Presentation on theme: "Eric Evans, MA, CPP Program Director Heather McCarthy, JD, MA, MPA Vice President Prevention Services BOOST Conference April 29, 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Eric Evans, MA, CPP Program Director Heather McCarthy, JD, MA, MPA Vice President Prevention Services BOOST Conference April 29, 2011
Learning Objectives An introduction to the L.E.A.D. Initiative and its purpose and components Understand how youth can serve as Change Agents Understand the effectiveness of Youth LEADers Recent findings from our quasi-experimental and multi-method evaluation Introduction to the development of Senior L.E.A.D.
LEAD Initiative Strengthening Youth Leadership Across Indiana Helping Keep Kids Drug-Free and In School
Sponsors of the LEAD Initiative Funded by the Indiana Family and Social Services Administration, the Division of Mental Health and Addiction Key Partner Agencies: Indiana Youth Services Association, Indiana Youth Institute, Boys and Girls Clubs, Girls Inc., and YMCA Administrative Agency: Geminus Corporation
LEAD Initiative Indiana statewide program for youth leadership development and alcohol, tobacco and other drug use prevention The key to the creation of the initiative was incorporating elements that had a focus from one or more of the following evidence based prevention principle areas: Peers, Families, Communities, and Schools
Purpose The LEAD Initiative was designed to: Develop a network of youth leaders to facilitate prevention programming to their peers Enhance current leadership programs with more effective prevention programming to their peers Increase the use of youth leaders in ATOD programming Reach communities throughout Indiana by integrating youth into the Indiana prevention system
Key Objective Prevent and Reduce Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs use among Indiana youth through peer-lead prevention activities
Target Population Moderate risk youth Youth already engaged in leadership groups at partner agencies Age range with primary age range from 12-17
LEAD Initiative Continuum Expansion Assessment Enhancement Evaluation
Assessment Phase Identify preliminary sites and locations Identify key areas for assessment data Coordinate site visits of targeted locations Assist with recruitment of youth for leadership training Compile assessment data Provision of necessary training in targeted regions
Enhancement Phase Provide Assessment Data to targeted locations Coordinate youth leadership trainings Implement strategies for improved youth leadership programming Implement marketing, including funding research Provide PREV-CAMP trainings for youth Collect evaluation data
Expansion Phase Ensure all sites have program components in place for utilization of ATOD LEADers Increase Marketing components Integrate trained LEADers into agency ATOD programming Integrate LEADers into community service, advocacy, mentoring and philanthropy activities Continue training initiative as needed Continue gathering data
Evaluation Phase Collect and analyze all quarterly reports and assessment surveys from participating sites Compose cohort final report
PREV-CAMP PREVention: Community Service Advocacy Mentoring Philanthropy Youth can serve as change agents! The PREV-CAMP trains youth on how they can serve as a role model for their peers and engage them in healthy, positive activities while educating them on the dangers of substance abuse.
PREVention – Normative Education Normative Education Provide participants with an understanding of the concepts behind Normative Education Perception False Perception Refusal & Resistance Skills Youth leaders give participants tools on how Refusal & Resistance skills can be used to effectively deal with pressures in their everyday lives
CAMP Community Service: Organized projects with the purpose of giving back to the community Advocacy: Assisting with policy change on the local, state, or federal level relating to a cause the leadership group believes in Mentoring: Recognizing youth can be role models and mentors and act as agents of change for their peers Philanthropy: Sharing time, talent, and treasures across domains
Adult vs. Peer Research Noticeable gap in the literature regarding demonstrative effectiveness of peer-led ATOD prevention programs when compared to adult led prevention programs.
Research Findings A meta-analysis of 143 adolescent drug prevention programs conducted by Tobler indicated that peer education programs had positive health outcomes in 4 distinct areas: 1. Knowledge 2. Attitude 3. Drug Use 4. Skills and behavior (Tobler, N.S Vol. 1 6: )
Research Findings There are many reasons cited in literature to justify the use of peer based interventions: Cost effective Peers are a credible source of information Peer education is empowering for those involved Utilizes an already established means of sharing information and advice Peers are more successful than professionals in passing on information because people identify with their peers (Turner and Shepherd 1999 pp )
Research Findings Peer educators are seen as good role models Peer education is beneficial for those involved Education presented by peers may be acceptable when other education is not Peer education can be used to educate those who are hard to reach through conventional methods Peers can reinforce learning through ongoing contact (Turner and Shepherd 1999 pp )
Adult vs. Peer Study In April 2009, a peer reviewed study of the LEAD Initiative was published in the Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education Standardizing and Evaluating the Presenter Variable in the Peer vs. Adult Debate in Youth Drug Prevention Research The study was designed to accomplish two goals Formulate, implement, and evaluate a protocol to standardize important elements of the presenter variable in drug prevention programs Asses the comparative impact of peer vs. adult presenters of a drug prevention program on participant knowledge and perceptions
Adult vs. Peer Study Training Selection and Preparation Youth Peers – Nominations solicited from 14 participating LEAD youth agencies. 7 youth were selected to attend 1 ½ day Train-the-Trainer workshop to sharpen presentation skills and program knowledge Adults – Nominations solicited from 14 participating LEAD youth agencies. 7 adults were selected to attend 1 ½ day Train-the-Trainer workshop to sharpen presentation skills and program knowledge Both youth and adults were trained on the Refusal and Resistance Skills training module developed by Indiana University Bloomington
