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Alternative Aviation Fuels Tim Edwards Propulsion Directorate 88ABW-2009-4026.

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Presentation on theme: "Alternative Aviation Fuels Tim Edwards Propulsion Directorate 88ABW-2009-4026."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alternative Aviation Fuels Tim Edwards Propulsion Directorate 88ABW

2 2 DoD Fuel Costs DoD Fuel Costs Are Volatile And Have Risen Dramatically APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE, AFRL-WS Fuel – Gallons (1) 2.5B0.3B1.8B4.6B Fuel – Cost$10.2B$1.2B$7.3B $18.7B Air Force Army Navy Total (1) Compiled from the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency DESC – Defense Energy Support Center Data DESC (Jul 2008) adjustment to $4.07/ Gallon O c t J u n O c t F e b J u n D e c J u l $0.0 $0.5 $1.0 $1.5 $2.0 $2.5 $3.0 $3.5 $ % J P - 8 P r i c e p e r G a l l o n

3 Aim for Balanced Solutions Energy Strategy Need to Consider Inter-related Consequences of Energy Strategies Tim Skone DOE/NETL 2008 RZ

4 4 U.S. Air Force Energy Approach Strategy: Reduce Demand Increase Supply Change the Culture Vision: Make Energy A Consideration In All We Do

5 5 5 AVIATION Fuel Used: 2.5B gallons Fuel Cost: $5.6B FACILITIES Energy Used: 71.2M MMBTU Energy Costs: $1.1B GROUND EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLES Fuel Used: M gallons Fuel Costs: $302.3M U.S. Air Force 2007 Energy Use $7 billion spent for energy in 2007 Facilities 15% Ground Equipment 4% Aviation 81%

6 6 Sponsors FAA ATA AIA ACI Aerospace Industries Association Aircraft Engine OEMs Aircraft OEMs Aircraft Equip Cos DOC DOE USDA USAF USN DARPA US Army DESC NIST NASA Oil Companies Energy Companies ASTM CRC Bio-Fuels Companies Airports Council International Federal Aviation Administration Air Transport Association UK MoD Bauhaus NRC Canada ANP Brazil Universities Think Tanks Consultants Airlines ALPA Air Cargo Airport Operators NetJets CAAFIs Member / Contributors ….150 Contributors from 4 Continents The CAAFI Coalition seeks energy security and environmental sustainability for aviation, … to promote the development of alternative fuel options that offer equivalent levels of safety and compare favorably with petroleum based jet fuel on cost and environmental bases, with the specific goal of enhancing security of energy supply

7 7 7 CO 2 Sequestration) Coal Oil Shale Alternatives to Oil: US Energy Resources Domestic Resources 1.4 trillion barrels (shale) 900 billion barrels of FT (coal) 0.15 billion barrels (pet coke) 22.7 billion barrels oil reserves 240 billion barrels of oil (EOR) 100 million pounds of pulp waste/year Total 2.3+ trillion barrels equivalent Domestic Resources 1.4 trillion barrels (shale) 900 billion barrels of FT (coal) 0.15 billion barrels (pet coke) 22.7 billion barrels oil reserves 240 billion barrels of oil (EOR) 100 million pounds of pulp waste/year Total 2.3+ trillion barrels equivalent

8 8 Mature Process: Fischer Tropsch is a proven process with benefits including: Maturity: South African aviation use 1999 CTL – South Africa, China GTL – Malaysia, Middle East BTL -- Germany Chemical similarities to conventional fuels Manufactured fuel –No sulfur –Reduced particulates –High/Low temperature stability Fischer-Tropsch Technology Natural Gas Coal Pet Coke Biomass Wastes Synthesis Gas Production Oxygen Plant Air O 2 F-T Liquid Synthesis Product Recovery Liquid Fuels Transportation Fuels Tail Gas Power Generation H 2 Hydrogen Recovery Wax Hydrocracking Wax Hydrogen Separation Hydrogen Liquid Fuels An Option CO H2 Co Capture and Reuse 2 First Generation Alternative Fuels

9 Fuels From Alternate Sources We Could Be the New Middle East 2.3+ Trillion Barrels Old Middle East Saudi Arabia:261.8 Billion Barrels Iraq:112.5 Billion Barrels UAE:97.8 Billion Barrels Kuwait:96.5 Billion Barrels Iran:89.7 Billion Barrels Qatar:15.2 Billion Barrels Oman:5.5 Billion Barrels Yemen:4.0 Billion Barrels Syria:2.5 Billion Barrels TOTAL Billion Barrels Appalachian States0.9+ T Bbls Western States1.4+ T Bbls TOTAL: 2.3+ T Bbls Domestic Sources Coal and Shale TOTAL 2.3+ T Bbls Equivalent Indiana Coal: 20B Bbls

