Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary instruction has a major role in improving comprehension"— Presentation transcript:
1 Vocabulary instruction has a major role in improving comprehension Vocabulary instruction has a major role in improving comprehension. Here are some important things to remember.Vocabulary impacts all content areas, and needs to be taught explicitly in each area.The importance of vocabulary knowledge to school success is widely documented.Studies from the Johnson Research Center show that professional positions and vocabulary levels are connected. ( Meaning the CEO has a broader more diversified vocabulary than a department manager.)Equipping the learner with multiple strategies to gain meaning of words is essential.
2 National Society for Studies in Education Yearbook (1925) Vocabulary“Growth in reading power means, therefore, continuous enriching and enlarging of the reading vocabulary and increasing clarity of discrimination in appreciation of word values.”National Society for Studies in Education Yearbook (1925)“A reader must a be able to understand the vocabulary in order to access comprehension of a passage.” ( Anita Archer)“ Good vocabulary teaching makes students excited about words and leads them to attend more closely to them.” (Stahl &Sheil, 1999)
3 Be the LearnerWith your Partner, determine the meaning of this sentence. Discuss how word meaning affected your comprehension of the sentence.Paula put down her pirn, wrapped herself in a paduasoy, and entered puerperium.Number the audience using the 1-2s strategy.Have them read the sentence and try to define what Paula was doing with the background knowledge, decoding skills and understanding of prefixes and suffixes.Pirn-large hand cranked spinning wheel used to fillshuttle bobbinspaduasoy- shawlpuerperium-The state of a woman during childbirth or immediately there after.
4 Differences in Students’ Vocabulary Children enter school with “meaningful differences” in vocabulary knowledge. (Hart & Risley, 1995)ActivityHave staff try and predict the number of words in each column. If using overhead cover the column with the word count. The PP will enter each word with a mouse click.Use the 1-2 strategy- have 1’s tell 2’s how many for Professional families and then 2’s tell 1’s have them come to an agreed number for welfare families.
5 Cumulative Experiences Point out the total cumulative words students are exposed to before they enter kindergarten and then have 1-2’s discuss the overall impact this would have on the child’s learning. Trainers are moving around the room listening to ideas. After a few minutes have each trainer share one thing they heard.Guiding question for discussion- Why is this important for us to know as educators?Without this understanding we may be inadvertently gauging our instruction to the wrong level of student need.(Hart & Risley, 1995)
6 Vocabulary GapChildren who enter school with limited vocabulary knowledge grow more discrepant over time from their peers who have a rich vocabulary knowledge (Baker, Simmons, &Kame’enui, 1997).The number of words students learn varies greatly2 vs. 8 words per day750 vs words per yearHigh SES first graders know twice as many words as lower SES. (Graves & Slater, 1987)Highlight the key findings- much of this is highlighted in the Ruby Paine work on the Culture of Poverty.Early intervention is the key. Traditional definition copying instruction of vocabulary has shown little evidence of successfully changing these statistics.Research has indicated that there has been limited success in closing this Vocabulary Gap -BUT this research has been based on traditional instructional methods that focus on definition and not on gaining deep meaning and understanding of a word. (Paraphrased from Bringing Words to Life, Beck, McKeown & Kucan)ELL students learn conversation English in less than 2 years, but may require 3-5 years to catch up with monolingual peers in academic vocabulary (CALPS)
7 What are the Benefits of Vocabulary Instruction Leads to gains in comprehensionIncreases effective communicationHas long term impact on powers of communication and concept development*Oral vocabulary is used by beginning readers to help them make sense of the words they see in print.Readers must know what most of the words mean before they can understand what they are reading.* Deep word knowledge allows a speaker, writer or reader to express a concept or idea at multiple levels of understanding.
