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Prokaryotic Cells. Kingdom Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera prokaryotic eukaryotic.

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Presentation on theme: "Prokaryotic Cells. Kingdom Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera prokaryotic eukaryotic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prokaryotic Cells

2 Kingdom Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera prokaryotic eukaryotic

3 Kingdom Protista Eukaryotic Mostly unicellular A very heterogeneous group include both heterotrophic and photoautotrophic forms 11 phyla Lots of disagreements Whittaker = leftovers

4 binary fission splits into two asexually multiple fission producing more than two individuals sexually by conjugation (opposite mating strains join & exchange genetic material) Reproduction:

5 3 informal groups Animal-like protists Fungus-like protists Plant-like (algal) protists Misleading: some change Kingdom Protista ~ 45,000 species

6 Amoeba Cilliates Flagellates Animal-like Protists 13,000 species

7 Classified by the way they move Animal-like Protists cilia flagella pseudopodia

8 Heterotrophs ingest small food particles & digest it inside food vacuoles containing digestive enzymes

9 Animal-like protists Sarcomastigophora (amoebas, forams, radiolarian) Ciliophora (paramecium) Zoomastigophora (trypansoma) Apicocomplexa (Sporozoa)

10 Phylum Sarcomastigophora Amoeba Shell-like glass or calcium carbonate structures Radiating projections Animal-like Protists 13,000 species

11 Note: glass projections

12 Foraminifera Tropics = beaches Most have symbiotic algae

13 Foramenifera: Globigerina ooze Covers about 36% of the ocean floor

14 Phylum Ciliophora (ciliates) Largest, most homogeneous Share few characteristics with others Movement coordinated Sex: 8 mating types Animal-like Protists 8,000 species

15 Paramecium


17 Phylum Zoomastigophora (zooflagellates) Move using flagella Move using flagella:1 to thousands of flagella Some parasites African trypanosomiasis – sleeping sickness – tsetse flyAfrican trypanosomiasis – sleeping sickness – tsetse fly Chagas Disease – kissing bugChagas Disease – kissing bug Leishmaniasis – sand flyLeishmaniasis – sand fly giardiasisgiardiasis Vaccines? change protein coat! Gave rise to animals? Animal-like Protists 1,500 species

18 African sleeping sickness Tsetse fly Trypansoma

19 The Kissing Bug Chagas disease

20 Leishmaniasis Sand fly Leishmania

21 Malaria Mosquito & victim Africa = kills 1 million children per year Thousands of sporozoites injected Vaccine? (US support?) Anopheles Mosquito Plasmodium sporozoite gameteocyte

22 Fungus-like Protists Phylum Oomycota (water molds; mildew, blights) Some unicellular; others consist of hyphae Decomposers,parasites Cell walls- cellulose Related to algae based on cell wall composition Named after reproductive method 475 species No septa

23 water molds

24 Downy Mildew

25 Mildew hyphae

26 Fungus-like Protists Phylum Myxomycota (slime molds) Bizarre Bright colors Moving slime mass Acellular body 550 species

27 Fungus-like Protists 475 species Downey mildew Slime molds Mildew Water molds Blights



30 Slime Mold Maze The slime mold starts out evenly spread through the maze, but when food sources are placed at two ends, the slime mold retracts from everywhere but the shortest path.

31 Plant-like Protists Dinoflagellates Diatoms Euglena Cocolithophore Green algae Brown Algae Red algae Diatoms Dinoflagellates Radiolarian Cocolithophore

32 Plant-like Protists Phylum Pyrrophyta (dinoflagellates) 1,100 species Cause red tide Some live in corals Marine and Freshwater

33 Zooxanthellae in Coral Polyp

34 Pyrocystis fusiformis Bioluminescence

35 HAB (harmful algal blooms) can result in PSP (paraletic shellfish poisoning) Gonyaulax polyhedra, Gymnodium


37 Plant-like Protists Phylum Chrysophyta (diatoms & golden algae) Link to green algae 13,000 species

38 Diatom - Akashiwo sanguinea Domoic acid 2009 Washington State 10,000 seabirds deaths Alfred Hitchkock The Birds HAB- diatoms

39 Phylum Euglenophyta (euglenoids) Plant-like Protists 800 species

40 Division Chlorophyta Green algae Most freshwater or terrestrial Some marine 7,000 species

41 Halimeda opuntia Chlorophyta: Green Algae Caulerpa racemosa Caulerpa sertularioides Dictyosphaeria cavernosa Codium edule

42 Division Phaeophyta Brown algae Marine habitats Example: giant kelp forests 1,500 species

43 Example of complex morphology: Macrocystis a.holdfast - attaches to substrate b.stipe c.blade - main organ of photosynthesis d.bladder - keeps blades near the surface Blade Bladder Stipe Holdfast



46 Sargassum polyphyllum Sargassum echinocarpum Phaeophyta: Brown Algae Turbinaria ornata Padina japonica Hydroclathrus clathratus

47 Division Rhodophyta Red algae Most in marine habitats 4,000 species

48 Hypnea chordacea Asparagopsi s taxiformis Galaxaura fastigiata Acanthophora spicifera Ahnfeltia concinna Rhodophyta: Red Algae

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