10 Value Added Choices For Coal 1 ton of Il. Coal $32/ton Combustion Gasification Electric Power Production Products Value 2 MWh electricity $70.00 Total $70.00 FT Fuels and Power Products Value 0.41MWh electricity $ bbls naphtha $ bbls jet fuel $81.00 Total $ A choice to make: Fertilizer, FT Fuels and Electric Power Products Value 0.07 MWh electricity $ bbls naphtha $ bbls jet fuel $ tons of ammonia $87.00 Total $ Gasification Projected Numbers RenTech 2006

11 11 Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch Franz Fisher Hans Tropsch

12 12 Converting Coal to Liquid Fuel

13 13 Sasol Secunda South Africa

14 14 B-52 Certified for 50/50 Blend! 8 Aug 2007

15 15 Alternative Fuels Certification Office Certification Process Execution 15 Process owner: ASC Coordinates gap analysis Coordinates sustaining engineering Ensures data flow between SMs Updates MIL-Handbook with lessons learned Revise Specification (if reqd) Tech Data Handbook Identify Gaps (System/Class) Sustaining Engineering Fills Gaps Evaluation/ Risk Analysis Fuel Rejected Fuel Approved Restricted Fuel Approved Restricted No Gaps – Performs Like JP-8 Knowledge Gaps Single Managers Process Owner Coordinates Single Managers Execute MIL-HDBK-510 – used for fuel approval Specification – used for fuel procurement B-52/C-17 approach consistent with this process Fuel Approved Unrestricted Fuel Approved Unrestricted Fuel Approved Unrestricted Fuel Approved Unrestricted

16 16 Early 2011 Certification Goal Certify entire AF Fleet to use a 50/50 SynFuel blend 2016 Acquisition Goal Acquire 50% of CONUS aviation fuels from domestically produced synthetic fuel-blends from sources using CO 2 capture and reuse AF Developing Biofuel Strategy Current USAF Perspective

17 Maximizing War-winning Capabilities For… Every Airman…Every Aircraft Alternative Fuels Certification Office FT-Blend Summary Certification Schedule/Status FY08 FY09FY10FY11 C-17 B-1 GSE / ESOH / Infrastructure KC-135 B-2 All Transports All Fighter/ Attack Heli /Special Trainers All USAF Systems B-52 F-15 F-16 F-22 Gap AnalysisCert. CompletionFSE Today Engine Test Cert Complete Flight Complete 25 Nov 09 NOTIONAL Excludes F-35 Excludes CV-22

18 AFRL Major Thrusts High level goals: –2011 – 50/50 F-T blend certification for all systems (Alternative Fuel Certification Office (AFCO)) –2016 – 50% of domestic consumption contains synthetics (F-T + ?) (~400M gal), greener than petroleum, cost-competitive AFRL major efforts (joint w/ AFPET) (coord w/ CAAFI) –F-T certification support (properties, matl compatibility, toxicology) –Aviation biofuel certification –Key parameters Performance (drop-in) Cost (competitive) Production potential (significant) Lifecycle greenhouse gas footprint (less than petroleum) Sustainability (?) 18

19 19 Timeline Summary July Aug FT ASTM Research Rpt Issued Draft FT ASTM Research Rpt FT ASTM Research Rpt OEM Appl FT ASTM Research Rpt ASTM Ballot FT Fuel Spec ASTM Ballot ASTM Approval of Spec and Research Rpt SeptOct Nov Dec HRJ Task Force DXXXX Spec Wrkg Grp HRJ ASTM Research Rpt Issued DARPA Fuel Samples at WPAFB DXXXX Spec Ballot HRJ xx% Blend ASTM ApplHRJ ASTM Appl Longer-Term Strategy Near-Term Strategy ASTM Synthetic Fuels Task Force 19 Federal Aviation Administration December 8, 2008 Mark Rumizen, CAAFI

20 Certification Pipeline 20 R&D Potential alternative fuels HRJ 50/50 ? TRL 1TRL 5-6 Certification TRL 9 Sasol SSJF 99 Sasol FSJF 08 Jet A/A-1 JP-8/5 100% F-T 100% bio Fuels may travel along conveyor at different rates! AF energy security goals benefit by feedstock diversity moving fast, drafting F-T SPK DARPA Approved fuels (ASTM D7566, MIL-DTL-83133F) incubator non- HRJ bio F-T SPK 50/50 New! ASTM D7566 New! DESC Solicitation SP R K gal

