P) Chloroplasts (Plants only) (LS1D) Analogy – Solar Panels 1.Function: site of photosynthesis (converting sun and CO2 into sugar). 2.Structure: Membrane bound organelles that contain chlorophyll Chloroplasts
Q) Cell Wall (Plant cells only) (LS1D) Analogy – ground, rock wall 1.Function: Provides support for the cell and the plant. 2.Structure: Made of cellulose Cell Wall
Definition (LS1A) = Three part theory about cells 1. All living things are made of cells.
Part 2 of the Theory (LS1A) 2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life.
Part 3 of the Theory (LS1A) 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells. yeast cells dividing
How big are cells? (LS1B) Microscopic (mostly) Measured in microns µm (micrometers). A µm is one millionth of a meter = 10 -9 m = one thousandth of 1 mm.
How big are cells? (LS1B) Human red blood cell = 8 µm in diameter
How big are cells? Largest cell on the human body = ovum Size= 1000 µm in diameter (1 mm)
Cell Parts (LS1A) Cells – the basic unit of life Organelles - small structures inside a cell with specific functions. Analogy – City of Tacoma
A) Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane (LS1A) Analogy – Tacoma city limits 1.Function: Regulates materials entering and exiting the cell. 2.Structure: Two layers of phospholipids, proteins Cell membrane
B) Nucleus (LS1A) 1.Function: Control Center. Regulates DNA & RNA actions. 2.Structure: membrane bound, contains DNA Analogy – City Hall Nucleus
C) Nuclear Envelope (LS1A/C) Analogy – Walls & Doors of City Hall 1.Function: Regulates what enters or exits the nucleus. 2.Structure: Double Layer of Lipids Nuclear Envelope
E) Cytoplasm (LS1A/C) 1.Function: All cell contents that lie between the cell membrane and the nucleus. (organelles + cytosol) a. Cytosol = liquid portion/non-organelles. 2.Structure: made up of fluid and organelles except for nucleus Analogy – All air, water, life that are in Tacoma, except City Hall Cytoplasm
F) DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid (LS1A/C) Analogy – The Laws or City Code 1.Function: information on how to make proteins. a.Chromatin – unorganized DNA (normal state) b.Chromosomes – organized DNA (present before cell division 2.Structure: Made up of nucleotides, locked in the nucleus DNA (chromatin)
I) Vacuoles & Vesicles (LS1A/C) Analogy – Grocery stores, water tanks. 1.Function: Storage for water, nutrients or waste. 2.Structure: small membrane-bound organelle. Vesicles
J) Lysosomes (LS1A/C) Analogy – Recycling center 1.Function: packets of enzymes that break down materials in a cell. 2.Structure: Small membrane-bound organelles Lysosomes
K) Mitochondria (LS1A/C) Analogy – Tacoma Public Utilities 1.Function: Produce energy for the cell – site of cellular respiration. The Powerhouse 2.Structure: Double membrane-bound, kidney shaped. Mitochondria
M) Cytoskeleton (LS1A/C) Analogy – Wood, cement, steel beams 1.Function: Provide support and structure for the cell. a. Microfilaments b. Microtubules 2.Structure: Tubules Microfilaments Microtubules