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Reading Assessment Strategies

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1 Reading Assessment Strategies
An Introduction and Overview of WASL Reading for Educators Print the Word document to use as a reference for the PowerPoint.

2 Contents Reading WASL Development Purpose of this Plan Weekly Plans
Cycle Targets Assessment Purpose of this Plan Intended Use Weekly Plans Week 1 Weeks 2,3,4 WASL Overview Passage Types Interacting with the Passage Item (Question) Types Scoring Rubrics Scoring Practice Key Piece How To’s For Each Task

3 Reading WASL Development Cycle
Develop Item and Test Specifications Reading Passage Selection and Copyrights Research Passage Bias/Sensitivity Reviews Item Review for Content by OSPI Item Writing Training and Item Writing . Item Reviews for Content & Bias/Sensitivity by Committee Pilot Rangefinding Pilot Item Testing Note: all blue boxes are teacher committees. You can find the application on the Reading Assessment website if you would like to join us for a committee. First 2 boxes: OSPI engages in a systematic process to find passages for the Reading WASL. Passages are selected for grade-level appropriate reading level and content appropriateness. Bias and Sensitivity: During this review, a committee made up of Washington state teachers, community members, business representatives and parents representing a variety of cultural and ethnic backgrounds, analyzes each passage for Bias and Sensitivity issues that may impact student performance on the WASL. After the passage has met the criteria for Bias and Sensitivity review, it is eligible to move to the Item Writing process. Item Writing: A committee of educators receives training in item development. They develop an understanding of short answer and constructed response stems using evidence from the passage for examples, and receive training on the key elements of successful multiple choice construction including distracters (wrong answers) and constructed response items. Also, preliminary scoring rubrics are developed for the constructed response items. Item Review: After the item writing committee, OSPI and our contractor do an in-depth technical review of the items developed for the passages. During this item review, cognitive load, language, and distracters are carefully analyzed and/or revised. Rubrics for constructed response items are also analyzed and/or revised. Content Review: After OSPI and our contractor do the Item Review, passages and items undergo another quality control check by a Content Review committee. This committee, facilitated by our contractor, is comprised of educators who have not been involved in the previous stages of the development of the passages and items. This additional development step ensures that “fresh eyes” review the passages and items. The Bias and Sensitivity Review: The second review by the Bias and Sensitivity committee reviews the written items for Bias and Sensitivity issues that may impact student performance on the WASL. After the items have passed Bias and Sensitivity review, the passages and items are now eligible to be placed on the assessment as embedded pilot items. Pilot Rangefinding: After the passages and items have been piloted on the WASL, the Pilot Rangefinding committee, comprised of OSPI personnel, educators, and contractor staff, reviews and rangefinds pilot short answers and extended responses. In Pilot Rangefinding, teachers help OSPI and contractor’s scoring center staff determine the scoring criteria for the constructed response items using student responses from the embedded pilots. Items that have been successfully rangefound and meet item performance criteria are then scored by scorers. Pilot Item Data Review: This committee reviews data for the Reading WASL pilot items. Student performance data for the multiple choice and constructed response items is analyzed to determine eligibility for Operational testing. Items are analyzed for appropriate performance parameters including difficulty level, ethnic performance, stability and validity of items, and trends and patterns. Passages and items that survive this Pilot Item Data Review process are determined to be eligible for Operational use on the WASL. Operational Rangefinding: After the passages and items have been tested Operationally, they undergo another rangefinding process. This committee is also comprised of OSPI personnel, educators, and contractor staff. The committee reviews and rangefinds Operational short answers and extended responses. In Operational Rangefinding, teachers help OSPI and scoring staff finalize the scoring rubrics for the constructed response items using student responses from the Operational test. After Operational Rangefinding, items are scored by scorers. The whole development process takes about 2 years. Operational Testing Data Review Pilot Scoring Training and Pilot Scoring Operational Rangefinding Operational Scoring

