Presentation on theme: "Solving Problems, Elevating Quality in Public Health QI Coachs Handbook."— Presentation transcript:
Solving Problems, Elevating Quality in Public Health QI Coachs Handbook
QI Coach Coordinators Contact Information: Sue Hancock Sarah Strawbridge
Module 1 QI Basics
Why QI? The goals are to benefit: Employees involved in work processes, making the work easier. Our organization, through more efficient or effective work activities. The customers of our work, who must use what we produce. Kelly, 1992
Where did QI come from? Grandfather of QI: W. Edwards Deming – Statistician and professor by trade, consulted with American companies during WW II on production issues. – Post world-war II: Worked with Japanese companies to rebuild. They embraced his techniques. – Believed that the goal of business should not be just to make profits, but to stay in business so they could provide jobs.
W Edwards Deming Has been called a curmudgeon for his critical workshop tactics. In reality, he sympathized with the plight of workers. A short story… Demings 14 Points
QI Assumptions Workers want to perform well on the job, take pride in their work. Workers performance more often related to faulty systems than employee error. – Jurrans Principle: 85%-15% Rule Management/leadership generally makes decisions about systems. Data is needed to make good system decisions.
What do we get from QI? Improves our job satisfaction – we know our product or service is quality, a source of pride. Reinforces the belief that we can solve problems, make a difference in our jobs We have a greater investment, ownership for our work. We have less tolerance for problems and poor quality.
QI Basics Improving quality is a systematic process: PLAN: Define the problem, collect data, select a possible solution. DO: Implement solution on a small scale. CHECK: Collect data, determine if the solution worked. If not, go back to Plan and select another solution. ACT: When a solution works, spread to all aspects of the operation.
Five-Step Problem Solving Model Quality improvement can also be described as a systematic problem-solving model: 1. Identify the problem – clearly state what needs improvement. 2. Analyze the problem – Determine what causes problem to occur. 3. Evaluate alternatives – Identify and select actions to reduce or eliminate the problem. 4. Test/implement a solution – Implement these actions on a trial basis to determine effectiveness. 5. Standardize – Ensure that useful actions are preserved.
Module 2 Working Together as a Team
Team Roles: – Team members share their expertise to plan and implement project work. – The Leader orchestrates team activities, maintains records, serves as communication link with rest of the organization. – The Coach understands the tools and concepts of improvement, including approaches that help a team function well together. – The Sponsor reviews and supports team efforts, interfaces with other parts of the organization.
Effective Team Members… Participate fully in team meetings Share knowledge and experience, listen closely to that of other team members Are open to new ideas Carry out assignments between meetings Assist leader with managing the meetings, e.g. documentation, discussions. Communicate effectively with colleagues about project work.
An Effective Leader… Organizes the teams work and activities Focuses on a data-based methods to solve the problem Serves as contact point for communication between the team, sponsor, others in organization Keeps official team records, e.g. meeting minutes, agendas, data related to project. Assists with carrying out work between meetings Implements project-driven changes within his or her authority Helps team resolve its problems
An Effective Coach… Attends meetings but not is a leader or member; an outsider who maintains a neutral position. Assists team in structuring or breaking down tasks and plans into assignments Works with team leader to plan meetings Assists leader with team building Teaches data collection, analysis techniques; helps team graphically display data Helps team prepare for presentation of project to management, others
An Effective Sponsor… Maintains overall responsibility, authority and accountability for project Approves bubble-up projects, assures compatibility with organizational priorities Sometimes initiates project, begins charter, selects leader, coach and members Approves resources for project Interfaces with rest of the organization to assure appropriate stakeholder involvement Feeds data and lessons learned into a system for future improvements, e.g. policy changes
Reality Check Is everybody clear about the roles? Does everyone have a role? Are the leader, coach, sponsor roles filled? If not, what is the plan? Next Step: Whats our problem?
