trent

23 Shiloh Union forces led by Ulysses S. Grant Confederate attack nearly wiped out Union forces on first day Grant counterattacked the next day Union victory A view of Shiloh after the battle

24 Ironclads Confederates built the Merrimack from a sunken Union ship Union quickly built the Monitor Monitor and Merrimack fought to a draw in first battle between ironclads A painting of the battle

25 New Technologies in Warfare Minie ball Submarine Heavy artillery Aerial reconnaissance Gatling gun Trench warfare A Gatling gun

26 A New Union Commander McClellan selected as commander after Bull Run McClellan popular with troops A thorough administrator Overly cautious Gen. George B. McClellan

27 Lee Takes Command General Joseph E. Johnston wounded Robert E. Lee takes command of Confederate army Lee proves an able commander Gen. Robert E. Lee

28 Antietam Attempt by Lee to invade the North Near Sharpsburg, Maryland McClellan tipped off to Lees plans when a soldier found secret orders wrapped around cigars Single bloodiest day in American history Artillery Hell, a painting of early morning hostilities at Antietam

29 Antietam: Battle Scenes Dead soldiers await burial after the morning fighting in the Miller cornfield

30 Antietam: Battle Scenes A view of the Burnside Bridge from the Confederate side

31 Antietam: Battle Scenes An Army field hospital

32 Antietam: Battle Scenes Confederate dead along the Hagerstown turnpike

33 Antietam: Aftermath Lincoln met with McClellan after the battle Lincoln fired him, complaining that he had the slows McClellan replaced by series of commanders Lincoln meets with McClellan at Antietam

34 Alabama Claims Confederates purchased commerce raiders from Britain Alabama highly successful in disrupting Union shipping U.S. government demands compensation from Britain In 1872, an arbitration commission ordered Britain to pay $15.5 million Painting of the CSS Alabama fighting the USS Kearsage

35 Discussion Questions 1.Compare Lee and McClellan as commanders. Which do you feel was more effective? Why? 2.Why do you think McClellan refused to pursue Lees army into Virginia after the battle of Antietam? Do you think Lincoln should have fired him for this? Why or why not? 3.Which of the inventions/innovations in warfare do you think was the most effective? Why?

36 Prelude to Emancipation At first, Lincoln did not believe he had the authority to end slavery However, every slave working on a plantation allowed a white Southerner to fight Lincoln saw emancipation as a strategic issue as well as a moral one Slaves on a South Carolina plantation, 1862

37 Advantages to Emancipation Cause union in the North by linking the war to abolishing slavery Cause disorder in the South as slaves were freed Kept Britain out of the war Lincoln discussing emancipation with his cabinet

38 The Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln announced proclamation after Antietam Took effect on January 1, 1863 Freed slaves only in territories in rebellion A cartoon celebrating emancipation

39 Womens Roles in the War Clara BartonMary Bickerdyke Dorothea DixDr. Mary Edwards Walker

40 Women Warriors Some women posed as men in order to fight Frances Clayton (right) fought in artillery and cavalry units Total number unknown

41 Civil War Espionage Belle Boyd Pauline Cushman Rose Greenhow Sam Davis

42 Dealing With Dissent Copperheads Led by Rep. Clement Vallandigham of Ohio Lincoln suspends habeas corpus Rep. Clement Vallandigham

43 Manpower for the War Mostly volunteers Conscription needed to sustain troop levels In the North, draftees could hire substitutes or pay $300 to opt out An illustrated sheet music cover protesting the inequities of the draft

44 New York Draft Riots July 1863 Rioters mainly poor whites and Irish immigrants Opposed to freeing slaves More than 100 people killed Rioters loot a New York store

45 African American Enlistment Congress allowed black enlistment in th Massachusetts commanded by Colonel Shaw Half of 54th killed in assault on Ft. Wagner Helped spur further enlistment Col. Robert Gould Shaw Memorial to the 54th Massachusetts

46 The Sanitary Commission Poor health conditions in army camps U.S. Sanitary Commission created Purposes included improving hygiene and recruiting nurses Developed better methods of transporting wounded to hospitals A Civil War field hospital

47 Civil War Medicine Infection often deadlier than the wounds Amputations more common Anesthesia widely used A surgeon at the Camp Letterman field hospital at Gettysburg prepares for an amputation

48 Andersonville Confederate POW camp in Georgia 32,000 prisoners jammed into 26 acres One-third of all prisoners died Superintendent was executed as a war criminal Severely emaciated POWs rescued from Andersonville

49 Discussion Questions 1.Do you think issuing the Emancipation Proclamation was a necessity for Lincoln? Why? 2.Do you think Lincoln was justified in suspending habeas corpus during the war? Why? 3.Why do you think that both sides allowed sanitary conditions in prison camps and within their own armies to deteriorate to such a level?