4 Grades 6-HS WASL Reading Targets
Literary Text Informational Text LC01 – Main Idea LC02 – Summarize LC03 – Infer or Prediction LC04 – Vocabulary LA05 – Literary Elements LA06 – Compare/Contrast LA07 – Cause/Effect LT08 – Author’s Purpose LT09 – Evaluate reasoning and ideas/theme LT10 – Extend information beyond text IC11 - Main Idea IC12 - Summarize IC13 - Infer or Prediction IC14 - Vocabulary IA15 - Text Features (captions, maps) IA16 - Compare/Contrast IA17 - Cause/Effect IT18 - Author’s Purpose IT19 - Evaluate reasoning and ideas/theme IT20 - Extend information beyond text LC: Literary Comprehension IC: Informational Comprehension LA: Literary Analysis IA: Informational Analysis LT: Literary Critical Thinking IT: Informational Critical Thinking The numbers correspond to a skill: 01/11: main idea 02/12: summary 03/13: infer, predict 04/14 : vocabulary 05/15: Remember that targets parallel one another with the exception of LA05 and IA15. LA05 deal with literary elements which do not apply to informational text and IA15 deals with text features which do not apply to literary texts. 06/16: compare, contrast 07/17: cause, effect 08/18: author’s purpose 09/19: evaluate reasoning 10/20: extend information C = Comprehend A = Analyze T = Think Critically

5 WASL Reading Assessment Map
TEST CHARACTERISTICS High School # of total items (MC, SA, ER) on test 37 # of total points possible on test 52 # of Operational passages on each test 6 # of strands assessed per test Minimum # of points per strand per test # of multiple choice (MC) items on test 26 # of short answers (SA) on test 9 #of extended responses (ER) on test 2 Percent of multiple choice in total score 50% Percent of constructed response in total score (short answer and extended response)* Total Number of Embedded Items 7 The assessment has 37 Operational items (questions) that count toward a student’s score. They are made up of multiple choice, short answer, extended response. Total raw points are 52 which is converted through numerous statistical checks into the scaled score that a student receives. There are Operational passages which means that they count toward the student’s score. Within the passages all 6 strands (Informational comprehension, analysis, critical thinking and literary comprehension, analysis, and critical thinking) are covered. There are 26 multiple choice items, 9 short answer, and 2 extended response. The student’s total score is made up of 50% multiple choice and 50% constructed response (short answer and extended response). There is always 1 pilot passage embedded within the assessment with 7 items associated with it. This passage and items do not count towards a student’s score, but may appear Operationally on a later assessment if the data shows that the items assessed what they were supposed to.

6 Purpose These reading assessment strategies are geared toward those students who are able to read the passages, did not meet standard on the WASL, but scored at level 2. The focus will be to familiarize students with the assessment language of the Reading WASL, so that they can apply the reading skills that they have to the specific types of questions they will encounter on the WASL. There is also a Collection of Evidence (COE) component that allows for additional WASL practice while starting a collection. COE is an option for students who do not meet standard on the WASL.

7 Intended Use This plan is designed for use with summer school programs. It is based on a 5-day, 2 hours per day model. If your school has a different summer school format, you may have to make adjustments.

8 Layout The layout for all four weeks will be very similar to establish a routine for students and the teacher. Layout week-by-week: The document, “Educator Training”, is a reference for you to use during the 4 weeks. Each strategy and activity is explained in detail.

9 Week 1 Day 1-Overview of Reading WASL and an introduction to WASL questions and scoring rubrics (this is VERY important; it is the basis for showing students how they will be scoring their own work) Day 2-Vocabulary, Pre-Reading Activity, Reading and Answering, Extension Activity Day 3-Finish Reading and Answering from the previous day, Scoring Day 4-Vocabulary, Pre-Reading Activity, Reading and Answering, Extension Activity Day 5-Finish Reading and Answering from the previous day, Scoring

10 Weeks 2, 3, 4 Day 1-Review previous week, New Vocabulary, Pre-Reading Activity, Reading and Answering Day 2-Finish Reading and Answering from the previous day, Scoring, Extension Activity Day 3-Vocabulary, Pre-Reading Activity, Reading and Answering Day 4-Finish Reading and Answering from the previous day, Scoring, Extension Activity Day 5-Review and Extension Activity

11 Text/Story/Passage/Selection/Poem
On the Reading WASL text/story/passage/selection/ poem all refer to the material being read.