8 What Does This Mean For My Teaching? Direct instructionRepetition and multiple exposureWords useful in many contextsActive engagementMultiple instructional methodsDefinition based methods are ineffective (Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986)Elaboration- Please fill ideas of how you could personalize examples for each.*There is a need for direct instruction*Repetition and multiple exposure to vocabulary are important.*Words need to be those the learner will find useful in many contexts.*Vocabulary learning is effective when it is used with active engagement.*Dependence on a single instructional method will not result in optimallearning.*Definition based methods of teaching vocabulary are often ineffective. (Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986)
9 How Do We Teach It Explicit Implicit Engagement in literature-rich contextRepeated/ Multiple exposureWord Learning StrategiesImplicitOral language engagementReading to, with and by adults or peersIndependent readingThe focus of this page is to understand that vocabulary must be a blend of both explicit and implicit instruction. Using only one format would not give students a broad enough base for vocabulary development.Elaboration- Please fill ideas of how you could personalize examples for each.Engagement in literature rich context-Repeated/multiple exposure-Oral language development-
10 Gaining Vocabulary from Reading Books Read before showing slide.“The best way to foster vocabulary growth is to promote wide reading.”( Anderson, 1992)One skill that can directly affect vocabulary acquisition is to continue an expectation that is already common in classrooms: having students read outside the class day.Have staff predict on a post it what the numbers for 2, 10 would be then reveal. Repeat for 50, 70 and then 90, 98.“It must be acknowledged that relying on wide reading for vocabulary growth adds to the inequities in individual differences in vocabulary knowledge.” (Beck, McKeown,Kucan, 2002)Guiding question- How can we provide opportunities to make sure students are becoming voracious readers?
11 Critical Features of Effective Vocabulary Instruction Integrate vocabulary with the lesson.Use explicit instruction on a limited number of new vocabulary words.Create environments were words are talked about and used in multiple ways.Use new vocabulary in other content areas.Teach independent word learning strategies.126.96.36.199.2. These words need to be high frequency and words that relate to the central idea of the lesson. This could be done through the use of a student friendly definition , synonym or association.3&4. Ongoing use of words walls and making words are two ways that you can integrate practice and review of words learned in vocabulary instruction.5. The long term goal is to equip students with multiple strategies for understanding text.5.
12 Critical Features of Effective Vocabulary Instruction Encourage wide reading.Provide multiple exposure to words (at least 10).Combine definition and context approaches.Make connections with background knowledge and new vocabulary.Present words in semantically related groups.Instruction on words parts, word association and connotative meaning is important.188.8.131.52.7. Students need to be exposed to a word in print at least 10 times for it to become integrated into their vocabulary.8. Definitions need to be in kid friendly terms, not dictionary terms.10. Using semantic groups gives students a broader understanding of more words.10.11.
13 Which Words Should We Teach? All the unknown words in the storyBroad range of reading, multiple exposure to previously taught vocabulary words and Implicit instructionWords that can be understood through background knowledgeHigh Utility WordsExplicit InstructionThe focus of this slide is to represent the process of selecting vocabulary words from a text. You can choose to use a book to illustrate this process. If you are using an overhead cover each section and reveal it in order.Vocabulary knowledge should guide instructional technique. Which level a word is placed at depends on the intention of the instruction, the learners prior experiences, knowledge and overall vocabulary. Content area also impacts what level a word may be for instruction.5-10 words per weekWords that define the conceptConcept
14 Choosing VocabularyTier One Words- Basic words that can be defined or associated while reading the text.Tier Two Words- High Utility words that can be specific to a content area or purpose of instruction. These should be words that define the concept or that students are likely to encounter again and again.Tier Three Words - low frequency words used in limited content areas that would not interrupt the flow of the concept if not defined.Based on the text/content/ concept you are teaching:Tier One words can have a quick verbal association made to explain them that will not interrupt the flow of content. For example- The little pig lived in a hut. A hut is a type of house.Tier Three words may be specific to a content area and are used in a limited manner. Like Tier One words they can be given a quick verbal explanation.Example: The pig lived in a hut with a veranda. A veranda a is a type of porch.The learner would interact with Tier Two words again in many texts.They are words that define the concept or main idea. In order to gain a deep understanding of these words direct instruction using many strategies is necessary. For a learner to gain full conceptual knowledge of a word and use it at multiple levels it must be viewed and interacted with repeatedly.
