Presentation on theme: "Strengthening Youth Leadership Across Indiana: Youth as change agents to keep their peers drug free and in school Eric Evans, MA, CPP Program Director."— Presentation transcript:
1Strengthening Youth Leadership Across Indiana: Youth as change agents to keep their peers drug free and in schoolEric Evans, MA, CPPProgram DirectorHeather McCarthy, JD, MA, MPAVice President Prevention ServicesBOOST ConferenceApril 29, 2011
2Learning ObjectivesAn introduction to the L.E.A.D. Initiative and its purpose and componentsUnderstand how youth can serve as Change AgentsUnderstand the effectiveness of Youth LEADersRecent findings from our quasi-experimental and multi-method evaluationIntroduction to the development of Senior L.E.A.D.
3LEAD Initiative Strengthening Youth Leadership Across Indiana Helping Keep Kids Drug-Free and In School
4Sponsors of the LEAD Initiative Funded by the Indiana Family and Social Services Administration, the Division of Mental Health and AddictionKey Partner Agencies: Indiana Youth Services Association, Indiana Youth Institute, Boys and Girls Clubs, Girls Inc., and YMCAAdministrative Agency: Geminus Corporation
5LEAD InitiativeIndiana statewide program for youth leadership development and alcohol, tobacco and other drug use preventionThe key to the creation of the initiative was incorporating elements that had a focus from one or more of the following evidence based prevention principle areas: Peers, Families, Communities, and Schools
6Purpose The LEAD Initiative was designed to: Develop a network of youth leaders to facilitate prevention programming to their peersEnhance current leadership programs with more effective prevention programming to their peersIncrease the use of youth leaders in ATOD programmingReach communities throughout Indiana by integrating youth into the Indiana prevention system
7Key Objective Prevent and Reduce Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs use among Indiana youth throughpeer-lead prevention activities
8Target Population Moderate risk youth Youth already engaged in leadership groups at partner agenciesAge range with primary age range from 12-17
10Assessment Phase Identify preliminary sites and locations Identify key areas for assessment dataCoordinate site visits of targeted locationsAssist with recruitment of youth for leadership trainingCompile assessment dataProvision of necessary training in targeted regions
11Enhancement Phase Provide Assessment Data to targeted locations Coordinate youth leadership trainingsImplement strategies for improved youth leadership programmingImplement marketing, including funding researchProvide PREV-CAMP trainings for youthCollect evaluation data
12Expansion PhaseEnsure all sites have program components in place for utilization of ATOD LEADersIncrease Marketing componentsIntegrate trained LEADers into agency ATOD programmingIntegrate LEADers into community service, advocacy, mentoring and philanthropy activitiesContinue training initiative as neededContinue gathering data
13Evaluation PhaseCollect and analyze all quarterly reports and assessment surveys from participating sitesCompose cohort final report
14PREV-CAMP PREVention: Community Service Advocacy Mentoring PhilanthropyYouth can serve as change agents! The PREV-CAMP trains youth on how they can serve as a role model for their peers and engage them in healthy, positive activities while educating them on the dangers of substance abuse.
15PREVention – Normative Education Provide participants with an understanding of the concepts behind Normative EducationPerceptionFalse PerceptionRefusal & Resistance SkillsYouth leaders give participants tools on how Refusal & Resistance skills can be used to effectively deal with pressures in their everyday lives
16CAMPCommunity Service: Organized projects with the purpose of giving back to the communityAdvocacy: Assisting with policy change on the local, state, or federal level relating to a cause the leadership group believes inMentoring: Recognizing youth can be role models and mentors and act as agents of change for their peersPhilanthropy: Sharing time, talent, and treasures across domains
17Adult vs. Peer ResearchNoticeable gap in the literature regarding demonstrative effectiveness of peer-led ATOD prevention programs when compared to adult led prevention programs.
18Research FindingsA meta-analysis of 143 adolescent drug prevention programs conducted by Tobler indicated that peer education programs had positive health outcomes in 4 distinct areas:KnowledgeAttitudeDrug UseSkills and behavior(Tobler, N.S Vol. 1 6: )
19Research FindingsThere are many reasons cited in literature to justify the use of peer based interventions:Cost effectivePeers are a credible source of informationPeer education is empowering for those involvedUtilizes an already established means of sharing information and advicePeers are more successful than professionals in passing on information because people identify with their peers(Turner and Shepherd 1999 pp )
20Research Findings Peer educators are seen as good role models Peer education is beneficial for those involvedEducation presented by peers may be acceptable when other education is notPeer education can be used to educate those who are hard to reach through conventional methodsPeers can reinforce learning through ongoing contact(Turner and Shepherd 1999 pp )
21Adult vs. Peer StudyIn April 2009, a peer reviewed study of the LEAD Initiative was published in the Journal of Alcohol and Drug EducationStandardizing and Evaluating the “Presenter” Variable in the Peer vs. Adult Debate in Youth Drug Prevention ResearchThe study was designed to accomplish two goalsFormulate, implement, and evaluate a protocol to standardize important elements of the “presenter” variable in drug prevention programsAsses the comparative impact of peer vs. adult presenters of a drug prevention program on participant knowledge and perceptions
22Adult vs. Peer Study Training Selection and Preparation Youth Peers – Nominations solicited from 14 participating LEAD youth agencies. 7 youth were selected to attend 1 ½ day “Train-the-Trainer” workshop to sharpen presentation skills and program knowledgeAdults – Nominations solicited from 14 participating LEAD youth agencies. 7 adults were selected to attend 1 ½ day “Train-the-Trainer” workshop to sharpen presentation skills and program knowledgeBoth youth and adults were trained on the Refusal and Resistance Skills training module developed by Indiana University Bloomington