12 Text/Story/Selection/Passage/Poem
Informational: true information (usually science or social studies topics) Literary: reads like a story (poem, story, literary biography) To Teacher: Go over the 2 types of text and discuss with the class.

13 When students take the Reading WASL they may:
Write on the assessment with their No. 2 pencils Make notes and underline while they read Mark on the questions Stay away from the bubble on multiple choice until they are ready to make a choice Use these strategies for all 4 weeks of practice

14 Three Types Of Items (Questions)
8 Which sentence best describes why the ornithologists want to protect the wild turkeys? A. Wild turkeys are interbreeding with domestic animals B. Wild turkey eggs have special incubation needs. C. Wild turkey habitats are declining. D. Wild turkeys abandon their nests. There are 3 types of questions on the Reading WASL: multiple choice, short answer (SA), and extended response (ER). For multiple choice items teachers will be using their own thought process or “think-aloud” to show students how they use the text to eliminate choices. For SA and ER teachers will also think-aloud and focus on using text-based details, showing students where to find support for their answers in the text. A good rule of thumb is to give more details from the text than the question asks for. Students will not be penalized for any wrong details; the scorers only focus on what they get right. Examples of how to do the think-aloud are included with each question in the PowerPoint for each week. Multiple Choice Worth 1 point Half of the student’s score comes from multiple choice questions

15 If you see a question with 9 lines use 4 details from the text.
Short Answer Worth up to 2 points Has 9 lines to write on Why does the tortoise “begin his trek back toward the Mohave”? Include two details from the poem in your answer. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ If you see a question with 9 lines use 4 details from the text.

16 If you see a question with 18 lines use 6 details from the text.
Extended Response Worth up to 4 points Has 18 lines to write on What problem do the ornithologists experience in the story? What are three events that contribute to the resolution of the problem? Include information from the story in your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ If you see a question with 18 lines use 6 details from the text.

17 Things to Know: Students cannot write themselves out of an answer.
It’s better to give more details than are asked for on an item. Short Answer: Give 4 details (the item requires 2 correct text-based details to get full points). Extended Response: Give 6 details (the item requires 4 correct text-based details to get full points). If some details are wrong, they will be ignored by the scorer. We will only look for what they get correct.

18 Rubrics Item How to earn points Specific bullets that
The format for each rubric is the same Item How to earn points Specific bullets that are from the text Origin of score points Rubrics for each item are included in the teacher materials for each selection. Print the rubric from the teacher materials for students to use during scoring.

19 Desert Tortoise in the Rain
SCORING PRACTICE: Desert Tortoise in the Rain By Joseph Bruchac Scoring with students is a great way for them to think about the item and how best to answer. You will read the poem, “Desert Tortoise in the Rain”, and answer the items.

20

21 The Basics of Answering a Multiple Choice Item
Read the item Underline what is being asked Read all answer choices Re-read the choices and eliminate wrong choices by using the text This slide could be made into a poster to use as a reference during the 4 weeks. You will see in the notes “To Students” and “To Teacher”. “To Students” is meant to be shared with students while “To Teacher” is for you to read and share as appropriate.