15 Select words that: 1. Are unknown to students. 2. Are important to understanding the text.3. Likely to be encountered in the future.4. Decide which of the words need explicit instruction, practice, and review. (No more than 10 a week.)5.Tell students the meaning of other words.Model using a book- Example Polar Expresshissing, rustle , conductor, express, sleigh, icecapConductor and sleigh are two words I would pick because they are likely to encounter these again.
16 Choosing VocabularyWith your grade level team choose the Houghton Mifflin outline and story to decide the following.Are they High Utility /Tier Two Words? If not, which words would be?Which words could I teach using the context of the story or background knowledge?Which words do I need to teach explicitly?Have participants move into grade level groups of no more than 5. Handout the story and outline for each grade level. Support staff can join grade level teams. Give them minutes to answer the listed questions. Have them list the words they choose and mark which ones they would use for direct instruction.Guiding questions for sharing out:How did you decide these were High utility words?How did you differentiate between words that you would teach in context and direct instruction?SAVE THE STORY- YOU WILL USE IT AGAIN AS A CULMINATING ACTIVITY AFTER LEARNING THE STRATEGIES.
17 VOCABULARY STRATEGIES WORD PARTSMorphemic analysisWord relatednessWORD ASSOCIATIONSWord association mappingIllustrate & associateKeyword methodSynonym & antonym websCONTEXTRead alouds & questioningRedefinitionMeaningful sentence generationClunk bugCONCEPTFrayer modelConcept definition mappingList-group-labelCATEGORIZATIONWord form chartWord mapWord sortsWord booksWord huntsThe strategies for teaching vocabulary are separated into five categories:Word partsWord associationsContextConceptsCategorizationThese categories will be the focus of the “application” portion of the presentation and will feature specific classroom activities in each category. In the handout section further information on the other activities will be provided.
18 Morphemic Analysis of Word Parts Map Parts + MeaningThe Morphemic Analysis of Word Parts Map requires students to take multisyllabic words and break them into meaningful parts. Students should discuss the meaning of each part and decide the meaning of the new word in its entirety. Then, students should use the word in their own sentence.Your Sentence Using the Word
19 WORD RELATEDNESS Prefixes Suffixes Root Words RESTRUCTURING RE WORD PARTSWORD RELATEDNESSPrefixesSuffixesRoot WordsKnowing some common prefixes and suffixes, base words and root words can help students learn the meaning of many new words.Prefixes are relatively easy to learn because they have clear meanings, and they are usually spelled the same way. If students learn just the four most common prefixes they will have important clues about the meaning of about 2/3 of all English words that have prefixes. Suffixes are slightly more difficult yet still yield helpful aid to word meanings.Looping Strategy:Display word on boardUnderline the vowel, identifying the root wordUnderline the prefixUnderline the suffixDiscuss the individual parts and their meanings then brainstorm whole word meaning.RESTRUCTURINGRESTRUCTUREING
20 WORD ASSOCIATION MAP synonym antonym Vocabulary word analogy as WORD ASSOCIATIONSsynonymantonymVocabulary wordanalogyThis strategy taps students’ association and comprehension processing levels. It is intended to help students identify synonyms, antonyms, and analogies for key vocabulary that has been identified for instruction. Word associations, particularly analogies, can be challenging for students. First, introduce analogies using simple concepts. Second, select analogies that initially use synonyms and antonyms and whole-part/part-whole associations. Third, model analogy completion by thinking-aloud, so that students learn the rationale for the word chosen to complete the analogy.Partner Activity:Have the 1’s select a word from one of the books on the table that would be considered either a tier-one or tier-two word and then complete the “map”. When finished they will share the word association map with their learning partner.as
21 ILLUSTRATE AND ASSOCIATE WORD ASSOCIATIONSILLUSTRATE AND ASSOCIATEVocabulary WordPicture of WordBrief DefinitionAntonym/NonexampleThis strategy is intended to help students learn vocabulary words through a visual association (picture), an antonym or a nonexample of the word, and a sentence that uses the vocabulary word to convey a personal meaning. This involves a more concrete connection to the vocabulary words, which can create more meaning than dictionary definitions.Partner Activity:Have the 2’s select a word from one of the books on the table and complete the Illustrate & Associate chart. When finished they will share the chart with their designated learning partner.Create your personal sentence
22 SYNONYM WEBWORD ASSOCIATIONSOften students are taught that synonyms are words that have the same meaning. This isn’t exactly true, however. Synonyms have similar meanings, allowing us to express the same idea in a variety of ways. With this strategy students brainstorm and use a thesaurus to identify various synonyms. Then the teacher works with the students to determine which words go together. This requires the students to demonstrate an understanding of how the meanings of the words are related. Finally the words are connected on a web to show their relationship.
