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The Binomial Theorem Digital Lesson

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 Binomial Expansions The binomial theorem provides a useful method for raising any binomial to a nonnegative integral power. Consider the patterns formed by expanding (x + y) n. (x + y) 0 = 1 (x + y) 1 = x + y (x + y) 2 = x 2 + 2xy + y 2 (x + y) 3 = x 3 + 3x 2 y + 3xy 2 + y 3 (x + y) 4 = x 4 + 4x 3 y + 6x 2 y 2 + 4xy 3 + y 4 (x + y) 5 = x 5 + 5x 4 y + 10x 3 y x 2 y 3 + 5xy 4 + y 5 Notice that each expansion has n + 1 terms. 1 term 2 terms 3 terms 4 terms 5 terms 6 terms Example: (x + y) 10 will have , or 11 terms.

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Patterns of Exponents in Binomial Expansions Consider the patterns formed by expanding (x + y) n. (x + y) 0 = 1 (x + y) 1 = x + y (x + y) 2 = x 2 + 2xy + y 2 (x + y) 3 = x 3 + 3x 2 y + 3xy 2 + y 3 (x + y) 4 = x 4 + 4x 3 y + 6x 2 y 2 + 4xy 3 + y 4 (x + y) 5 = x 5 + 5x 4 y + 10x 3 y x 2 y 3 + 5xy 4 + y 5 1. The exponents on x decrease from n to 0. The exponents on y increase from 0 to n. 2. Each term is of degree n. Example: The 5 th term of (x + y) 10 is a term with x 6 y 4.

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Binomial Coefficients The coefficients of the binomial expansion are called binomial coefficients. The coefficients have symmetry. The coefficient of x n–r y r in the expansion of (x + y) n is written or n C r. (x + y) 5 = x 5 + 5x 4 y + 10x 3 y x 2 y 3 + 5xy 4 + y 5 The first and last coefficients are 1. The coefficients of the second and second to last terms are equal to n. 1 1 Example: What are the last 2 terms of (x + y) 10 ? Since n = 10, the last two terms are 10xy 9 + 1y 10. So, the last two terms of (x + y) 10 can be expressed as 10 C 9 xy C 10 y 10 or as xy 9 + y 10.

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Pascals Triangle The triangular arrangement of numbers below is called Pascals Triangle. Each number in the interior of the triangle is the sum of the two numbers immediately above it. The numbers in the n th row of Pascals Triangle are the binomial coefficients for (x + y) n. 1 1 st row nd row rd row th row th row 0 th row = = 3

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Example: Use the fifth row of Pascals Triangle to generate the sixth row and find the binomial coefficients,, 6 C 4 and 6 C 2. 5 th row th row 6 C 0 6 C 1 6 C 2 6 C 3 6 C 4 6 C 5 6 C 6 = 6 = and 6 C 4 = 15 = 6 C 2. There is symmetry between binomial coefficients. n C r = n C n–r Example: Pascals Triangle

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Example: Use Pascals Triangle to expand (2a + b) 4. (2a + b) 4 = 1(2a) 4 + 4(2a) 3 b + 6(2a) 2 b 2 + 4(2a)b 3 + 1b 4 = 1(16a 4 ) + 4(8a 3 )b + 6(4a 2 b 2 ) + 4(2a)b 3 + b 4 = 16a a 3 b + 24a 2 b 2 + 8ab 3 + b 4 Example: Pascals Triangle 1 1 st row nd row rd row th row 0 th row1

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 The symbol n! (n factorial) denotes the product of the first n positive integers. 0! is defined to be 1. n! = n(n – 1)(n – 2) ! = 1 4! = = 24 6! = = 720 Formula for Binomial Coefficients For all nonnegative integers n and r, Example: Formula for the Binomial Coefficients

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Example: Use the formula to calculate the binomial coefficients 10 C 5, 15 C 0, and. Example: Binomial coefficients

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Binomial Theorem Example: Use the Binomial Theorem to expand (x 4 + 2) 3. Definition: Binomial Theorem

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Although the Binomial Theorem is stated for a binomial which is a sum of terms, it can also be used to expand a difference of terms. Simply rewrite (x + y) n as (x + (– y)) n and apply the theorem to this sum. Example: Use the Binomial Theorem to expand (3x – 4) 4. Definition: Binomial Theorem

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Example: Use the Binomial Theorem to write the first three terms in the expansion of (2a + b) 12. Example:Using the Binomial Theorem

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Example: Find the eighth term in the expansion of (x + y) 13. Think of the first term of the expansion as x 13 y 0. The power of y is 1 less than the number of the term in the expansion. The eighth term is 13 C 7 x 6 y 7. Therefore, the eighth term of (x + y) 13 is 1716 x 6 y 7. Example: Find the nth term

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