22 18 What is the main conflict in the poem?
A. A tortoise emerges from hibernation. B. A tortoise demonstrates curiosity. C. A tortoise seeks his former home. D. A tortoise lives near the ocean. To Students: Multiple choice items are tough. For each one follow these steps: Read the question. Underline what is being asked (1st Click) Think about the words main and conflict. What do they mean? Discuss out loud. Main: biggest part; Conflict: argue, fight, not get along, not agree, have a problem. Remember, you can have a conflict with someone else (get into an argument), you can have conflict with yourself (when you have to make a decision between spending your money or saving it), or conflict with nature (if a bear or tree blocks your path, bad weather). Read all answer choices. Re-read the choices and eliminate the wrong answers using the text. Put an X at the end of each choice that is eliminated. To Teacher: Think-Aloud: Let’s eliminate choices: Choice A refers to lines 3-5, the turtle is under the porch, but it does not say he was hibernating (2nd Click). I just re-read the poem and I don’t see how he is curious; maybe just the fact that he comes out from under the steps, but that doesn’t mean he is curious (3rd Click). Choice C does seem correct. Lines says, “he turns his gaze away from the sea below to begin his trek back toward the Mohave where human hands a decade ago picked him up to carry him here, away from his own kind”, but let’s read choice D first. Choice D does seem correct because lines 8-10 say, “the backyard fence, which once kept him from the sight of ocean”. But re-read the question. Conflict is the focus, and the turtle is having a conflict or problem because he lives near the ocean, but he is really from the desert (4th Click). Read the question Underline what is being asked and think about it Read all answer choices Re-read the choices and eliminate them using the text

23 19 Based on the information in the poem, what conclusion can be drawn
about the tortoise? A. He is clumsy. B. He is injured. C. He is unhappy. D. He is persistent. To Students: Multiple choice items are tough. For each one, students need to follow these steps: Strategies for multiple choice items: Read the question. Underline what is being asked (1st Click) Think about the poem and what you know about turtles: I know he is a turtle and they move slow, the poem says, “his head like a lump of lava, takes one club foot step after another, bumps his way across heaved red bricks“, “as I watch him move with what some call patience” (lines 34-35). The question is asking me to draw a conclusion. I know that a conclusion is giving an opinion based on the text. Read all answer choices. Re-read the choices and eliminate the wrong answers using the text. Put an X at the end of each choice that is eliminated. To Teacher: Think-Aloud: Let’s eliminate choices: The poem does not say that he is clumsy; it says the turtle “bumps his way across” (line 23) (2nd Click). The poem does not say that he is injured, it says the turtle “takes one club foot step” (line 22) which describes what his feet look like. He has survived a fire (lines 6-7), but it doesn’t say that he was hurt (3rd Click). Does not seem correct. The poem does not talk about how the turtle feels, but we need to read D first. The poem says, “take one club foot step after another” (line 22), and “I watch him move with what some call patience” (lines 34-35). Turtles are slow and it seems like he has a long way to go so it will take him a long time to get there. OR Thinking about the whole poem this turtle has survived and is now going on a long trip back home, this shows that he keeps going and is persistent. (4th Click). Read the question Underline what is being asked and think about it Read all answer choices Re-read the choices and eliminate them using the text

24 Make sure you have a copy of the rubric in front of you.
23 Why does the tortoise “begin his trek back toward the Mohave”? Include two details from the poem in your answer. Underline what is being asked and how you have to answer. Good Rule to Follow: When it says give two details, give four. To Students: Underline what is being asked in this question. They should underline 2 things. (Give time to complete this.) To Teacher: Discuss what they underlined and why. They should have underlined the quote and two details. (2 clicks to show lines on PowerPoint) Remember if it asks for give 2 details, give 4 details.

25 Looking at a Rubric…This is How it Will Appear When You Print the Notes
Go over each bullet: -as you reveal a bullet, talk about it and have students locate and write on their rubric where the bullet came from in the story Bullet: Paragraph A:1 B: 3 C: 5 D: 6/7 E: 12/16 *Notice that this bullet comes from 2 different paragraphs. Why is it under the same bullet? Because it is the same idea in both sentence. Ideas that are the same can be listed under the same bullet. F: 14 G: 16 H: 17 I: 17 J: 18 K: 19 To Teacher: The student packet will not have the rubrics. Copy the rubric for them to use during scoring. EXAMPLE