Module 3 Identifying the Problem
QI Toolkit: Identifying Problems Brainstorming – generating a list of potential problems Interviews or surveys - customer feedback, recommendations List reduction - narrowing the list to a few items, by combining into groups Problem selection matrix
Collect a large number of ideas from a group of people. Many ideas, quickly as possible. One-at-a-time (everyone speaks) Open door (call out ideas) Write-it-down (confidentiality) Guidelines: Be creative Build on ideas of others No critique allowed QI Toolkit - Brainstorming
Interviews: Purpose: Collect data from direct conversation. Surveys: Purpose: Collect data from a large number of people. QI Toolkit – Interviews, Surveys
Purpose: Reduce a large list of items to a manageable size. Useful in conjunction with brainstorming. Group votes for the most important items on list (can cast as many votes as they want). Items with the most votes are circled. If further narrowing is required, process conducted again, limiting number of votes people can cast. QI Toolkit – List Reduction
QI Toolkit: Selection Matrix Problem Selection Matrix Criteria Problems Within our control or influence Potential for cost savings Number of customers affected Significan ce of Problem Total Too many defects Absenteeism high Equipment breakdowns Water cooler too far away = High 2 = medium 1 = low
Whats Our Problem? A little history… When did we notice the problem? Was there anything else going on when we noticed it? Have other solutions been tried in the past? If so, what happened?
Whats Our Problem? Zooming in on the current state: What exactly is happening? When is it happening? Where is it happening? Who is involved?
Whats Our Problem? Zooming in on the future (or desired) state: What should be happening? When should it happen? Where should it happen? Who should make it happen?
Current State What is the current state? Why is this important? What is it costing us time/dollars/staff/etc? What is the impact on our customer/clients? What is the impact on our division/agency? Future State: What are the important aspects of the future state? What is driving us to this future state? What might be the consequences of not moving to the future state? What might change? What is the proposed timeline? Pathway Consequences Driving Forces: Benefits Current and Future State
QI Toolkit - Force Field Analysis
Where is the process breaking down? RFFlow Professional Flowcharting, QI Toolkit – Flowchart
Draft a Problem Statement A good problem statement should be: Specific. Describes the problem, not the symptom. Relates the current situation to what is desired. Does not include causes or solutions
Expressing Need for Improvement in Measurable Terms Two-Step Process: Gathering information (data) about the problem. Tool utilized: Checksheet Organizing data so that it is meaningful and clarifies the problem. Tools utilized: Line graphs, Pareto charts, Histograms, Bar and Pie charts.
Purpose: Collect data in an organized manner. Telephone Interruptions Excerpted from Nancy R. Tagues The Quality Toolbox, Second Edition, ASQ Quality Press, 2004, pages The Quality Toolbox QI Toolkit: Checksheet
Purpose: Display the output of a process over time. QI Toolkit: Line Graph
Purpose: Arrange data so that the most significant element in a set of elements is easily identifiable. Diagram courtesy of Six Sigma charts.htm QI Toolkit: Pareto Chart
Purpose: Determine how data are distributed. QI Toolkit: Histogram
Purpose: Arrange data for quick and easy comparison. QI Toolkit: Bar Chart
Purpose: Display the volume or quantity of one item in relation to others. QI Toolkit: Pie Chart
Check Problem Statement Did data validate the original problem statement? If not, revise and collect more data. If it did, refine the problem statement so that it is: Specific. Describes the problem, not the symptom. Relates the current situation to what is desired. Does not include causes or solutions
Establish Interim Target, Date Targets should be: Intermediate and long term Quantitatively expressed Aggressive Changed as the situation changes Example: This project aims to reduce the number of days it takes to process a payment voucher from 10 working days to 2 by December 31, 2010.
Module 4 Analyze the Problem
Identify the Root Cause(s) If the cause is removed, the problem should be at least partially removed. A symptom is not a cause; a symptom is evidence the problem exists. Several root causes may contribute to the problem; it is important to examine all. QI Tools for establishing root cause(s): Brainstorming, Flowcharts, Cause and Effect Diagrams, 5 Whys.
Purpose: Identify a set of related causes that lead to an effect or problem. QI Toolkit: Cause and Effect Diagram
QI Toolkit: 5 Whys Problem: Patient falls in the hospital. 5 WhysResponse Why does the patient fall?Not wearing skid-proof slippers. Why does the patient not wear slippers?Not issued by nurse. Why were slippers not issued?No slippers in supply closet on patients floor. Why were there no slippers in the closet on patients floor? Staff did not re-order. Why didnt staff re-order?Busy with needs of other patients.
