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Diffusion, osmosis, and the cell membrane. A membrane is a collage of different proteins embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer. Membranes.

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Presentation on theme: "Diffusion, osmosis, and the cell membrane. A membrane is a collage of different proteins embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer. Membranes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diffusion, osmosis, and the cell membrane

2 A membrane is a collage of different proteins embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer. Membranes are mosaics of structure and function Fig. 8.6

3 What do you think membranes do?

4 The proteins in the plasma membrane may provide a variety of major cell functions. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 8.9

5 What is diffusion? Diffusion is a process where molecules move from greater molecule concentrations to areas of less molecule concentrations until an equal distribution of those molecules is reached.

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8 What is the difference between permeable, semipermeable and impermeable membranes?

9 Which way will the molecules travel? The dye will cross the membrane until both solutions have equal concentrations of the dye. At this dynamic equilibrium as many molecules pass one way as cross the other direction. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 8.10a

10 In the absence of other forces, a substance will diffuse from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated, down its concentration gradient. –This spontaneous process decreases free energy and increases entropy by creating a randomized mixture. Each substance diffuses down its own concentration gradient, independent of the concentration gradients of other substances. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 8.10b

11 The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane is passive transport because it requires no energy from the cell to make it happen. –The concentration gradient represents potential energy and drives diffusion.

12 The plasma membrane functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes for the whole volume of the cell. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 7.6

13 Osmosis is defined as the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.

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15 Practice problem- please write on notes The U-shaped tube in the figure below is divided by a membrane that is impermeable to starch but permeable to water. Which of the following will occur? A) Water will move from the right to the left. B) Water will move from the left to the right. C) Starch will move from the right to the left. D) Starch will move from the left to the right. E) Nothing will happen. The membrane blocks the passage of all the molecules.

16 Differences in the relative concentration of dissolved materials in two solutions can lead to the movement of ions from one to the other. –The solution with the higher concentration of solutes is hypertonic. –The solution with the lower concentration of solutes is hypotonic. –These are comparative terms. Tap water is hypertonic compared to distilled water but hypotonic when compared to sea water. –Solutions with equal solute concentrations are isotonic.

17 Say what? Lets refer to the graph that you made for the potato cores. What is causing the cores to lose their mass? Water is being lost from the potato core cells. What is causing them to gain in mass? Water is being gained by the potato cells. What is the only variable that is being manipulated? The solute concentration.

18 Unbound water molecules will move from the hypotonic solution where they are abundant to the hypertonic solution where they are rarer. This diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is a special case of passive transport called osmosis. Osmosis continues until the solutions are isotonic. Fig. 8.11

19 Back to your graph- What is significant about the zero percent change in mass as it relates to water movement? Water moving in and out of the cell is at the same rate…there is no net gain or loss of water. What does this tell you about the solute concentration inside v.s outside of the cell? They are the same

20 When the average percent change in mass of the potato cores increases how does the solute concentration compare between the outside solution and inside solution? The solute concentration in the cells is greater than solute concentration in the surrounding solution

21 When the average percent change in mass of the potato cores decreases (less than 0) how does the solute concentration compare between the outside solution and inside solution? The solute concentration in the cells is less than the solute concentration in the surrounding solution.

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23 An animal cell immersed in an isotonic environment experiences no net movement of water across its plasma membrane. –Water flows across the membrane, but at the same rate in both directions. –The volume of the cell is stable. Cell survival depends on balancing water uptake and loss

24 The same cell is a hypertonic environment will lose water, shrivel, and probably die. A cell in a hypotonic solution will gain water, swell, and burst. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 8.12

25 Turgid cells contribute to the mechanical support of the plant. If a cell and its surroundings are isotonic, there is no movement of water into the cell and the cell is flaccid and the plant may wilt. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 8.12

26 YouTube - Statkraft - Osmotic Power Plant


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