26 Text-based details may include, but are not limited to:
2 A 2-point response provides two text-based details to show why the tortoise begins his trek back toward the Mohave. Example: The tortoise begins his trek back to the Mohave because the house where he lived was washed away by fire and he is going back to be with his kind. 1 A 1-point response provides one text-based detail that shows why the tortoise begins his trek back toward the Mohave. Text-based details may include, but are not limited to: A. The earth-dug bed beneath the porch steps is all that remains of a house washed away by fire (home burned down) B. The backyard fence which once kept him from the sight of ocean or winding canyon, has also been returned to ash C. He turns his gaze away from the sea below D. Where human hands a decade ago picked him up to carry him here E. Away from his own kind F. As I watch him move with what some call patience it seems that words can barely express what the tortoise knows G. The tortoise knows of the rain and the fire here at the fenced-in edge of a continent where our human desires have come again to nothingness To Teacher: Go over each bullet: - As you reveal a bullet, talk about it and have students locate and write on their rubric where the bullet came from in the poem. To earn two points you must give 2 text-based details. To earn one point you must give 1 text-based detail. Bullet : Line(s) A: 4-7 B: 8-12 C: 28-29 D: 31-32 E: 33 F: 34-37 G: 38-42

27 Text-based details may include, but are not limited to:
2 A 2-point response provides two text-based details to show why the tortoise begins his trek back toward the Mohave. Example: The tortoise begins his trek back to the Mohave because the house where he lived was washed away by fire and he is going back to be with his kind. 1 A 1-point response provides one text-based detail that shows why the tortoise begins his trek back toward the Mohave. Text-based details may include, but are not limited to: A. The earth-dug bed beneath the porch steps is all that remains of a house washed away by fire (home burned down) B. The backyard fence which once kept him from the sight of ocean or winding canyon, has also been returned to ash C. He turns his gaze away from the sea below D. Where human hands a decade ago picked him up to carry him here E. Away from his own kind F. As I watch him move with what some call patience it seems that words can barely express what the tortoise knows G. The tortoise knows of the rain and the fire here at the fenced-in edge of a continent where our human desires have come again to nothingness Lines 4-7 Lines 8-12 Lines 28-29 To Teacher: “Text-based details may include, but are not limited to:” REFERS TO ALLOWING A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF STUDENT INTERPRETATION FOR A BULLET, NOT THAT THERE ARE MISSING BULLETS ON THE RUBRIC For example: Bullet C says, “he turns his gaze away from the sea below”. A student may write, “the turtle looks away from the ocean”. The student would still earn a score point for bullet C. Lines Line 33 Lines 34-37 Lines 38-42

28 E D E A A To Teacher: This is a student response to this item. Use the rubric to score it before clicking to get the correct score points. The first click will underline a phrase that refers to a score point. The next click will show the bullet that the phrase matches. Example: 1st Click underlines “he is coming back to his own kind”. What bullet does this phrase match? Click again to see the answer. Follow this pattern for the next 4 slides for additional practice using the rubric to score.

29 B E D

30 D

31 E

32

33 To make this a successful experience for students use a “think-aloud” strategy to model the process for answering specific types of questions. Hints as to how to do this are provided in the notes of each PowerPoint.

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35 Key Piece: Think-Aloud
Remember the key piece is to talk through your process as a good reader. Model how you are applying your reasoning and reading skills. Think-Aloud is a great strategy to use to slow down the reading process and let students get a good look at how skilled readers construct meaning from a text.  Many of us developed our skills as readers implicitly, by simply reading all sorts of texts; after all, reading is a passion for us.  Therefore, when we teach reading at the secondary level, we need to keep in mind that we must take what we know and do implicitly and make it explicit for our students, especially for our struggling readers. Alsup, Janet, and Jonathan Bush. “But Will It Work with Real Students?”: Scenarios for Teaching Secondary English Language Arts. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 2003.

