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Peripheral Nervous system

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Presentation on theme: "Peripheral Nervous system"— Presentation transcript:

1 Peripheral Nervous system
Nerves and neuronal cell bodies (ganglia)


3 Structure of nerve A bundle of neuron fibers found outside the CNS.
Endoneurium Perineurirm Epineurirm Mixed nerve: all spinal nerves are mixed nerves Afferent or sensory nerves Efferent or motor nerves



6 Cranial nerves Olfactory …purely sensory (smell)
Optic…purely sensory (vision) Oculomotor…motor fibers to four muscles of the eye. Trochlear ….motor to superior oblique Trigeminal… sensory from skin of the face and mucosa of the nose and mouth &motor to chewing muscles Abducens… motor to lateral rectus muscle


8 Facial …motor for muscles of facial expression & sensory for anterior part of tongue.
Vestibulocohlear…sensory(balance & hearing) Glossopharyngeal…motor fibers to pharynx & sensory for posterior part tongue.

9 Vagus…sensory & motor for pharynx, larynx and abdominal and thoracic viscera (parasympathetic).
Accessory….motor (sternocleidomastoid & trapezius). Hypoglossal… sensory & motor for tongue


11 Spinal nerves and nerve plexuses
31pairs of human spinal nerves Spinal nerves are formed by combination of Ventral and dorsal roots it divides into dorsal and ventral rami Both the spinal nerve and rami contain both motor and sensory The smaller dorsal rami ….skin and muscles of posterior body trunk



14 The ventral rami of T1-T12 …intercostal nerves…
The ventral rami of T1-T12 …intercostal nerves….supply the muscles of anterior and lateral trunk Pleuxes…cervical C1-C5 brachial C5-C8 and T1 lumbar L1-L4 sacral L4-L5 and S1-S4

15 Autonomic nervous system
Is the motor subdivision of the PNS that controls body activities automatically . Special group of neurons that regulate cardiac, smooth muscles and glands. Support body activities. Involuntary nervous system.


17 Somatic nervous system
Somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) In somatic , the cell bodies of the motor neurons are inside the CNS, and their axons (in spinal nerves) extend all the way to the skeletal muscle.

18 autonomic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system, has a chain of two motor neurons The first neuron (in brain or spinal cord),it’s axon (preganglionic axon) leave the CNS to synapse with the second motor neuron in a ganglion outside the CNS. The axon of this neuron, (the postganglionic axon), that extends to the organ it serves.

19 Sympathetic and parasympathetic are two arms of ANS.
Both of them serve the same organs but cause the opposite effects. Sympathetic part ( fear, exercise) Parasympathetic part ( conserve energy)



22 Anatomy of parasympathetic
The first neurons of the parasympathetic division are located in brain nuclei of several cranial nerves –3,7,9, and 10. And in S2 through S4. The first neurons (cranial) send their axons (preganglionic), they synapse with second neuron in terminal ganglion to send postganglionic axon to organ.

23 In sacral region, preganglionic axon ( pelvic nerves)
In sacral region, preganglionic axon ( pelvic nerves)..also called pelvic splanchnic nerves to synapse in the terminal ganglia close to the organ.


25 Anatomy of sympathetic
Thoracolumbar division T1-L2 The preganglionic axon leave the cord in the ventral root to enter the spinal nerve and pass through ramus communicans to enter sympathetic chain synapse at the same level or different level or it didn’t synapse (splanchnic nerves) to synapse into collateral ganglion (celiac, superior, inferior)


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