11The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane is passive transport because it requires no energy from the cell to make it happen.The concentration gradient represents potential energy and drives diffusion.
15Practice problem- please write on notes The U-shaped tube in the figure below is divided by a membrane that is impermeable to starch but permeable to water. Which of the following will occur?A) Water will move from the right to the left.B) Water will move from the left to the right.C) Starch will move from the right to the left.D) Starch will move from the left to the right.E) Nothing will happen. The membrane blocks the passage of all the molecules.
16Differences in the relative concentration of dissolved materials in two solutions can lead to the movement of ions from one to the other.The solution with the higher concentration of solutes is hypertonic.The solution with the lower concentration of solutes is hypotonic.These are comparative terms.Tap water is hypertonic compared to distilled water but hypotonic when compared to sea water.Solutions with equal solute concentrations are isotonic.
17Say what? Let’s refer to the graph that you made for the potato cores. What is causing the cores to lose their mass?Water is being lost from the potato core cells.What is causing them to gain in mass?Water is being gained by the potato cells.What is the only variable that is being manipulated?The solute concentration.
18Osmosis continues until the solutions are isotonic. Unbound water molecules will move from the hypotonic solution where they are abundant to the hypertonic solution where they are rarer.This diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is a special case of passive transport called osmosis.Osmosis continues until the solutions are isotonic.Fig. 8.11
19Back to your graph-What is significant about the zero percent change in mass as it relates to water movement?Water moving in and out of the cell is at the same rate…there is no net gain or loss of water.What does this tell you about the solute concentration inside v.s outside of the cell?They are the same
20When the average percent change in mass of the potato cores increases how does the solute concentration compare between the outside solution and inside solution?The solute concentration in the cells is greater than solute concentration in the surrounding solution
21When the average percent change in mass of the potato cores decreases (less than 0) how does the solute concentration compare between the outside solution and inside solution?The solute concentration in the cells is less than the solute concentration in the surrounding solution.
23Cell survival depends on balancing water uptake and loss An animal cell immersed in an isotonic environment experiences no net movement of water across its plasma membrane.Water flows across the membrane, but at the same rate in both directions.The volume of the cell is stable.