36 What Skilled Readers Do While They Read:
Activate prior knowledge: When skilled readers approach a text for the first time, they consciously (or unconsciously) summon any information or background that they may have in relation to the topic, idea, people/characters, setting, historical context, author, similar events, etc. This process provides a footing or foundation for the reading; it helps us to make sense of new text.  This is an important step that inexperienced readers often skip over.

37 What Skilled Readers Do While They Read:
Set a purpose/reason/goal for reading: Another step that becomes automatic for skilled readers is establishing what they expect to get out of reading. Depending on the purpose, we adjust our reading to meet the chosen goal. Helping our students define the reason, purpose or goal for reading is a crucial initial step in helping them to successfully interact with the text. Are they reading for pleasure/entertainment? To gather information? To support a thesis? To answer an essential question?  Etc.

38 What Skilled Readers Do While They Read:
Decode text into words and meanings: These are basic reading skills that our children begin to learn at the elementary level; but as secondary teachers, we must continue to work on them as texts become more varied and sophisticated. Decoding text into words and meaning can also involve using strategies to define unfamiliar words using context clues or word parts (e.g., prefixes, suffixes, roots). 

39 What Skilled Readers Do While They Read:
Make personal connections: As skilled readers move through a text, they constantly compare and contrast their knowledge and experience with what is presented and revealed in the text. This process of “personal engagement” within the text improves the reader’s comprehension and understanding. Skillful readers often ask themselves (consciously or unconsciously) the following questions as they read: How is this like or unlike something I know or have experienced? How can I connect the ideas here to other texts I have read? How is this text (and the ideas presented in it) useful or relevant to me?

40 What Skilled Readers Do While They Read:
Make predictions: From the moment a skilled reader picks up a text, they start making predictions about it. They look at such things as the title, table of contents, dedication, number of pages, font size, photographs, commentary on the back or book jacket, etc. They begin to make predictions about the contents, quality and their initial reactions to the text. As their reading progresses, they continue to check and revise their initial reactions and predictions.

41 What Skilled Readers Do While They Read:
Visualize: One of the most powerful tools that skilled readers develop is their ability to visualize what they are reading. While reading a fictional text they may create a mental picture of the setting, imagine how the characters look, in short, and immerse themselves in the visual world of the story. In a nonfiction text that is abstract in nature, the reader may create visual symbols, concept webs, or mind maps that help him/her to keep track of the information and organize it.

42 What Skilled Readers Do While They Read:
Ask questions: Good readers make a habit of asking questions while they read. They ask questions about the text, the writer, their own responses, opinions, and reactions to the reading. There may be questions that probe deeper for understanding, but they may simply be questions that voice the reader’s internal confusion and need for clarity. When explicitly taught, this is a skill that often will shock some of your less-skilled readers; they often think that it is time to stop reading when they become confused, assuming that good readers never get confused. It is powerful for them to see/hear someone work through their confusion.

43 What Skilled Readers Do While They Read:
Monitor understanding and summarize: Skillful readers carry an “invisible suitcase” of information with them as they read a text. Along the way, they drop important ideas into the case to help them make sense of the text. When something doesn’t make sense they unpack it and take a closer look. They review those collected items at various points in the reading to move toward understanding, synthesis and evaluation of the text.

44 What Skilled Readers Do While They Read:
Apply what has been learned: Both during and after the reading, skillful readers are constantly asking themselves: How can I use this information? What does this story mean to me? How can I apply this in my own life? Is this relevant to other situations or circumstances? When students are reading a text to fulfill the demands of a task or passage, they may keep the demands of the passage in mind and consider how they will apply information from the text to complete an assigned task. More generally, discovering how reading applies to our lives and the world around us is essential for engaging a reader in a text. We need to help our students discover the ways to reflect on how the reading “applies”.

45 Think-Aloud Wrap-Up The list of skills that readers do automatically is quite long. Don’t be intimidated by this. Just talk through your reasoning with students. It will have a powerful impact on their reading.