Study Results Knowledge Acquisition Mean scores on the 5-item knowledge post test showed peer-led superiority over adult trainers. (T-values 2.94 adult score vs peer score) Perceived Trainer Effectiveness Mean scores on the 5-item evaluating training content showed peer-led superiority over adult trainers. (T-value 3.22 adult score vs peer score)
Statewide Program Evaluation Indiana Youth Institute and Praxis Strategies & Solutions Inc. conducted a quasi-experimental and multi-method evaluation for academic year of Sample consisted of two groups: Outer Ring Youth – those who were mentored by their peer LEADers Control Group – youth in agencies that had no exposure to L.E.A.D. trainings or mentoring
Statewide Program Evaluation Evaluation and Methods Mixed method approach that consisted of both quantitative and qualitative elements Three data collecting tools: Pre-/Post-tests Attendance records Activity reports Focused specifically on the Outer Ring Youth because so much research has focused on the peer mentor with limited research on the mentee
Statewide Program Evaluation Sample Mainly Boys and Girls Clubs, with a few other youth agencies 12 experimental agencies and 6 control facilities 148 youth participants – 73 Outer Ring, 45 Control 48% Male, 47% Female, 5% Did not answer 59% Younger than 13, 41% between 13 and 18 55% White or Caucasian, 20% Black or African-American, 24% other
Results Indicate That: Outer Ring Youth were more likely to make statistically significant better decisions regarding their choice of friends than the control group. They were less likely than the control group to have friends who use tobacco, marijuana and other drugs Outer Ring Youth were far more likely than the control group to perceive alcohol, tobacco and other drugs use negatively Outer Ring Youth were statistically more likely to participate in community activities, social volunteerism, clubs and pro-social activities
Results Indicate That: Outer Ring Youth were significantly more likely to perceive cigarette smoking negatively Outer Ring Youth were statistically less likely to perceive alcohol consumption as a mechanism for gaining social acceptance among peers Outer Ring Youth were significantly more likely to perceive ATOD use as stupid Outer Ring Youth were statistically more likely to perceive accessing smokeless tobacco as difficult
Results Indicate That: Outer Ring Youth were significantly more likely to perceive accessing drugs as difficult Outer Ring Youth were less likely on a statistically significant level than the control group to continue being friends with those who use tobacco, marijuana, inhalants and other drugs Outer Ring Youth were also statistically less likely to have peers who have used tobacco in the 30 days prior to the administration of post-program survey
Statewide Program Evaluation The analyses indicates that the L.E.A.D. Initiative interventions with the Outer Ring Youth facilitate a statistically significant stronger long-term resistance framework for younger youth who may otherwise be vulnerable as was the case with the control group
Study Limitations Length of evaluation Given that the evaluation ran the course of an academic school year, the main hurdle that was faces was gathering pre/post data from the same youth Statistical software allows to judge and compensate for any skewed distributions Length of survey The survey proved to be fairly long, especially for younger youth who had a tendency to go off course during the survey. For future research, recommend shortening the survey substantially.
Conclusions Results demonstrates that the L.E.A.D. Initiative helps youth build a framework for resisting ATOD use The Outer Ring Youth proved to make better decisions regarding their proximity to ATOD by choosing friends who do not abuse substances The Outer Ring Youth appear to have more negative perceptions of ATOD use by youth than control group The L.E.A.D. Initiative seems to be especially effective for young youth, ages 10-13
Senior L.E.A.D. Promotes emotional health and reduces the likelihood of mental illness, alcohol and prescription medication abuse, and suicide in senior citizens, aged 65 and up. Senior LEAD will serve a protective factor helping to fill the gaps and provide resources to this community According to the 2010 Census 13% (842,894) of Indiana residents are 65 and older.
Senior LEAD Seniors are prone to prescription drug abuse and misuse resulting in prescription drug addictions Seniors need to be aware of the differences that alcohol has on their body and the effects it has on their medications It is essential to promote mental health awareness among seniors
Mental Health Risk Factors Mental Illness: Depression, Mood disorders, Psychotic disorders Substance Abuse and Misuse: Alcohol, Prescription, OTC medications Physical: Poor physical health, Functional impairments, Pain Life Circumstance: Social isolation, Family conflict, Loss of loved ones, Financial Problems Personal Characteristics: Low self-worth, Hopelessness
Alcohol and Drug Interactions Unfavorable reactions: excessive drowsiness, fainting, impaired breathing, nausea and vomiting Overdose Interference with how well the medical condition is controlled Change in drug effectiveness
Senior LEAD Currently conducting a statewide older adult needs assessment to gage substance use, abuse, related problems of substance use, and gaps in mental health awareness and promotion Goal is to implement a statewide initiative to enhance protective factors utilizing a peer-to-peer model The initiative will integrate prevention messages and training, mental health awareness, as well as senior- youth mentoring components
Service to Science The Senior LEAD was nominated by the Indiana Division of Mental Health and Addiction to write a proposal to participate in SAMHSAs Service to Science Initiative and was selected to participate. Service to Science is a national initiative by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) for locally-developed and innovative prevention programs interested in demonstrating more credible evidence of effectiveness. Service to Science consists of a combination of training events, customized technical assistance, and financial incentives for evaluation capacity enhancement.
Contact Information Geminus Prevention Services 8400 Louisiana St. Merrillville, IN Eric Evans