23 CONTEXTRead Alouds &Gaining New Vocabulary Adapted from Bringing Words to Life, by Beck,McKeown, Kucan, 2002Why do Read Alouds?Steps of an intentional Read AloudSelect words for direct instruction.Read the story.Contextualize the word within the story.Have children say the word.Provide a student - friendly explanation of the word.Use the following statements for the Why Do Read Alouds.Listening to a book being read can significantly improve a child expressive Vocabulary.(Nicholson &Whyte, 1992: Senechal &Cornell, 1993)Children acquire vocabulary when provided with a little explanation as novel words are encountered. (Beck, Perfetti,&McKeon, 1982:Elley, 1989)Stories should attract and hold children's attention.(Elley, 1989)Active participation during a storybook reading impacts learning. (Dickerson &Smith, 1994:Senechal, 1997)Walk through the steps on this and the next slide and then Model a Read Aloud
24 Read Alouds (continued) CONTEXTPresent examples of the word used in contexts different from the story.Engage Children in activitiesGenerate ExamplesAnswer Questions/Giving ReasonsChoices (Examples and Non-examples) that get them to interact wit the wordsHave children say the wordReview vocabularyPost the book cover and the wordsIncorporate words into daily languageSee hand out for more detail on each step.
25 A sturdy bag that you carry food in when you go hiking. CONTEXTCLUNK BUGCanvas bagDefinition:CLUNK WORDA sturdy bag that you carry food in when you go hiking.Important supplyHolds foodhaversackThe Clunk Bug strategy requires students to identify the vocabulary word and to search the sentence in which the word is located for clues to the word’s meaning. Students use the clues to construct their own definition of the word.Strategy steps:Write vocabulary word on the back of the bug.Look for clues about its meaning from the words in the sentence.Take some of the key words from the rest of the sentence and write them on the legs of the bug.Not all the legs have to be filled up.Write student sentence for the meaning of the word in the definition box.Bugs can used to create a “Clunk Bug” word wall.The haversack, a canvas shoulder bag that holds rations, is an important supply for a hiker.
26 FRAYER MODEL Smallest unit of meaning. Vowel sounds “free” or “bound” CONCEPTFRAYER MODELEssential CharacteristicsNon-essential CharacteristicsSmallest unit of meaning.Vowel sounds“free” or “bound”WORDmorphemeExamplesNon-examplesThe Frayer Model is a word categorization activity. Using this model, students analyze a word’s essential and nonessential attributes and also refine their understanding by choosing examples and non-examples of the concept. In order to understand completely what a concept is, one must also know what it isn’t. This version works well with younger children.How to use the model:Assign the concept or word being studied.Explain all of the attributes of the model to be completed.Complete the model with the class.Have students work in pairs and complete their model.Once the diagram is complete, have students share their work with other students.pre-, un-, dis-, -ing, -ies, -erphoneme(ie: u,t,c,e)
27 CONCEPT DEFINITION MAP What is it like?What is it? (Definition)The WordThis strategy teaches students the meaning of key concepts. Concept Definition Maps are graphic organizers that help students understand the essential attributes, qualities or characteristics of a word’s meaning. Students must describe what the concept is, as well as what it isn’t and cite examples of it. This process gives students a more thorough understanding of what the concept means, includes, and implies. The mapping process also aids recall. How to use it:Display an example of a concept definition map.Discuss the questions that a definition should answer:What is it? What broader category or classification of things does it fit into?What is it like? What are its essential characteristics? What makes it different from other things in the same category?What are some examples of it?3. Model how to use by selecting a familiar vocabulary term.4. Select another familiar term, and have students volunteer information for a map.5. Have students work in pairs to complete a map for a concept in their current unit of study.6. After completing the map, have students write a definition of the concept, using information from the map.7. As a unit progresses, encourage students to refine their maps as they learn additional characteristics and examples.What are some examples?