50 Chancellorsville Jacksons forces surprised Union troops Confederates won unlikely victory Jackson hit by friendly fire and died a week later Lee pressed on to Pennsylvania A painting of the battle

51 Gettysburg: Prelude Lee crossed into Pennsylvania Sent troops for supplies Confederates encounter Union force outside Gettysburg Gettysburg battlefield: view from Culps Hill

52 Gettysburg: Day One Small Union force led by Buford delayed a larger Confederate force Buford held high ground at Seminary Ridge Bufords stand allowed time for reinforcements to arrive

53 Gettysburg: Day Two Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain Defense of Little Round Top 20th Maine repelled Confederates and saved Union position Colonel (later Major General) Joshua L. Chamberlain

54 Gettysburg: Day Three Lee believed Union lines were still vulnerable Ordered Picketts forces to attack center of Union lines Picketts Charge resulted in over 6500 Confederate casualties Artists rendition of the battlefield during Picketts charge

55 Impact of Gettysburg Confederates lost 28,000 men (one-third of army) Union lost 23,000 men (one-quarter of army) Town overwhelmed by dead and wounded soldiers Lee unable to rebuild army Turning point of the war A Confederate soldier lies dead at Devils Den

56 Siege of Vicksburg Key to total Union control of the Mississippi River Several attempts by Grant to take the city failed Grant barraged the city for two months Vicksburg fell on July 4, 1863 Union troops surround Vicksburg during the siege

57 The Gettysburg Address Lincoln invited to attend cemetery dedication Everett the principal speaker At the time, Lincolns two-minute speech was considered great by some, a failure by others The only known picture of Lincoln (lower center) at the Gettysburg Cemetery dedication

58 Discussion Questions 1.Why do you think the loss of Stonewall Jackson was so devastating to the Confederacy? 2.Why was the Battle of Gettysburg such an important victory for the Union? How might things have been different had the Confederacy won the battle? 3.Should Lee have been relieved of command because of his strategy at Gettysburg? Why or why not?

59 The Wilderness Campaign Grant came to support total war Sought to crush Lees army in Virginia Fought in dense forest near Fredericksburg Grant criticized for taking high losses Grant at Cold Harbor during the Wilderness Campaign

60 Shermans March to the Sea Sherman sought to break the Souths ability to make war Captured Atlanta in September 1864 Led the March to the Sea from Atlanta to Savannah Took Savannah by Christmas 1864 Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman

61 Election of 1864 Lincoln sought reelection Democrats nominated McClellan Union victories helped Republican campaign Lincoln won by large margin A political cartoon shows Lincoln and Davis tearing a U.S. map while McClellan tries to intercede

62 Lincolns Second Inaugural Lincoln addresses the crowd at his second inauguration. It is believed that John Wilkes Booth is the figure at top row center.

63 The Fall of Richmond Lee told Davis the capital was in danger Davis ordered evacuation Union forces took Richmond Lincoln toured the city soon after The remains of buildings after the Union invasion, April 1865

64 The 13th Amendment Proposed and co- authored by Senator Henderson of Missouri Approved by Congress in January 1865 Ratified by 27 states by December 1865 Abolished involuntary servitude Illustration depicting the Senate debate over the 13 th Amendment

65 Surrender at Appomattox Lee realized his position was hopeless Asked to meet with Grant Met in Appomattox on April 9, 1865 Lenient surrender terms An artists rendition of the meeting

66 Lincolns Assassination April 14, 1865, at Fords Theater Shot by actor John Wilkes Booth Booth killed 12 days later Vice President Andrew Johnson became president An illustration of Lincolns assassination

67 Impact of the War Freedmen disinter bodies of soldiers killed at Cold Harbor for reburial after the war

68 Impact of the War: the Union 111,000 killed in action 250,000 killed by non-military causes (mostly disease) Over 275,000 wounded Estimated cost in todays dollars: $6.19 billion Union dead at Gettysburg

69 Impact of the War: the Confederacy 93,000 killed in battle 165,000 killed by non-military causes Over 137,000 wounded Estimated cost in todays dollars: $2.10 billion Destruction in Atlanta after Shermans troops took the city

70 The Road to Reconstruction Lincoln s assassination led to rise of Radical Republicans Conflict over how to best deal with the former Confederate states Reconstruction period brought about great political upheaval South punished for causing the war President Andrew Johnson

71 Discussion Questions 1.Why did Grant s total war policy meet with resistance even in the North? Do you think the policy was a good idea? Why? 2.How did Grant and Sherman s military campaigns help Lincoln win reelection in 1864? 3.What was the impact of Lincoln s assassination on the North? On the South?

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