21 Aviation FAA Partner Studies MIT Partner Study Alternative fuels must have a life cycle greenhouse gas footprint equal or less than petroleum (Sect 526 EISA 2007)

22 22 U.S. Air Force Greenhouse Gas Inventory Initiative CO 2 inventory paves way for change Voluntary carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) inventory used to: –Evaluate policy and operational impacts –Support sustainability –Identify risk areas –Understand investment and mitigation areas

23 23 Life-Cycle GHG Emissions Results - H.M. Wong S.M. Thesis (2008) Baseline Emissions Representative Results Air Force Leading a Multi- Agency/University LCA Analysis Team

24 Potential for Renewable Fuels - H.M. Wong S.M. Thesis (2008) 5 Carbon Neutral U.S. Aviation Growth Assessed potential for carbon neutral growth from 2006 to Analysis used biofuel life- cycle GHG emissions and yield per hectare. Circles show land area requirements for three existing and two hypothetical feedstocks. Soybean and palm requirements both exceed current production levels. Analysis looked at single feedstock solutions – practical approach is to consider multiple feedstock solutions. Need feedstocks with high yield and low life-cycle emissions that do not require arable land. Notes: 1. Assumed no land use change emissions with all of the feedstocks. 2. Land areas are given relative to continental U.S. for illustrative purposes (e.g., palm trees do not grow in Colorado). Jim Hileman MIT

25 Sustainability Need to develop an aviation consensus view –Environmental sustainability Water usage Water pollution Local air quality Global air quality Land use changes –Business sustainability Aviation sector performance is closely linked to fuel costs 25

26 Uncertainties: Feedstock variation Process efficiency Carbon capture efficiency Land use change scenarios: 1. Use Marginal Land or Waste Product 2. Conversion of Brazilian Cerrado 3. Wide-Spread Agricultural Changes 4. Destruction of Peatland Rain Forest Quantifying Well-to-Wake Benefits - Hileman et al. (2008) 5 Assessing Uncertainties Jim Hileman MIT

27 How Does the Cost of Carbon Effect the Price of Fossil/Bio Fuels? Tim Skone DOE/NETL

28 Economic Readiness Business Readiness AF Alternative Fuel Score Card Med $1.00

29 Summary Alternative fuels offer potential to reduce green house gases and particulate emissions Air Force will certify its entire fleet by 2011 to use a 50/50 blend of FT fuels FT fuels can be produced from coal, biomass, natural gas as well as coal and biomass Sect 526 EISA 2007 governs DoD purchases of alternative fuels Coal derived FT fuels could be produced with a CO2 footprint equal to or less than petroleum Developing assessment rules and tools to compare alternative fuels

30 30 Triglycerides (fats, oils) Aviation Biofuel Production Options jet fuel components Cellulose CO + H 2 Fischer-Tropsch BTL first generation - ? second generation - ? Lignin gasification (or co-gasification with coal) HRJ Bio SPK C18:0 C16:1 Sugars direct fermentation alcohols pyrolysis oil hydroprocessing catalysis 1 2

31 31 Certification Processes – MIL- HDBK-510, ASTM D4054 which rigs? which engines?

32 32 Fit-for-Purpose Test Results (for Research Report) FIT-FOR-PURPOSE PROPERTIES CHEMISTRY Hydrocarbon chemistry (carbon number, type, distribution) Trace Materials/Metals BULK PHYSICAL AND PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES Boiling Pt Distribution Vapor/Liquid Ratio Thermal Stability Breakpoint Lubricity Response to Lube Improver Viscosity vs Temp Specific Heat vs Temp Density vs Temp Surface Tension vs Temp Bulk Modulus vs Temp Thermal Conductivity vs Temp Water Solubility vs Temp Solubility of Air (oxygen/nitrogen) FIT-FOR-PURPOSE PROPERTIES ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES Dielectric Constant vs Density Electrical Conductivity and Response to Static Dissapator GROUND HANDLING/SAFETY Effect on Clay Filtration Fitration (Coalescers & monitors) Storage Stability Peroxides Potential Gum Toxicity Flammability Limits Autoignition Temperature Hot Surface Ignition Temp COMPATIBILITY Other Additives/Fuels Engine/Airframe Seals, Coatings, Metallics Completed on multiple samplesIn progress Planned

33 Research Reports 33 Used to support commercial specifications (data also used for military certification) Addresses whether drop-in fuels fall within experience base