Verify Cause by Collecting Data QI Toolkit - Data collection and analysis: Checksheet Root Cause Evaluation Matrix Histogram Bar Chart Pareto Chart
Root Cause Evaluation Matrix Problem: Suzie has been late to school 8 times in past 3 months. Potential Root CauseAnalysisVerified? Doesnt get up when called. Occurred twice in past 3 months, not on days late to class. No Cant find clothes.Has not occurred in past 3 months.No Homework not complete.Has occurred 10 times in past 3 months, always on days when late. Yes
Guidelines for Data Collection Establish the purpose for collecting data – helps you target your efforts, collect only what is needed. Determine if indicators are reliable – What is the source of data? Are measuring practices consistent and accurate? Track all data needed – collect enough to conduct a thorough analysis. Record data carefully – Use a checksheet that is logical and makes collection easy.
Select Root Cause(s) Most Responsible Example: Investigating delay associated with processing credit card applications, data could be grouped into the following categories: No signature No Address Cannot read Current customer Other
Module 5 Evaluate Alternate Solutions
Developing Alternatives QI Toolkit: Brainstorming, interviews, survey, research (have others solved this problem?) Guidelines: Be creative, identify as many potential solutions as possible. Dont be limited by the current practice (i.e. Thats the way weve always done it. Refrain from judging team members suggestions.
Evaluating Alternatives Effective? (Tried before? With what results? Will it solve the problem? Achieve improvement target?) Feasible? (Is it doable? Practical?) Timely? (How long will it take? Long term or short term? Can we afford to wait?) Customer-oriented? (Will it improve service quality? Satisfy customer identified requirements?) Efficient? (Is it cost effective?)
Select Solutions to Implement Planning for implementation: People: Whose support is needed? Materials: What is needed? Who will purchase? Methods: How will implementers be trained? How will solutions be measured? Machinery/Equipment: Where will it come from? How will it be funded? How will it be purchased? How will implementers be trained to use it?
Purpose: Document the hindering and supporting factors that influence a planned activity. QI Toolkit – Barriers and Aids PROVIDE ISDH PROGRAM STAFF TRAINING ON QI SKILLS AIDS Training materials available Program staff want to learn QI BARRIERS Employee work schedules not compatible with dates Program time is consumed with grant requirements.
Purpose: Document the hindering and supporting factors that influence a planned activity. QI Toolkit – Barriers and Aids PROVIDE ISDH PROGRAM STAFF TRAINING ON QI SKILLS AIDS Training materials available Coordinate training dates to align with work schedules Program staff want to learn QI Develop efficiencies to clear out time for accreditation preparation BARRIERS Employee work schedules are not compatible with dates Program time is consumed with grant requirements.
Elements of Planning The objective is clearly stated. Activities are each defined. Responsibility is assigned. Dues dates are established. Implementation Plan Matrix: WhatHowWhoWhenComplete? Task 1 Task 2 Task 3
Module 6 Test-Implement Plan
Test the Plan Implement on a trial or pilot basis. Get all necessary approvals. Help solutions succeed by: Communicating the plan Monitoring implementation Supporting each other Adjusting if necessary Show measurable improvements QI Toolkit: Line Graphs, Pareto Charts, Pie Charts, Bar Charts, Histograms, Checksheets.
Test the Plan If measurable improvements are not evident, return to problem-solving statement. Common reasons why this happens: Poor problem statement Analysis insufficient or inaccurate Verification of root causes is inadequate
Module 7 Standardize Improvements
Steps to Standardization Make solutions permanent: Make periodic checks Clarify work activities (make a flowchart of new process) Develop procedures and follow them Assign responsibility Spread improvements to total process(beyond pilot) Determine if solution is applicable to other areas Guard against spotlight effectimprovements related to process being under investigation.
References Kelley, MR. (1992).Everyones Problem Solving Handbook. Productivity Press, Portland, OR. Walton M. (1986). The DEMING Management Method. The Berkley Publishing Group, New York, NY. Scholtes PR, Joiner BL, Streibel BJ. (2003). The Team Handbook, Third Ed. Oriel Inc, Madison, WI. Healthcare Technical Assistance Program. (2007). Indiana Public Health System Quality Improvement Program. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. Moran J, Duffy G. (2009). Public Health Foundation, Washintgon, DC.