2Organs of the Respiratory System NosePharynxLarynxTracheaBronchi & their smaller branchesLungsAlveoli: air sacs where the ONLY gas exchange of the respiratory system to the blood takes place. All other structures are only conducting passageways which allow air to reach the lungs!
3Functions of the Respiratory System PurifyHumidifyWarms air coming into the lungsThese functions allow air coming into the lungs to have fewer irritants and to function properly.
4The NOSE The only external visible part of the respiratory system During breathing air enters the nose by passing through the external nares/nostrilsThe interior of the nose consists of a nasal cavity divided by a nasal septumOlfactory receptors: located in the mucosa in the slitlike superior part of the nasal cavity, just below the ethmoid bone
5The NOSERespiratory Mucosa: composes the rest of the mucous lining of the nasal cavity, rests on a network of thin-walled veins that warm air as it flows pastThe other mucosa glands moisten air and trap incoming bacteria and other foreign debrisCiliated cells: in the nasal mucosa they create a current that moves contaminated mucus posteriorly towards the pharynx where it is swallowed and digested by stomach juices.
6The NOSEConchae: consists of 3 mucosa covered projections/lobes on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. Their function is to increase the surface area of the mucosa exposed to air. They also create movement of air in the nasal cavity and trap and prevent particles to be deflected from the mucus lined surfaces and prevent them from reaching the lungs.
7The NOSEPalate: separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity below it.Hard Palate: anterior portion of the palate which is supported by boneSoft Palate: posterior portion of the palate which is completely unsupported.Cleft palate: Genetic defect where the bones forming the palate fail to form completely and fuse medially. It results in breathing difficulty and problems with oral cavity functions such as chewing and speaking.
8The NOSEParanasal sinuses: located in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary bones. These sinuses lighten the skull and act as resonance chambers for speech. They also produce mucus that drains into the nasal cavities. Blowing the nose creates a suctioning affect which clears the sinuses.Nasolacrimal ducts: drain tears from the eyes and also empty into the nasal cavity.
9Infections of the Nasal Cavity Rhinitis:Inflammation of the nasal mucus.Excessive mucus produced will result in nasal congestion and postnasal drip.Because the nasal mucus is continuous through the respiratory tract infection can spreadSinusitis:Inflamed sinusesVery difficult to treat and causes changes in the voiceWhen the sinuses are completely blocked with mucus or infectious matter the air is absorbed and a sinus headache occurs.
10The THROATPharynx: muscular passageway about 5 inches long and is most commonly called the throat. It serves as a passageway for air and food.Nasopharynx: the superior portion of pharynx, first place for air to enter from the nasal cavity before it descends down the …Oropharynx: anterior portion. Food also passes down this portion along with the air.
11The THROATLayngopharynx: area where food and air travel. Food is directed posteriorly to enter the esophagus and air will travel down the..Larynx: inferior portion of PharynxAuditory tube: drains the middle ear and opens up into the nasopharynx. Since the two are connected an ear infection maybe turn into a sore throat or vice versa
12The THROAT Tonsils: clusters of lymphatic tissue found in the pharynx. Pharyngeal tonsils: most commonly called adenoids are located high in the nasopharynx. When they become inflamed it causes the person to breathe only through the mouthPalatine tonsils: are in the oropharynx at the end of the soft palateLingual tonsils: are found at the base of the tongue
13The THROATLarynx: voice box, routes air and food into the proper chambers and plays a small role in speech. Located inferiorly to the pharynx it is formed by 8 rigid hyaline cartilages and spoon shaped flap of elastic cartilage.Epiglottis: the flap of elastic cartilage. Protects the superior opening of the larynx and when we are not swallowing allows air into the lower respiratory passages. When we are swallowing or drinking however the epiglottis tips up and closes off the larynx and routes food towards the esophagus. If food or water does enter it results in a cough reflex.
14The THROATThyroid cartilage: large mass of hyaline cartilage, is shield shaped and protrudes anteriorly and is referred to as the “Adams Apple”Vocal folds: part of the mucus membrane of the larynx which vibrate with expelled air allowing us to speakGlottis: the slitlike passageway between the vocal folds
15The THROATTrachea: windpipe. It is the only way air can enter the lungs. Air enters from the larynx and travels down its length to the level of the 5th thoracic vertebrae. It is lined with ciliated mucosa which propels the mucous full of dust particles and debris away from the lungsThe trachea is rigid and its walls are supported by a c-shaped ring of hyaline cartilage. The open part of the rings allows the esophagus to expand anteriorly when we swallow a large piece of food. The solid portions of the wall keep the trachea open in spite of pressure changes which occur during breathing.
16The THROATPrimary Bronchi: there is a right and left primary bronchi which are formed by the division of the trachea. Each bronchi runs obliquely until it enters the lung on its side.Right pulmonary bronchi: is wider, shorter and straighter than the left and is a common site for an inhaled object to become lodged. By the time air enters the bronchi it is warmed, cleansed and humidified. The smaller divisions of bronchi within the lungs are the direct routes to the air sacs
17The LUNGSPaired large organs which occupy the entire thoracic cavity except for the central area which contains the heart.Apex: narrow superior portion of each lung located just beneath the clavicleBase: broad area of the lungs which rests on the diaphragmEach lung is divided into lobes the right has 3 and the left has 2.
18The LUNGSPulmonary/Visceral Pleura: viscera covering the surface of each lung.Parietal Pleura: covers the walls of the thoracic cavityPleural Membranes: produces a slippery serous secretion that allows the lungs to glide easily over the thorax wall during breathing and causes the two pleural layers to cling togetherPleurisy: inflammation of the pleura caused by decreased secretion of pleural fluid causing the surfaces to become dry and rough causing friction and stabbing pain with each breath. It may also be caused by an excess of secretion of pleural fluid which puts pressure on the lungs making it hard to breathe.
19The LUNGS Bronchioles: the smallest branch of the conduction pathway Bronchial or respiratory tree: the network of branching bronchi into smaller and smaller branches until they become bronchioles. All of the branches except for the bronchioles have reinforcing cartilage in their walls.
20The LUNGS Terminal Bronchioles: Lead into … Respiratory Zone: includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. This is the ONLY site for gas exchanges. The structures in the respiratory zone eventually become …Alveoli: small air sacs where gas exchange takes place. Alveoli make up the bulk of the lungs and the rest is mostly air space.
21The LUNGSRespiratory Membrane: the air-blood barrier. Made up of alveolar and capillary walls. Air passes by on one side and blood flows past on the other. The gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion through the respiratory membrane. Oxygen passes from the alveolar air into the capillary blood and the carbon dioxide leaving the blood to enter the gas filled alveolus.
22The LUNGSAlveolar Walls: composed of a single layer of squamus epithelial cells which are very thin. The external surface of the walls is covered with a web of pulmonary capillaries.Alveolar pores: Connect the air sacs and provide an alternate rout for air to reach the alveoli when their bronchioles are clogged.