34 Experience Base 34 World Fuel Survey PQIS database Newly developed data NIST

35 35 Key Provisions –Body of Spec Applies to Finished Semi-Synthetic Fuel –Annex for Each Class of Synthetic Blending Component –Allow Re-Certification to D1655 No need for separate tracking –Annex 1 Hydroprocessed SPK –Includes 50% FT Fuel –Issued in August 2009 –Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Added to Annex 1 in Next Revision ASTM D7566 Fuel Specification Blend Comps Criteria and Blend % Limits Annex 3 Other Adv Fuels or Processes Annex 2 Other Adv Fuels or Processes Annex 1 50% Hydprossd SPK Fuel Blends Fuel Produced to D7566 Can Be Designated as D1655 Fuel 5.1 Materials and Manufacture D1655 Table 1 D7566 Av Turbine Fuel Containing Syn HCs Table 1 Blended Fuel Performance Properties

36 Baseline Fischer-Tropsch Fuels n-paraffins Form basis of Research Report to support specification B-52, T-38 C-5, C-130, A-10, F-16 C-17, B-1, F-15 F-22, KC-135R 36 Cetane = 31 Cetane=60

37 Alternative Fuels On-Going Analysis Time--> > F-T SPK (blend stock) HRJ - hydrotreated fats/oils (blend stock) 4751 JP-8 C 13 C 14 C 15 C 16 C 12 C 9 C 8 C 7 C 11 C 10 C 17 C 18 C 19 TRL 2-3 TRL 2 TRL 9 –current fuels JP-8, Jet A TRL 8 – generic F-T 50/50 TRL 5 (?) – HRJ 50/50 (flight demonstrated) More Challenging Biofuels 37

38 Combustion Evaluation 38 Lean blow out Altitude relight Transient accel/decel Instability Emissions/efficiency Liner/nozzle heating Engine control response … Density vs T Viscosity vs T Flash point Heat of combustion Boiling range Vapor pressure Surface tension Cetane … Composition Properties Combustion Performance Aromatics, cycloparaffins, n- and i-paraffins Hydrocarbon chain length

39 Prototype Combustion Evaluation Process H: FA D P: FA D G: FA D W: FA D R: FA D Fundamental expts Flame tube rigs Sector rigs Full annular Engines fail pass

40 Biocarbon Analysis ASTM D6866 assesses fraction of carbon that is modern using C14 Initial assessment 40 Fuel WPAFB JP-8 Sasol IPK Shell SPK Syntroleum R-8 R-8X JP-8/R-8 50/50 UOP DARPA biojet Feedstock petroleum coal nat. gas fat/oil Salicornia blend bio + pet. aromatics % modern C

41 Summary 41 Interest in alternative fuels remains high Biomass-derived fuels are current S&T focus –Drop-in petroleum replacements/blendstocks are focus in near term – fully synthetic in mid term –Assessment criteria must be defined: performance, cost, manufacturing potential, GHG footprint, sustainability –Biofuels may not always be greener than petroleum or CBTL (w/CCS) –Scale-up/cost/land use issues

42 42 SECNAV Energy Goals At the Naval Energy Forum, the Honorable Ray Mabus expressed support for President Obamas goal to reduce consumption of fuel and water and reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions. He announced five DON Energy Goals: New Requirements for Acquisition Processes Mandatory evaluation factors used when awarding contracts for platforms, weapon systems, and buildings will include: –Lifecycle energy costs –Fully-burdened cost of fuel –Contractor energy footprint Sail the Great Green Fleet DON will demonstrate a Green Strike Group in local operations by 2012 and sail it by 2016 –Nuclear ships –Surface combatants using biofuels with hybrid electric power systems –Aircraft flying on biofuels Reduce Petroleum Use in Non-Tactical Vehicles By 2015, DON will reduce petroleum use in the commercial fleet by 50 percent –Flex fuel vehicles –Hybrid electric vehicles –Neighborhood electric vehicles Increase Alternative Energy Ashore By 2020, DON will produce at least 50 percent of shore-based energy requirements from alternative sources –Solar, Wind, Ocean, Geothermal Increase Alternative Energy Use Navy-wide By 2020, 50 percent of total DON energy consumption will come from alternative sources

43 Whats Next After HRJ? Fully synthetic fuels (cycloparaffins, aromatics for density, seal swell) Need to access non-fat/oil feedstocks Fermentation (w/ microorganisms) to alcohols, conversion to hydrocarbons (or direct) –Initially using sugar, ultimate goal is cellulosic Pyrolysis of ligno-cellulosics 43 sugars alcohols jet fuels, components fermentation dehydration, oligomerization, hydroprocessing direct fermentation biomass pyrolysis oil jet fuels, components stabilization, hydroprocessing

44 Gevo Public Data 44 Fermentation to isobutanol, followed by dehydration/ oligomerization/hydroprocessing

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