23Study Results Knowledge Acquisition Perceived Trainer Effectiveness Mean scores on the 5-item knowledge post test showed peer-led superiority over adult trainers. (T-values 2.94 adult score vs peer score)Perceived Trainer EffectivenessMean scores on the 5-item evaluating training content showed peer-led superiority over adult trainers. (T-value 3.22 adult score vs peer score)
24Statewide Program Evaluation Indiana Youth Institute and Praxis Strategies & Solutions Inc. conducted a quasi-experimental and multi-method evaluation for academic year ofSample consisted of two groups:Outer Ring Youth – those who were mentored by their peer LEADersControl Group – youth in agencies that had no exposure to L.E.A.D. trainings or mentoring
25Statewide Program Evaluation Evaluation and MethodsMixed method approach that consisted of both quantitative and qualitative elementsThree data collecting tools:Pre-/Post-testsAttendance recordsActivity reportsFocused specifically on the Outer Ring Youth because so much research has focused on the peer mentor with limited research on the mentee
26Statewide Program Evaluation SampleMainly Boys and Girls Clubs, with a few other youth agencies12 experimental agencies and 6 control facilities148 youth participants – 73 Outer Ring, 45 Control48% Male, 47% Female, 5% Did not answer59% Younger than 13, 41% between 13 and 1855% White or Caucasian, 20% Black or African-American, 24% other
27Results Indicate That: Outer Ring Youth were more likely to make statistically significant better decisions regarding their choice of friends than the control group. They were less likely than the control group to have friends who use tobacco, marijuana and other drugsOuter Ring Youth were far more likely than the control group to perceive alcohol, tobacco and other drugs use negativelyOuter Ring Youth were statistically more likely to participate in community activities, social volunteerism, clubs and pro-social activities
28Results Indicate That: Outer Ring Youth were significantly more likely to perceive cigarette smoking negativelyOuter Ring Youth were statistically less likely to perceive alcohol consumption as a mechanism for gaining social acceptance among peersOuter Ring Youth were significantly more likely to perceive ATOD use as “stupid”Outer Ring Youth were statistically more likely to perceive accessing smokeless tobacco as difficult
29Results Indicate That: Outer Ring Youth were significantly more likely to perceive accessing drugs as difficultOuter Ring Youth were less likely on a statistically significant level than the control group to continue being friends with those who use tobacco, marijuana, inhalants and other drugsOuter Ring Youth were also statistically less likely to have peers who have used tobacco in the 30 days prior to the administration of post-program survey
30Statewide Program Evaluation The analyses indicates that the L.E.A.D. Initiative interventions with the Outer Ring Youth facilitate a statistically significant stronger long-term resistance framework for younger youth who may otherwise be vulnerable as was the case with the control group
31Study Limitations Length of evaluation Length of survey Given that the evaluation ran the course of an academic school year, the main hurdle that was faces was gathering pre/post data from the same youthStatistical software allows to judge and compensate for any skewed distributionsLength of surveyThe survey proved to be fairly long, especially for younger youth who had a tendency to go off course during the survey.For future research, recommend shortening the survey substantially.
32ConclusionsResults demonstrates that the L.E.A.D. Initiative helps youth build a framework for resisting ATOD useThe Outer Ring Youth proved to make better decisions regarding their proximity to ATOD by choosing friends who do not abuse substancesThe Outer Ring Youth appear to have more negative perceptions of ATOD use by youth than control groupThe L.E.A.D. Initiative seems to be especially effective for young youth, ages 10-13
33Senior L.E.A.D.Promotes emotional health and reduces the likelihood of mental illness, alcohol and prescription medication abuse, and suicide in senior citizens, aged 65 and up.Senior LEAD will serve a protective factor helping to fill the gaps and provide resources to this communityAccording to the 2010 Census 13% (842,894) of Indiana residents are 65 and older.
34Senior LEADSeniors are prone to prescription drug abuse and misuse resulting in prescription drug addictionsSeniors need to be aware of the differences that alcohol has on their body and the effects it has on their medicationsIt is essential to promote mental health awareness among seniors
35Mental Health Risk Factors Mental Illness: Depression, Mood disorders, Psychotic disordersSubstance Abuse and Misuse: Alcohol, Prescription, OTC medicationsPhysical: Poor physical health, Functional impairments, PainLife Circumstance: Social isolation, Family conflict, Loss of loved ones, Financial ProblemsPersonal Characteristics: Low self-worth, Hopelessness
36Alcohol and Drug Interactions Unfavorable reactions: excessive drowsiness, fainting, impaired breathing, nausea and vomitingOverdoseInterference with how well the medical condition is controlledChange in drug effectiveness
37Senior LEADCurrently conducting a statewide older adult needs assessment to gage substance use, abuse, related problems of substance use, and gaps in mental health awareness and promotionGoal is to implement a statewide initiative to enhance protective factors utilizing a peer-to-peer modelThe initiative will integrate prevention messages and training, mental health awareness, as well as senior-youth mentoring components
38Service to ScienceThe Senior LEAD was nominated by the Indiana Division of Mental Health and Addiction to write a proposal to participate in SAMHSA’s Service to Science Initiative and was selected to participate.Service to Science is a national initiative by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) for locally-developed and innovative prevention programs interested in demonstrating more credible evidence of effectiveness.Service to Science consists of a combination of training events, customized technical assistance, and financial incentives for evaluation capacity enhancement.