2 Seedless Reproduction Seedless plants – plants that do not produce seeds. They include all nonvascular and some vascular plants.Millions of years ago, most plants on Earth were vascular seedless plantsVascular means VEINS!
3 Nonvascular vs. Vascular Nonvascular plants – plants that do not have structures that transport water and substances throughout the plant. Instead water and substances simply move from cell to cell.
10 Vascular Seedless Plants Most vascular seedless plants are ferns.
11 Vascular Seedless Plants Fern sporophyte plants have fronds that grow from an underground stem called a rhizome.Fern spores are produced in sori, which are usually on the underside of fronds.A fern spore that lands in a favorable environment grows into a gametophyte plant called a prothallus.
12 Vascular Seedless Plants Sex cells form in the prothallus.When fertilization occurs, the zygote starts the sporophyte stage.Ferns may reproduce asexually when rhizomes form new branches and are separated from the main plant.
13 Fern Life Cycle Diagram A. Meiosis takes place to produce thousands of spores.GametophyteSporophyteB. Spores are ejected. They grow into a gametophyte plant.E. The zygote is the beginning of the sporophyte stage and grows into the familiar fern plant.Fern Life Cycle DiagramD. Water is needed for the sperm to swim to the egg. Fertilization occurs and a zygote is produced.C. The prothallus contains the male and female reproductive structures.