Presentation on theme: "1. 2 Vocabulary Growth in reading power means, therefore, continuous enriching and enlarging of the reading vocabulary and increasing clarity of discrimination."— Presentation transcript:
2 Vocabulary Growth in reading power means, therefore, continuous enriching and enlarging of the reading vocabulary and increasing clarity of discrimination in appreciation of word values. National Society for Studies in Education Yearbook (1925)
3 Be the Learner §With your Partner, determine the meaning of this sentence. Discuss how word meaning affected your comprehension of the sentence. §Paula put down her pirn, wrapped herself in a paduasoy, and entered puerperium.
4 Differences in Students Vocabulary Children enter school with meaningful differences in vocabulary knowledge. (Hart & Risley, 1995)
5 Cumulative Experiences (Hart & Risley, 1995)
6 Vocabulary Gap \Children who enter school with limited vocabulary knowledge grow more discrepant over time from their peers who have a rich vocabulary knowledge (Baker, Simmons, &Kameenui, 1997). \The number of words students learn varies greatly 2 vs. 8 words per day 750 vs words per year High SES first graders know twice as many words as lower SES. (Graves & Slater, 1987) ELL students learn conversation English in less than 2 years, but may require 3-5 years to catch up with monolingual peers in academic vocabulary (CALPS)
7 What are the Benefits of Vocabulary Instruction §Leads to gains in comprehension §Increases effective communication §Has long term impact on powers of communication and concept development
8 What Does This Mean For My Teaching? §Direct instruction §Repetition and multiple exposure §Words useful in many contexts §Active engagement §Multiple instructional methods §Definition based methods are ineffective (Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986)
9 How Do We Teach It §Implicit l Oral language engagement l Reading to, with and by adults or peers l Independent reading §Explicit l Engagement in literature-rich context l Repeated/ Multiple exposure l Word Learning Strategies
10 Gaining Vocabulary from Reading Books
11 Integrate vocabulary with the lesson. Use explicit instruction on a limited number of new vocabulary words. Create environments were words are talked about and used in multiple ways. Use new vocabulary in other content areas. Teach independent word learning strategies. Critical Features of Effective Vocabulary Instruction
12 Encourage wide reading. Provide multiple exposure to words (at least 10). Combine definition and context approaches. Make connections with background knowledge and new vocabulary. Present words in semantically related groups. Instruction on words parts, word association and connotative meaning is important. Critical Features of Effective Vocabulary Instruction
13 Which Words Should We Teach? All the unknown words in the story Words that can be understood through background knowledge High Utility Words Words that define the concept Concept Explicit Instruction Broad range of reading, multiple exposure to previously taught vocabulary words and Implicit instruction 5-10 words per week
14 Choosing Vocabulary §Tier One Words- Basic words that can be defined or associated while reading the text. §Tier Two Words- High Utility words that can be specific to a content area or purpose of instruction. These should be words that define the concept or that students are likely to encounter again and again. §Tier Three Words - low frequency words used in limited content areas that would not interrupt the flow of the concept if not defined.
15 Select words that: 1. Are unknown to students. 2. Are important to understanding the text. 3. Likely to be encountered in the future. 4. Decide which of the words need explicit instruction, practice, and review. (No more than 10 a week.) 5.Tell students the meaning of other words.
16 Choosing Vocabulary §With your grade level team choose the Houghton Mifflin outline and story to decide the following. l Are they High Utility /Tier Two Words? If not, which words would be? l Which words could I teach using the context of the story or background knowledge? l Which words do I need to teach explicitly?
17 VOCABULARY STRATEGIES §WORD PARTS l Morphemic analysis l Word relatedness §WORD ASSOCIATIONS l Word association mapping l Illustrate & associate l Keyword method l Synonym & antonym webs §CONTEXT l Read alouds & questioning l Redefinition l Meaningful sentence generation l Clunk bug §CONCEPT l Frayer model l Concept definition mapping l List-group-label §CATEGORIZATION l Word form chart l Word map l Word sorts l Word books l Word hunts
18 WORD Parts + Meaning Your Sentence Using the Word Morphemic Analysis of Word Parts Map WORD PARTS
19 WORD RELATEDNESS §Prefixes §Suffixes §Root Words RESTRUCTURING RESTRUCTUREING WORD PARTS
20 WORD ASSOCIATION MAP synonymantonym Vocabulary word analogy as WORD ASSOCIATIONS
21 ILLUSTRATE AND ASSOCIATE Vocabulary WordPicture of Word Brief DefinitionAntonym/Nonexample Create your personal sentence WORD ASSOCIATIONS
22 SYNONYM WEB WORD ASSOCIATIONS
23 Read Alouds &Gaining New Vocabulary Adapted from Bringing Words to Life, by Beck,McKeown, Kucan, 2002 §Why do Read Alouds? §Steps of an intentional Read Aloud 1 Select words for direct instruction. 2 Read the story. 3 Contextualize the word within the story. 4 Have children say the word. 5 Provide a student - friendly explanation of the word. CONTEXT
24 CONTEXT Read Alouds (continued) l Present examples of the word used in contexts different from the story. l Engage Children in activities Generate Examples Answer Questions/Giving Reasons Choices (Examples and Non-examples) that get them to interact wit the words l Have children say the word l Review vocabulary Post the book cover and the words Incorporate words into daily language
25 CLUNK BUG CLUNK WORD Definition: haversack The haversack, a canvas shoulder bag that holds rations, is an important supply for a hiker. Canvas bag Holds food Important supply A sturdy bag that you carry food in when you go hiking. CONTEXT
26 FRAYER MODEL WORD Essential CharacteristicsNon-essential Characteristics ExamplesNon-examples morpheme Smallest unit of meaning. pre-, un-, dis-, -ing, -ies, -er free or bound phoneme (ie: u,t,c,e) Vowel sounds CONCEPT
27 CONCEPT DEFINITION MAP What is it? (Definition) The Word What are some examples? What is it like? CONCEPT
29 WORD MAP AntonymDefinition Synonym Expression or Association New word & page number Another form Sentence from the book My original sentence miracle An amazing thing that seems impossible. miraculous impossible Everyone thought the web was a miracle. It was a miracle that Anita found her way home. phenomenonordinary CATEGORIZATION
30 Considerations for Special Education and ELL learners. §Special education l Many students have language delays that impact vocabulary acquisition l Restructuring of text may be needed Simplified version of the content is given so that the student may focus on gaining a new concept or information. Restructuring is a secondary, compensating strategy.
31 Special Education §Use Explicit instruction- l Model, generalize and apply to wider setting. Example/Non example Synonyms Definition Elaboration Context
32 English Language Learners §Visually present words §Define them in kid friendly terms §Use gestures to infer meaning §Use visual techniques (vocabulary folder) §Control the number of new word at one time (Rosseau, Tam, Ramnarain, 1993)
33 Choosing Vocabulary §With your grade level team use the Houghton Mifflin outline and story to decide the following. l Which Implicit strategies would I use? l Which Explicit Strategies would I use? l Are any lessons in the HM appropriate for instruction? l What type of review or extended practice would I incorporate? l Which GLE or EALR does it match?