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Introduction Chemistry: The study of matter and its changes Chemistry investigates and explains the sub-microscopic reasons for the what happens in the.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Chemistry: The study of matter and its changes Chemistry investigates and explains the sub-microscopic reasons for the what happens in the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Introduction Chemistry: The study of matter and its changes Chemistry investigates and explains the sub-microscopic reasons for the what happens in the macroscopic world!

3 Introduction Sub-microscopic understanding leads to understanding of the world around you: How does bleach remove stains? What causes and air bag to inflate? Why does DNA have a double helical structure? What makes a rose smell sweet and old fish smell awful?

4 Introduction How does radio-carbon dating tell how old a fossil is? What are electrolytes and why do sports drinks like Gatorade contain them? What happens to garbage in a landfill? Is it always better to use biodegradable materials?

5 Introduction Why should YOU study chemistry? Psychology English BSW/MSW Fine Arts Pre-Law Required for your college major Pre-med Pre-pharmacy Pre-dental Biology Geology Environmental Science Engineering Nursing

6 Introduction Chemistry is the foundation of other sciences Physics Biology Geology Astronomy Chemistry impacts our daily lives! Food, clothing and shelter Health care Environment Life itself

7 Measurement

8 Metric System ssecondTime K or o C Kelvin or degree celsius Temperature LliterVolume ggramMass mmeterLength Unit Symbol UnitQuantity

9 Prefixes ExampleMeans..SymbolPrefix cghundredthccenti- g millionth micro- kmthousandkkilo- mLthousandthmmilli- every student should know…

10 More prefixes… GAGgiga- MLmillionmega-M couldnt hurt to know these ones, too: thousand million ExampleMeans..SymbolPrefix

11 Benefits of the Metric System: Uses Decimal System International Standard The units relate to each other by using water as standard! (What does that mean?)

12 the units relate to each other… 1cm 3 = 1 mL therefore,(10cm) 3 = 1 L 1000 cm 3 = 1 L

13 …by using water as a standard: 1 kg H 2 O 1 L H 2 O (10 cm) 3 H 2 O 1000 cm 3 H 2 O 1g H 2 O 1 mL H 2 O

14 Volume is special because: Volume can be measured in liters (L), milliliters (mL), etc. s or…

15 OR… Volume can be measured in cubic meters (m 3 ) centimeters (cm 3 ), …..etc. Remember; 1 cm 3 = 1 mL 1 cm 3 = 1 mL

16 Remember any geometry? Volume of a cube is …. l x w x h i.e. 4cm x 5cm x 2cm = 40 cm 3 i.e. x (5cm) 2 x 10cm = 250 cm 3 Volume of a cylinder is …. r 2 h

17 Typically, mL or L are used to describe the volume of a liquid... …and cm 3 or m 3 are used to describe the volume of a regularly shaped solid.

18 Volume of a Rock… To find the volume of objects with weird shapes, use a technique called water displacement in this case,the volume of the solid may be in cm 3 or mL Remember: 1 cm 3 = 1 mL 1 cm 3 = 1 mL

19 Determining the Volume of an Irregularly Shaped Solid 22 mL 32 mL

20 Temperature is special because… We will sometimes use degrees celsius… …we sometimes will use kelvin. Absolute Zero Freezing Point of Water Body Temperature Boiling Point of Water -459 O 32 O 98 O 212 O F -273 o 0 O 37 O 100 O C KExample

21 Meters, Liters, Grams, Seconds…. These are units you should be familiar with. In chemistry,we will use math to do weird things to these nice units… …and turn them into units that are complex. Complex units like…. g/mL and kgm/s 2

22 Math with Units… 5 5 = 25 3m 4m = 4 kg 2 m/s 2 = 10 Latm ÷ 2 molK =5(Latm)/(molK) 8 kgm/s 2 12 m 2 Examples: 12m 2 ÷ 12m =1m

23 Example: Density Density is a property of matter. If you measure the mass and the volume of an object, you can calculate its density using the formula: (g) (mL) D = m/v Density = mass/volume So, the units of density must be…. g/mL

24 Complex Units come from a formula… Why is density measured in g/mL? Because the formula for density is (akagrams per milliliter) (notgee slash em-ell) m mass (in grams) g D = = v volume (in milliliters) mL

25 DENSITY StyrofoamBrick Brick is more dense than Styrofoam because there is more mass packed into the same volume (more molecules or atoms in the same space.)

26 SubstanceDensity (g/mL) Air0.0013g/mL Wood (Oak)0.80 g/mL Steel 7.80 g/mL Water 1.00 g/mL

27 Density of Gold: g/mL Silver: g/mL Aluminum: 2.70 g/mL Atoms of some elements are more dense than others.

28 DENSITY - an important and useful physical property 13.6 g/cm g/cm 3 Aluminum 2.7 g/cm 3 Platinum Mercury

29 Variations of the Density Formula: D = m/v v = m/D m = v D Dv m

30 Application: Calculate the density of a 57.9g sample of metal with a volume of 22.45mL.

31 Application: Calculate the mass of 4,800 mL of molten lead (density = 11.4g/mL)? What is the mass in kg?

32 Application: A camelbak backpack hold 1 kg of water. What is the volume of the backpack?

33 Application: Molten iron (Fe) has a known density of 7.87 g/cm 3. What would be the volume of 595 kg of molten iron, in liters?

34 Metric System ssecondTime K or o C Kelvin or degree celsius Temperature LliterVolume ggramMass mmeterLength Unit Symbol UnitQuantity

35 Prefixes ExampleMeans..SymbolPrefix cghundredthccenti- g millionth micro- kmthousandkkilo- mLthousandthm milli- every student should know…

36 Typically, mL or L are used to describe the volume of a liquid... …and cm 3 or m 3 are used to describe the volume of a regularly shaped solid.

37 Temperature is special because… We will sometimes use degrees celsius… …we sometimes will use kelvin. Absolute Zero Freezing Point of Water Body Temperature Boiling Point of Water -459 O 32 O 98 O 212 O F -273 o 0 O 37 O 100 O C KExample

38 Example: Density Density is a property of matter. If you measure the mass and the volume of an object, you can calculate its density using the formula: (g) (mL) D = m/v Density = mass/volume So, the units of density must be…. g/mL


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