Presentation on theme: "AP B IOLOGY 12 L ABS What is the main concept of each lab?"— Presentation transcript:
AP B IOLOGY 12 L ABS What is the main concept of each lab?
L AB 1: D IFFUSION AND O SMOSIS Semi-permeable membrane Must be small enough to fit through pores Transport proteins Active transport Glucose/Starch/Iodine 6 varying M of solutions placed in distilled water 1 piece of potato placed in 6 varying solutions % change = Final-initial/initial x 100
L AB 2: E NZYMES Speeds up reactions 2H 2 O 2 O 2 + 2H 2 O Catalase speeds up This lab measured the rate (what else to measure?) Disappearance of substrates or appearance of products Normally will have a maximum rate when all enzymes working Stopped enzyme by using acid to denature Could use salinity or temp Disrupts 4*, 3* or 2* bonds, esp the active site KMNO 4 was an indicator pink meant no more H 2 O 2
L AB 3: M ITOSIS AND M EIOSIS Onion root cells b/c dividing rapidly (div/elong/maturation, meristem, etc) Counted # of cells to determine longest part of cell cycle Interphase (G1, S, G2) vs. Mitosis (PMAT) and Cyotkinesis Meiosis = reduce chromosome # and increase variation Sordaria = fungi with sexual spores that show c.o. Measure rates by comparing %
L AB 4: P IGMENTS AND P HOTOSYNTHESIS Pigments = proteins that use light energy to excited e- Primary = chlorophyll a/b Secondary = accessory = carotenoids = beta carotene and xanthophyll Separate using chromatography (paper and solvent, gas) Physical properties such as size, mass, polarity Rf value = distance pigment/ distance solvent Light rxns = capturing of light energy into electron carriers to be used to fix carbon Normally NADP, substitute DPIP (must be more…) Measure effect if (no light, boiled, combinations) Heat sink to remove light Spectrophotometer measures light passing through DPIP becomes more clear as it gets reduced
L AB 5: R ESPIRATION In PEAS!! Dry, germinating, beads C 6 H1 2 O 6 + 60 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP Measure consumption or production Respirometer KOH removes CO 2 Gas laws PV=nRT Loss of gas means decreased pressure water moved in Dont forget anaerobic
L AB 6: M OLECULAR B IOLOGY Transformation Taking up of foreign genes into host (bacteria) Requires restriction enzymes to cleave DNA, ligase to reseal Source = bacterial protection from invading viruses Use same restriction enzyme Need vector (plasmid) Heat shock to get plasmid in, CaCl 2 to attract Grow on restrictive media to test Gel Electrophoresis Compare DNA samples (could require PCR if sample is small) Enzymes cut at sites that are unique RFLPs Separate based on size using gel with pores Use electricity as force Buffer to prevent damage
L AB 7: G ENETICS Examine offspring to determine pattern of inheritance Dom/rec, Codom, Incompl, Sex-linked, Multiple Alleles P 1, F 1, F 2 Make predicitions Red x white (two options) Red x red Are you statistically correct?
L AB 8: E VOLUTION Is evolution occuring? Hardy-Weinberg p+q = 1, p 2 +2pq+q 2 =1 Are allele values staying constant? Also help determine % of genotypes If occuring: Gene flow, gene drift, natural selection, mutation, non-random mating H-Ws conditions Heterozygote Advantage a never disappears Black is recessive to pink. Can you count the # of recessive alleles?
Lab 9: Transpiration Structures and Adaptations Lab 10: Circulatory Different heart rates and bp PQRS wave Ecto/Endo Lab 11: Animal Behavior Innate vs. Learned Design Experiment Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen and Primary Production DO varies according to temp, other dissolved nutrients Represents biological processes (photo and resp) Photo = produce O 2 and produce food = primary productivity Gross (amount available + whatever was consumed) Net (amount available) Light, existing, dark
L AB 9: T RANSPIRATION Description test the effects of environmental factors on rate of transpiration temperature humidity air flow (wind) light intensity
L AB 9: T RANSPIRATION Concepts transpiration stomates guard cells xylem adhesion cohesion H bonding
L AB 9: T RANSPIRATION Conclusions transpiration wind light transpiration humidity
L AB 10: C IRCULATORY P HYSIOLOGY Description study factors that affect heart rate body position level of activity determine whether an organism is an endotherm or an ectotherm by measuring change in pulse rate as temperature changes Daphnia
L AB 10: C IRCULATORY P HYSIOLOGY Concepts thermoregulation endotherm ectotherm Q 10 measures increase in metabolic activity resulting from increase in body temperature Daphnia can adjust their temperature to the environment, as temperature in environment increases, their body temperature also increases which increases their heart rate
L AB 10: C IRCULATORY P HYSIOLOGY Conclusions Activity increase heart rate in a fit individual pulse & blood pressure are lower & will return more quickly to resting condition after exercise than in a less fit individual Pulse rate changes in an ectotherm as external temperature changes
L AB 11: A NIMAL B EHAVIOR Description set up an experiment to study behavior in an organism Betta fish agonistic behavior Drosophila mating behavior pillbug kinesis
L AB 11: A NIMAL B EHAVIOR Concepts innate vs. learned behavior experimental design control vs. experimental hypothesis choice chamber temperature humidity light intensity salinity other factors
L AB 11: A NIMAL B EHAVIOR Hypothesis development Poor: I think pillbugs will move toward the wet side of a choice chamber. Better: If pillbugs prefer a moist environment, then when they are randomly placed on both sides of a wet/dry choice chamber and allowed to move about freely for 10 minutes, most will be found on the wet side.
L AB 11: A NIMAL B EHAVIOR Experimental design s ample size
L AB 12: D ISSOLVED O XYGEN Dissolved O 2 availability
Description measure primary productivity by measuring O 2 production factors that affect amount of dissolved O 2 temperature as water temperature, its ability to hold O 2 decreases photosynthetic activity in bright light, aquatic plants produce more O 2 decomposition activity as organic matter decays, microbial respiration consumes O 2 mixing & turbulence wave action, waterfalls & rapids aerate H 2 O & O 2 salinity as water becomes more salty, its ability to hold O 2 decreases
L AB 12: D ISSOLVED O XYGEN Concepts dissolved O 2 primary productivity measured in 3 ways: amount of CO 2 used rate of sugar (biomass) formation rate of O 2 production net productivity vs. gross productivity respiration
L AB 12: D ISSOLVED O XYGEN Conclusions temperature = dissolved O 2 light = photosynthesis = O 2 production O 2 loss from respiration respiration = dissolved O 2 (consumption of O 2 )
Graphing!! Good titles, Good labels, Good units Extrapolation of data Design Control, limited variable, designated IV, DV Prediction of data