28 SEMANTIC FEATURE ANALYSIS CATEGORIZATIONSEMANTIC FEATURE ANALYSISpolygonsCONCEPT:polygonsopposite sides parallelequilateral4 sided3 sidedsquarerectangletriangleSemantic Features Analysis helps students discern a term’s meaning by comparing its features to those of other terms that fall into the same category or class. When students have completed a semantic feature matrix, they have a visual reminder of how certain terms are alike or different. Students find that the matrix provides a good summary of concept features.How to use:Select a concrete concept.List key vocabulary terms along the left side.Across the top, supply the features that these words might share.Students then place an “X” to indicate if the feature applies to the vocabulary word.Students then explain the rationale to the markings. The explaining and listening to others’ the reasoning enhances their understanding.The students’ understanding deepens as students examine the terms’ similarities and differences.rhombus
29 WORD MAP ordinary phenomenon An amazing thing that seems impossible. CATEGORIZATIONSynonymAntonymDefinitionordinaryphenomenonAn amazing thing that seems impossible.New word & page numberExpression or AssociationAnother formimpossiblemiraculousmiracleThis map is very thorough and utilizes many aspects of quality vocabulary development. When considering the development and grade level of your students it can be simplified by reducing the number of options.Complete the map in this orderNew word in center bubble.Original sentence from book.Dictionary definitionSynonym and Antonym (non-example)Another form of the word (essential for the learning of morphological features and structural analysis)Student’s unique association which personally engages the studentStudent creates a sentence using the new word.Sentence from the bookEveryone thought the web was a miracle.My original sentenceIt was a miracle that Anita found her way home.
30 Considerations for Special Education and ELL learners. Many students have language delays that impact vocabulary acquisitionRestructuring of text may be neededSimplified version of the content is given so that the student may focus on gaining a new concept or information.Restructuring is a secondary, compensating strategy.Special Education students’ needs may be broader than any other instructional group. Students may have mixed needs including limited exposure to words, ELL concerns, dyslexia, syntax, receptive language and articulation problems.One method of getting to content is to provide the student a simplified version of the text with difficult high utility words exchanged for simpler forms. This is a good secondary strategy BUT should not take the place of vocabulary instruction. Instead this can be a compensating strategy while the student gains a higher level of vocabulary.
31 Special Education Use Explicit instruction- Model, generalize and apply to wider setting.Example/Non exampleSynonymsDefinitionElaborationContextThis model is based on Reading Strategies and Activities: A Resource Book for Students at Risk for Reading Difficulties, Including Dyslexia , from the Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. It can be downloaded and copied from the site.Each area (Example, synonyms…) is taught in a 3 lesson model with initial instruction the strategy, review, and expansion of the strategy.
32 English Language Learners Visually present wordsDefine them in kid friendly termsUse gestures to infer meaningUse visual techniques (vocabulary folder)Control the number of new word at one timeCarefully select vocabulary words for explicit instruction.Use short frequent segments of class time directly teaching vocabulary- Say the word, write it on the board defines it with picture, demonstrations and examples, ask students to say it and write it. (Echevarria, 1998)Pre-teach critical vocabulary before student reading.(Rosseau, Tam, Ramnarain, 1993)Show a model of a vocabulary folder.Active daily language use should be structured to include social language and classroom/academic language. (Gersten & Baker, 2000)(Rosseau, Tam, Ramnarain, 1993)
33 Choosing VocabularyWith your grade level team use the Houghton Mifflin outline and story to decide the following.Which Implicit strategies would I use?Which Explicit Strategies would I use?Are any lessons in the HM appropriate for instruction?What type of review or extended practice would I incorporate?Which GLE or EALR does it match?Have participants move back into grade level groups of no more than 5. Hand out the story and outline copy for each grade level. Give them minutes to answer the listed questions. Using the list of words they chose and marked have them answer the above listed questions.