46 How To’s: Vocabulary Tasks
“I HAVE…WHO HAS” Rebus Word Maps

47 “I HAVE…WHO HAS” Purpose: To familiarize students with WASL vocabulary. Students need to have an understanding of the words and their meaning to apply their reading skills to the assessment. Before starting you should hand out the vocabulary cards to students. If you have a small group they will have multiple cards to keep track of. Choose a student at random to begin. They will read the part of their card starting with “Who Has” and then they will pair up with the “I Have” portion as quickly as possible. Then the next person will take their turn until everyone is paired up. (If space is limited or students have multiple cards you may choose to not have students pair up. Getting up and moving for the kinesthetic piece is important). Students who have the focus vocabulary for the week must use their word in a WASL example sentence. *When you are using the PowerPoint, if your computer has internet access, you can click on the clock to open a link where you can use a stopwatch to time students. It can be very motivating to them to try and beat their time. You may do this activity week-by-week or combine weeks. The Teacher Edition is set-up to allow for a variety of printing options.

48 Rebus Purpose: Many ancient writing systems used the Rebus principle to represent abstract words, which otherwise would be hard to represent by pictograms. An example that illustrates the Rebus principle is the representation of the sentence “I can see you” by using the pictographs of “eye - can – sea – ewe”. We will be using this activity to show students another way to think.

49 Word Maps Word maps and charts help students expand word meaning and discover relationships between vocabulary terms (Santa, Havens, & Valdes, 2004). They also help students develop elaborate definitions, rather than simple one or two word descriptions. Many students have a narrow concept of what the meaning of a word encompasses. Most conceive of definitions as simplistic, imprecise statements that lack elaboration and personal comment. Word maps help students create a broader concept of a definition, one that encourages them to integrate their own knowledge (Santa et. Al., 2004). By teaching word learning strategies over a period of time, students are provided a way to learn vocabulary independently.

50 How To’s: Review Games The review activities are included to allow students to review while having a little fun. Summer school is rough, and if we can include some time to relax a little, then students will be better prepared in the long run. Student Millionaire: To play Millionaire simply keep clicking. Click once for the question, twice for the answer choices, and a third time for the answer to be revealed. Jeeparty: Open the Jeeparty PowerPoint. Begin the PowerPoint as a slide show. To play: click on a point value. An answer will appear. Students have to give the question that goes with the answer. Click again to see another phrased question. Click the screen again to go back to the main screen with all point values and repeat the process. *Note: The point value will disappear after another point value is selected. For some reason there is a delay with the already completed point values disappearing.

51 How To’s: Wrap-Up Activitiy
At the end of each day students will have a Wrap-Up activity. Students will be given questions to reflect on for class discussion. Some days the discussion will happen on the same day and other days it will be carried over for the next day. This is indicated in the teacher notes.

52 How To’s: Extension Activities There are two extension activity possibilities for the 4 Week plan. The most basic is simple independent reading with journaling and the more complex are COE Tasks. Choose one option for your 4 Week Plan. *Note that the PowerPoints and training materials are designed for the COE option. If you are choosing the reading and journaling option simply skip the COE slides.

53 Independent Reading and Journaling
This is a straightforward activity where students read and reflect on their reading. It is recommended that students are given a minimum of twenty minutes each day to read independently and an additional five- ten minutes to journal about their reading. This is a nice way for students to use the reading strategies they have been working on in their journal responses.

54 Collection of Evidence (COE)
Collection of Evidence (COE) is a collection of student work that demonstrates their reading skills much like the WASL. It is another way for students to show proficiency to meet the graduation requirement in reading. These extension tasks are included to allow students additional practice with WASL items and vocabulary and to get them started on a COE in case they do not meet standard on the Reading WASL. These six samples may get a student started, but do not make up a whole collection.

55 Prepare Yourself As you go through the scoring process each week with students you will become more comfortable. To familiarize yourself with the materials, go to each week and open the documents. Print materials and put them in a binder for quick reference. View each PowerPoint before using it to make your own notes and to become familiar with how they work.


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